Selection Process: Its Effects on Labour Turnover and Productivity of Employees

Selection Process: Its Effects on Labour Turnover and Productivity of Employees

Selection Process: Most  company’s nowadays has failed because of ignorance of tools for progress.  They lack productivity and engage with low level of  turn- over. There is a say that a better impact surface to the best output.

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However, some companies understand the peak of the problem and tackle these problem appropriately and at the earlier stage.  The  problem of selection has been their main focus. They make policies that protect the selection process in their respective organization.

A good manager whose ambition is  to manage effectively embrace first on selection of his/her subordinates and employees, make policies that will direct them and guide them  to always be in order. This is because the subordinates and employees are the initial labour input that will tend to tangible output.

Selection Policy

For effective selection in an organization, a company must establish a laid down policy.  The policy must relate to the objectives and unique characteristics of the organization concerned.  Job selection should be described in detail to ensure that the right personnel recounted and eventually selected for various jobs.

Therefore, such issues, such as long term and short term requirement, the relevance seniority,  general practice incomparable bodies and public policy implications, must be given due consideration.

Selection policy could be that deliberately attracting managerial candidate from outside for development and utilization this could be: –

  1. To avoid infighting among those already in the organization.
  2. For effective combination – especially when launching say, a marketing auctioning lasing selection as a promoted weapon. It could also encourage in breeding cross- fertilization , social responsibility and the promotion of the corporate in age could be more realistic and useful. Whatever the policy, it has to be clearly enunciated as guide to action and sources of recruitment whether the internal or external or both must be determined.

The number of candidates to be brought in  or ground  for promotion when inbreeding  is feasible and appropriate and must be determined in advance.

Account has to be taken of the  retirement’s resignation and accidents which are usual. It is pertinent to note that supervisory personnel are better chosen from the ranks in view of their experience on the particular jobs.

They must not be as academically nature as fresh school material, but they are familiar with the task involved at the junior level. Higher level managers on the other hand come from outside or are developed from graduates of institution recruited fresh from other studies some years earlier.

As Dele Beach ( 1975:225) observed policies being statements of intention and guides to  action can be positive instrument to shape the entire selection and recruitment programme.

They insure consistency of action throughout the entire organization and assign duties to employees

Selection, therefore, must be for a purpose such as to utilize the broad educational background of the candidate, to fill an immediate need arising, say from resignation or to groom for higher positions. recruitment especially in Nigerias public sector is often to maintain ethnic/ sectional balance to surround top managers with trusted men reliable eyes and ears usually relations and friends or as compensation for some good term or political support. They are professionals, subjective and unsound and causes inefficiency.

The researcher asserts that the most fruitful policy is probably that of filling the majority of causes from within but going outside when fully qualified talents are not available in the organization.

Criteria for Selection

Selection is successful only if the personal characteristics required for  effective performance of the job is specified. This helps those doing the selection. They will search for those candidates with the specified characteristics. It is necessary that those personal characteristics be specified at the unit level. Specifying the requirement is very important because every body has his/her own strength and weakness. They are for example those who have spent so many years acquiring formal education, but lack experiences. The requirement must come from job specification that is developed during the process of job analysis. The criteria may range from education experience, physical characteristics  and personal characteristics. Often times, the criteria and the characteristics possessed by those who have performed creditably on the job.

The selection criteria are as follows:

Formal Education-the employment officers carrying out the selection exercise have criteria attributes they are looking out for those attributes may be learned in the school, on the job at home etc. most employers specifying  education and specify their criterion, the completion of certain level of formal education like technical or commercial education.  At times, may prefer that the formal education is from a certain school, because the grade point average is higher in that school than others.

Certain skills and abilities required may be present in the formal education, the extent of accomplishment may indicate the level of motivation and intelligence of the job applicant.

Experiences-Some people involve in process, lay much emphasis on experiences. They prefer candidate who had done the successfully for several years. They think that this type of candidate likes what he or she is doing and when selected will perform the job creditably. Some employment officers oftentimes specify number of years the candidates must have spent on the job.

Personal Characteristics and Personality Type

These also serve as criteria for selection.

One example of personal characteristics is material status. Many employers like to work with a person that seems to be stable. Age is another personal characteristics; certain age limits are discriminated against. Employers prefer personality type for job.

Whom you know: an applicant may score high interest and interview but may not be taken; instead a poorly rated person with the right connection may be introduced to those doing the hiring. This is often called the formal selection factor.

