The Role of Organization Structure on Effective Management
The essence of this chapter is to critically look at some salient literary work that appear to have some theoretically relevance to this research work and indicated their strength and weakness and how they immerge on this works.
To this end therefore this section will be divided into two broad areas. Notable organizational structure as seen by the early management theorist and contemporary literature on organizational structure . this will enable us to appreciate the problems as the problems as they relate to the referenced organizational of this research work . The institute of management and technology Enugu and the spa rent a printing and publishing company limited Enugu. To order the Complete Project Material, Pay thr Sum of N3,000 to: BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122 Then send the Project Topic, Your Email Address and Full Name to 07033378184.
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- EARLY WORKS RELATING TO THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE:-
Chester Bernard: Formal and informal organization according to Chester Bernard (1990-164) people, their behaviors and their association belong to a large system of social relationship of which a single. Formally an organized enterprise is but a sub-system. The according groups organization into formal and informal organizations.
Formal organizations in this works of Chester Bernard Exists. When the activities of two or more persons are consciously coordinated to work a giving objective. He stated that the essence of formal organization is a conscious common purpose and that the formal organization comes into being when person one able to communicate with one another and are willing to act and share a purpose .
Thus formal organization consists of the prescribed organizational positions and their accompanying takes and the established specified and intended relationship among the occupant in the positions. Establishment of organizational to the formal structure is of great importance to the survival because in the words of Wilfred Brown.
Personally behaves that the more formalization that exist the most clear by I know the bounds of discretion which we one authorized to use, and will be held responsible for and the prescribed polices makes clear to people the area in which they freedom to act.
Formal organizational relationship emphasis official position in term of authority and responsibility thus presupposing the creation of difference level of hierarchies within the organization. the hierarchical morale is the most common form of organization structure which according to management exponent such as McFarland and. Invoncerchetal present a two dimension all view of organizational Namely.
- Vertical dimension.
- Horizontal dimension
The vertical dimension consists of differentiated level of Authority and responsibility which the Horizontal dimension delicates differentiated sections such Department and Branches.
- INFORMAL ORGANIZATION:-
CHESTER Bernard also distinguished the informal and organization from the organization and side it is.
“ any joint personal activities without conscious joint purpose, even through possible contributing to joint result and all manager of group full within the sphere of informal organization.
Including an air plane, road of passengers and people walking down a street in formal structure develops within the formwork of the formal structure and represent the interaction and sentiment of the particular individual to the organization pursuing this further, management export maintain the normally, informal structure does not appear on an organizational chart and they include the machine shop group, the Friday evening body games.
THE GENERAL PRINCIPLE OF MANAGEMENT
Harry Taylor often called the father of modern management though in this book listed fourteen principles are not absolute but are capable of adopting according to needs.
These fourteen principle are:
A Division of Lab our: This reduces the span and attention or effect for are person or groups.
- Authority: The right to sue order, which connects responsibility.
- Discipline: Out ward marks of report in accordance with formal or informal agreement between an organizational their employees.
- Unity of command: one man are superior .
- Unity of Dection: One head and one direction for a group of activities with the same objective.
- Remuneration:- Pay should be fair for fairs and employees.
- Centralization: The extant to which authority is concentrated.
- Soala chain: line of authority from the top to the bottom.
- Order: A place for everything and everything in its place the right man in the right place.
- Equity: A combination of kindness and justice toward employees.
- Stability: of ten sure of personnel.
- Imitative: A level of staff should be encouraged to show imitative.
- Splint: de corps spirit of farm work should be encouraged.
Payolas work was are attempt at producing a theory of management based on a number of principle which could be passed on the another.
Many of the principle have been absorbed into modern organizational and their effect on organizational effectiveness have been subject of in creasing debate management theorists have expressed similar view on the essence of division of work or lab our on the process of department in the structure of an organization. They also agree that the following factors, function product process customer clientele and operational territory are Inherent in a organization.
REVIEW OF CONTEMPORARY WRITING ON ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE:
At this point in time it is necessary to touch on the contribution made by modern writers to wards the development of organizational structures. By looking at the words of such authors as know o – Donnelly Neihri Chantal.