Selection Process

Organizations make decisions concerning selection exercise. The smaller organization, the more likely it will assure informal approach. If an organization is large, it assumes a more rational, formalized and systematic approach.

The selection decision consists of series of steps called selection process which every applicant passes through. At each stage, called selection process which every applicant are screened out, they make successful ones go to the next stage. It  is not a must that every organization and the nature of the job. The standard hiring sequence follows this procedure.


1. Inviting Application: 

After the recruitment office must have made the job specification of the vacant post, the next task facing him is how he could persuasion is very vital here because of the of persuasive words,   people from certain sectors, irrespective of the general market may not like to respond.

2.       Application Letter:                         

This is the second stage in the selection. The assessment of the candidates starts with the application letter. These letters are written in response to the vacancy advertised. The applicants are expected to give information about his or her educational background, work and non-work experiences bots post and present and national background. The application letter must be written in application’s handwriting.  There are certain application forms that are used by the recruiting officers to getter information on performance. When applications are used in this way, they are termed weighted application letters. Weights or sources have been assigned to different answers to each question.

3.     Initial Screening:

When the application for employment starts coming in the employment officers starts to soft out that applicants that do not posses the minimum acceptable requirement. In  some cases, applicant may walk into the employment officer. If he is opportune to meet the employment, they may spend a few moment interacting. Form the discussion about the vacant post; the employment officer will let the applicant know about the minimum acceptable requirement for the job. This initial screening determines for bots the applicant and the interviewer, whether or not the selection process should proceed for him.

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4.  Testing:

Testing is a kind of technique, which attempts to measure certain characteristics of individual; it has been argued that tests are more objective than often devices in selection, they are less based. For example, if you want to known effective an applicant can perform on his job you can always conduct test of ability technique that is meant for the specific job than through interview that is not weighted and comprehensive in the coverage of the necessary skills needed to effectively perform the job. It is very necessary that before you give out any test, you must have tried the test under “try out” condition. To be effective, test should be both reliable and valid.

5. Background and Reference Check:

The applicants are requested to name about three persons as their referees. The name and addresses of these referees are written, so that the employment officer can easily reach them to verify the information about the applicant contained in the applicant letter. Information about the applicant pertaining to his or her past job, educational background, health character and public records are all verified through reference checks.

6.       Employment Interview

Interview is one of the widely used selection methods utilized by organizations for employment. Employment interview is a forum where the applicant and the employer interact. The discussion between the two is based on trying to know if the applicant is suitable for the vacant past. it affords the interview with a sample of the applicant attitude and face to face interaction.

7.       Job Offer and Placement.

When the applicant successfully passes these selection stapes and still desires to be employed a job offer will be made to him/her. Placement comes later, this means investing on an applicant with the authority to perform a role.

8.       Induction and Orientation

This is concerned with the issue of  introducing or orienting the new employees to the organization. The supervisor of the new employees to the organization. The supervisor of the new employee takes over from where the staff of the personal unit stopped. At this, stage, the employee gets acquainted with his /her department and fellow employees.

Application Forms:

Application form which was widely disregarded in the past years, has become expedient in employment decision. As reservation grew about the validity of the interviews for the employment purposes, the more productive use of improving the quality of the decision.

However, the investigation maintain that for recruitment and selection of employees, interview serve as an important process of selection because vacancies for executives are generally made for experienced workers.

Forms act as valuable preliminaries to employment interviews and decisions either presenting more relevant information efficiently rather than inevitable idiosyncrasies found in letters of application. Preliminary screening of application is the process of reducing to a relatively small field of candidates. Of the employment  process, about two to six candidates drawn from a handful or hundreds of applicants will appear for discussion.

If the interview is the climax of the employment process, about two to six candidates drawn from a handful or hundreds of applicants will appear for discussion.

The application form to Philip Plumbley (1976) is basically a method of asking and answering questions by correspondence. The selector should have a clear knowledge from the main specification of the criteria by which he will differentiate between candidates. The application form need to be designed with the criteria in mind. Obviously, what the selector and the candidate expects varies widely according to the type of  job filled and the age group of candidates seen in these terms, a standard form used for all jobs must be inefficient, since the questions are relevant in some aspects to most candidates and manner and sequence in which they possessed may also be inappropriate. The application  form is to valuable for  selection instrument to  be used in this way. Apart from the primary interviews, matching of the declared information on the application form and the features of the candidates specifications prepared earlier for screening. If there are for too many applicants, a very close match will be expected. If the number is few than more, flexibility is permitted. Part of the validation or the organization routines on how easily screening is done.

Initially, application form  s or more information in response to advertisement are received in writing or possible by telephone depending on the instructions given in the advertisement.

It is important to dispatch the form or further instructions are quickly as possible. A copy of job description is  forwarded to provide adequate information on the job. At this stage, it is the duty of the selector to disseminate adequate information to all serious contenders about the job prior to their interview. It is essential to dispatch completed application form, which have been received and being dealt with. However, initial screening of the possible from those who do not match the minimum criteria can be handled in a variety of ways with widely different costs in terms of manager time. Again , the advertisement policy will have a significant effect on the method chosen and cost involved. Application gives the applicant freedom to present the relevant information in a shape, which makes their case effective. The importance of using application form cannot be over emphasized. It provides information in a standard form, which is readily available.

For simple comparison. It also ensures that answers are provided to the questions, which are considered relevant in terms of selection- criteria. Application- form provides a simple and convenient basis for administrative purpose, ease of filling, coping and recoding   the action taken, similarly, Dale Beach in his own opinion said that application- form is send to obtain information on the applicant’s own hand writing, sufficient to identify him properly (name, address, telephone number, age, height, weight) and to make tentative references regarding  his suitability for employment. Primarily, the choice of questions on the form should be such that they are valid predictors of employment success or failure. The application form would be complete enough to receive the interview of the burden of recording considerable factual data that could better be written on the application by the job seekers.

Nevertheless, there are increasing difficulties, which include in appropriateness of the firms for the type of job under consideration; unsatisfied applicants may be guided by the form to appear on prepare as suitable applicants, most of them fail to present their case in the best possible manner.

Although, the administrative difficulties presented by the approach are self- evident, they may be well outweighed by the quality of the information generated, particularly where the job is one of the significant manager’s responsibility.

Generally, application form act as a direct means of showing an efficient synopsis of the applicant’s autobiography.

The Nature and Objectives of Selection Interview :

Maurice Cumming argued that the foremost task in management of human resources in an organization is obtaining the best staff for the organization. The most popular method adopted by selecting candidates for job in organization is interview.

Interview is the conversation between two people for a particular purpose. The type or group to which an interview can be assigned is determined by the purpose for which the interview is meant, such a s appraisal interview, data gathering interview in connection with research project, job analysis interview and exist interview, the basic principals of interviewing regarding inter personal skill apply, but the procedure and specific techniques employed will differ. Selection interview is usually the final and decisive method of selection in the view of cursor (1980:75) selection interview is subjective and often criticized as inefficient even though nothing has been devised to replace it bearing in mind the inherent weakness of an interview. Is up to the interviewer to reduce the probability of discrepancies in selection from  any subsequent details that have emerged during the earlier filtering provided by useful planning material for the interview. It is essential to release all information and to indicate any fault, which is needed to be clarified, or points of special interest, which will contribute immensely during the conduct of the interview. It is important to create an atmosphere, which will allow the candidate and incident, the interview, to relax and communicate effectively.

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Interview   is a term necessary technique, which must be applied during the election process, but the basic question of why and what is hoped to achieve by his method are often very superficial treatment. The seemingly obvious answer is at, it is a method, which has the advantage of direct interactive contact between the interested parties and allows the interviewer to form a personal impression of the candidates suitability. The main objective of selection interview and three fold, first and foremost, it elicit information about the candidate. Thus, interviewers are able to decide who is suitable for employment and the job his talent can be based to mutual advantage. Employment selection is a symbolic affair because not only the employer is choosing the candidate, the candidate also chooses the employer. It ensures that candidate has an accurate picture of the employment and the organization for which he is being considered. The selectors aim at conducting the interview in such a manner that the candidate gets the feelings that he has a fair hearing, whether he is engaged or not.

Although, the most objectives of the selection interview are to choose a candidate for a job. It is necessary to give the candidate adequate information on the and the organization to enable him form an accurate impression of the organization.

The next objective related to the candidate who have to be rejected. if a candidate is summoned for interview, it is imperative to carry the interview fairly and in a just manner. It is easier for an interview to reach an early adverse decision, usually based on total subjective evidence and to communicate to the interview a feeling of not being lost to the organization, but even or more reaching is the adverse effect that is generated by a bad mannered act, no matter what considerations of time and priorities may have occasioned its dis-satisfaction among candidates with interview such as being kept waiting unnecessarily established inevitable reputation which make  future recruiting more difficult.