The aspect of organizational structure discussed by contextual and which attract particular attention in the research is the issue of authority accordly, koontzetial wrote that authority is delegated when decision making is vested in a subordinate by a superior clearly, superiors cannot delegate authority they do not have whether they are board members piece presidents. They stated further that it is equally clear that superiors cannot delegate all their authority without in effect transforming their position to their subordinates. They also out line the processes involved.
A The determination of the result expected.
- The assignment of the tasks.
- The delegation of authority for accomplishment.
McFarland defined authority is “the right to guide and direct the action of others and to exact from their responses which are appropriate to the attainment of the organization purpose.
Kootzetal further added that authority is the power to command other to act or not to act in manner demand by the possessor of authority to further the enterprise or department objective. This authority exact the power of force compliance weather through percussion’ concern, economic or social sections or other means. The important of authority and its central nature to the existence of organizational structure cannot be over emphasized.
SOURCE AND FORMS OF AUTHORITY
Diverse opinions have been expressed as the sources and forms of authority in organization.
The classical through on organization view authority as a right concept, creating definite chain of command and hierarchy. Thus it is derived from position holders. Fred rick Tyalor opened that all authority should be based on knowledge and position Chester Bernard stated that, the source of authority does not reside in persons of authority but in the acceptant of that authority by the subordinates.
A consistency approach was adopted by may parkers collect when she put forward her law the situation.”
In her view the situation dictates what ought to be done and not a persons or position. These view have affected the exercise of authority at their custodians but the basis nation if what authority means in organization have not been altered. Hence the source of authority to be expressed in the typical view in which managerial right formal the top of the organizational structure down the hierarchy is should that each managers was a specific right to actions in the areas designated to him by the management.
THE PLACE OF RESPONSIBILITY TOWARDS THE UNDER STATING OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
It is a major aspect of delegation to create obligation for subordinate for the satisfaction performance of their assignment. Thiemts . R. J. defines responsibility as the obligation of an individual to perform assigned duties. Hicks sees it as the unity one has to perform his organization tasks. Function and assignment from these definition the deduces the fact that responsibility embarks from formal authority grounded a subordinates by his supervision.
The acceptance of responsibility is usually associated with delegation of responsibility. It should be noted that responsibility when accepted may never be wholly transferred to somebody else. The managers’ still retains the full load vested on him in the first instance.
Responsibility may be continuing process in which case, it flows through the entire organization the bard of directors hold the managing directors responsible for the total operational perform ate. The manager’s director on the other hand holds the various divisional heads responsible for production marketing finance and accounting function. The process continues, thus resulting a series of obligation to be performer at various organizational levels if a task fails at the lowers level for the ladder. Hence unique authority, responsibility flows only upward from bottom.
In growing organization the problem of ten encountered with respect to responsibility are essentially due to overlaps and gaps in the responsibility share out systems.
Over lapping responsibility occurs when two or more person are made responsible for the some function. This arises out of unfetter specification of responsibility limited or in adequate duplication of work in other parts of the organization.
It is arises out of unclear specification of responsibility limited or inadvertent duplication of work in other parts of the organization A gap in responsibility occurs when all the requirement for performing work have not been clearly. Foreseen it.
Therefore, to enhance organizational performance it is necessary that the scope of activities in terms of duties tasks and responsibility should be properly defined.
COMMENSURATE AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY
By delegation authority and responsibility the executive creates and maintains the horizenture. Hence authority units in the responsibility are interdependent and the relationship are essential in the effective performance of and adherence to organization structure improper structuring of authority and responsibility relation usually leads to conflicts in organizations. Early management theorists are of the view that delegated authority should have equal responsibility.
They argued that estate of inequality between responsibility and the delegated authority produces undesirable effects. In a organization it authority exceeds responsibility the subordinate is temple to misuse the authority. And in the works of E. N. Nwoankwo.
When there are no commensurate authority and responsibility the individual cannot be accountable for the successful duchy has a very litter control over the situation.
Revisionist or the modern management researchers on the other hand disagree with the ideal that authority and responsibility should be equal. To them, responsibility and authority do not over lap ratter the formal should exceed the later, and the discrepancy between them is an inevitable fact of life.
—-This article is not complete———–This article is not complete————
This article was extracted from a Project Research Work Topic:
“THE ROLE OF ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE ON THE EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF SELECTED GOVERNMENT PROSTRATES”
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