It is essential for the interviewer to study the job and personnel specification to be absolutely  aware of what qualities and attributes he want from that candidates at interview. The interviewer should aim at creating and maintaining good contract between her and the candidate throughout the interview session. The content of the interview process should be well catered for by the use of good technique of questioning, listening, observing and occasional note taking. The interview should guard against the effect of these psychological factors, which may lead to bias and thereby destroying his judgment.

It should be in that interview is essentially a conversation with a purpose therefore the whole process of interviewing whether a personal interview or a panel interview should be conducted in that spirit.

Conducting the Interview

The employer’s representative takes lead in commencing the interview. His immediate objective is to establish a feeling of  confidence and trust. It is imperative in any interview to establish a harmonious situation between the interviewers, must, therefore create a relaxed atmosphere so that the individual will be able to express herself spontaneously. This reduces problems or tension for the job seeker.

Because the prime objective is to make reliable assessment of candidate the interviewer makes skillful use of questions. An interview involving middle and higher management positions requires broad questions, which stimulates through response. The  interviewer should aim at opening up a general area of discussion in an interested, but very broadly structured fashion so as to elicit those ideas that are most relevant in applicant’s mind.

A gentle channeling of the conversation by another question is needed where the applicants deviated from the subject. For an applicants who appears reluctant in this response, a deliberate pause on the part of the interview can be stimulating. but looking at the individual in a warm but expect at manner, the interviewer can convey the ideas that she is receptive and would like the woman to amplify more fully. Leading questions which signals a desired response must be avoided, because the expressing his true feelings.

Facial expression voice or nature  of comments determines individual response. Therefore, an interviewer who refrains from criticizing or acting shocks at an applicant response encourages her to reveal her true self. After the interview, the interviewer should record her impression-instantly because if several other interviews intervene, much will be forgotten. On the other hand, it is generally unwise to engage in extensive note taking and impression recording during the case of interview. Sidney and brown recommended that in selecting for middle questionnaires are not used. The y also noted that interview for responsible posts must go considerably further than ascertaining whether or not the applicant has the qualities in the job specification. The decision of the interviewer is much guided by his understanding of the total personalities of very limited people, all of whom possesses the necessary qualification and experience. At this level, the interview is likely to be much less interested, in the quality of those experiences and in their significance to the applicant.

If the applicant is encouraged to talk as freely as possible, the interviewer may gain much useful information. The type of evidence needed to collect affects the conduct of interview depending on the interviewer, attitude to authority, emotional stability and persistence and attitudes towards the self by the applicant more evident.

18      Psychological Test:

An employment test is an instrument designed to measure selected psychological factors. The purpose of this measurement process, at least in business, is to enable one predict what another will do in future.

Actually, we are measuring what we presume to be representative sample of behavior or utilizing that measurement to predict future behavior. There are two major concepts of test, RELIABILITY and VALIDITY. Re liability of test is consistency with which yields the same score throughout series of measurement while validity of tests refers to the degree to which it measures what intends to measure or expressed slightly different and shows the extent to which it is used various way of classifying psychological, bring out and emphasize certain characteristics. For briefly sketching the nature of psychological tests in business, we may classify the various method as:

  1. Aptitude     test.
  2. Achievement test.
  3. Interest       test.
  4. Personality test .


Aptitude Test:

This measures the applicants capacity and her potential for development. General aptitude test battery (GATB) is the most widely used other aptitude test focus on particular types of talent such as learning reasoning mechanical or musical aptitude.


Achievement Test:

This is most familiar type. it sample and measure the applicants knowledge and skill. It measures what the applicant can do. Trade test, which determines the applicant is knowledge and skill is an example of achievement test. Achievement demonstrates his or her competence.

Interest Test:

It identifies patterns of interest that is areas in which the individual shows special concern, fascination and involvement. For suggests the type of work that satisfies the employees, for selective purposes, interest analysis being with a search for patterns of interest that appear to be associated with success in various types of jobs.

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Personality Test:

It discovers these to individual is value system, her emotional reactions and maturity, and what is sometimes described as her characteristics mood. Personality test have had wider use especially at the supervisory and managerial level where emotional influences and the ability to withstand stresses and strains, to respect and co-operation of the subordinates, their use may prevent personal tragedies.

2.9 Coefficient Of Correlation:

Correlation is a statistical concept that indicates the degree of closeness of relationship between two series of number. In selecting testing, it is applied to both reliability and validity.

However, it should be noted that a high degree of correlation between one factor and another does not necessarily mean that the first causes the second. It implies that the first measure relates closely to the second or affected by an unpredicted factor.

A correlation coefficient can range from zero up to 1.00 means a perfect positive relationship. Negative correlation also exists. Thus a coefficient of 1.00 implies a perfect inverse relationship between two measures. For validation work is impossible to obtain a correlation coefficient for a simple test ranges between 25 and 40.

Assessment Centres

An assessment center is a formal procedure involving group and individual exercises aimed at evaluating an individual’s potential abilities as a manager and\ or her development needs relatives to projected goals. Assessment centers are different from other techniques in that number of individuals are usually processed at the same time, trained elevators not ordinary in a direct supervisory capacity conduct the assessment and multiple exercise are used to evaluate behavior. The basic idea of this method is to stimulate in a life like a situation, the problems that the person may not have if promoted.

According to research carried out as pointed out by HAM.WILLIAM C.(1983) on the validity of assessment centers, there was an overwhelming support for the hypothesis that people selected through this method are more  successful at their job than people chosen by other methods. This is true when one considers that those who usually take part as evaluation unlike in other methods.


It is generally difficult to assimilate new employees into social group within a working community. In the light of the above, managers attempt imitative, which lead to a settled connection rather than, expecting the effect.

The price of unproduced appointment is high and the making of employment decision by integrating the new employee into the organization is a vital element of the employment process. Induction is any arrangement made unbehalf of the management to familiarize the  new employees  with the working organization. Welfare and safety matters, general conditions of employment and the work of the department in which she is employed. It is a continuous process staring from others because it involves not only specific content in which it is performed.

Fraiser (1974: 60) noted that can take place on two levels in an organization via formal and informal. For higher levels post,  it is of supreme importance to induce the new comer to his place in the official organization. It is therefore essential  that such people should know the exact scope of their responsibilities how they fit into the organization and how they relate to other members of staff. Even at this level, informal life does exist and the new comer must have to integrate himself into the system. A checklist of steps in an induction programmes was provided by Pigors and Myers, which are abbreviated below. The organization history development, management and activities, personnel policies. Terms of employment including disciplinary rules and union arrangement.

Employee’s benefits and services physical facilities. General nature of work to be done by the supervisory department rules and safety measures relation of new job to others. Detailed description of job, introduction to fellow workers follows up after several weeks. Although, this is comprehensive, it becomes an effective and efficient programmes when  worked out in a careful details about timing peace and essence of social adjustment. Some of the recruits who have acquired good  knowledge of constant job changes adjust easily but others who suddenly change employment have to start some time.

The induction of school leavers or graduation has different dimensions because, they are fresh to the market and ignorant of the numerous convections that are common knowledge other groups who may have special problems are the immigrants, who are quite unfamiliar with the working routines and customs in a new country, and the married woman returned who may have lost considerable confidence in her own abilities after a prolonged period of absence. The key to successful induction is enabling the new employee to confident on himself in his new situation. However important information about history of the organization might be deferred until the induction crisis is over.

Induction process certainly plays a vital role in an employ relations strategy, neglect at this early stage of employment no doubt could been avoided or at least minimized by effective induction into the company.

2.1            Acceptance Of The Job Offer

The decision to employ a person is not the end of recruiting and the applicant for a number of reasons may reject a selection process as the offer of employment. It is important to keep the range of options open as that any other satisfactory short-listed applicant and skill be offered the job, for this reason, it is essential that the first choice candidate is offered the job well inside the time indicated at the interview. This will allow sufficient time for an answer to be received at before rejection letter are sent to unsuccessful applicants.


Evolution of Nigerian Bottling Company Plc 9th Mile Corner Enugu.

The history of Nigerian bottling company dates to 40 years ago. The company  which has made phenomenal process, tapped its first soft drink production with the world’s most popular beverage called coca-cola. At this time, only few plants were establishment that mentioned above were and again in areas like Benin, Lagos port-Harcourt in September 1962, the company started production capacity was 350,000 hector perineum but now, the capacity has lit about more than two million hector liters mark. Having seen the gigantic stride taken by the board of directors and employment hope that you as an employee of the company will contribute your quota in insuring its continued growth and development………………………


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