Interpersonal Conflict among Youths
Interpersonal Conflict – Frustration occurs when a motivated drive is blocked before reaching a desired goal frustration may bring forth a positive respond in which the individual tries hard to overcome the barriers overcompensate. According to Rue and Byars (1989) “frustration results when a drive or motive is block before the goal is researcher”. Through the term frustration has been variable defined but they intended to have the same meaning. To order the Complete Project Material, Pay thr Sum of N3,000 to: BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122 Then send the Project Topic, Your Email Address and Full Name to 07033378184.
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In the same vein, Coffey et al (1975) asserts that people active all their goals without encountering same barriers, which may take the form of conditions, people things and even our selves. They also said that if a barrier is not fielding, we may begin to feel in secure and dissatisfied. This feeling they called frustration and most often lead to a stronger feeling of displeasure and most a times antagonism.
Conflict can be defined as the simultaneous arousal of two or more incompatible motives resulting in unpleasant motion Kagan and Havumann (1972). According to Ebol (1998) “conflict can be defined as a situation in which one identifiable unit is in conscious opposition to one or more identifiable unit over what are perceived to be incompatible goals” according to Coffey et al says that conflict is the tension and energy causing opposition of persons or force to the achievement of goals. Thus, the term conflict can leaded as a personal divergent or interest between group or individuals.
FRUSTRATION AND CONFLICT
Where as in frustration a single motive is blocked before the goals is reached in conflict two or more motives block one another. From these definition above one can unequivocally say that conflict can occur within an individual between individuals, groups, organization and society at large. However in this study we mostly concerned with frustration and conflict within and between individual / groups conflict within in an individual is also known as psychological conflict is the one in thing wind of a person.
That is to say the person is at war with himself. This takes is to concept of interpersonal conflict.
This concerns the conflict that can arise when tow or more person are interacting with one another. According to Rue and Byars (1989) it is the conflict that exist between two or more individuals.
The popular may to analyze interpersonal conflict are however, thoroughly transactional analysis and the Johai window which we can at go into details considering the specie and limitations of this study. At this juncture it can be seen that attempting a definition of conflict is therefore difficult enough, hence some common themes are identified.
1) Conflict exists only in so far as it is perceived by one party (student) or parties (between students) it is deemed to concern. If a person or group is unaware of the conflict some time others in the organization, may suggest that there is conflict between two parties who selves do not know.
2) There must e evidence of overt or convert opposition to a particulars stand adopted by various individuals or groups.
3) There must be two or more parties whose interest or goal appear to be incompatible.
VIEW OF CONFLICT
According to Kelly (1954) there are two views of conflict.
a) Human relation views
b) Realistic view
Human relation view hold that conflict is avoidable and only occurs because of abnormality on a stable and with integrated or gravitation which has restored a nature homeostasis.
Realistic view hold that conflict is inherent or any human encourager. It performs an integrate part in any dynamic social system. It is a necessary element in change.
STAGES OF CONFLICT
Due to the frequency of conflict occurrence, it is important to examine the stage of conflict. Here we will examine the stages of conflict. Here well will examine the stage, conflict described by two scholars Pondy and Rahim. Though, both viewed conflict as a sequential process.
PONDY’S STAGE OF CONFLICT
The work of L.R. Pondy is widely cited whenever conflict is discussed. These stage help place the issue into the type of perspective that generally prevail today. His model of conflict shown in figure 2.3-1 is comprises of fine stages. Latent conflict,
Conflict after math
The latent stage of conflict of those condition that can breed conflict include here as such condition as competition for scarce resources, drives for anatomy and divergence of submit goal. Each of these situation is a fertile ground for the growth and development of a condition full of conflict.
The second stage is perceived conflict a condition in which one or more parties becomes a ware of the potential for conflict. Thus has been labeled the cognitive aspect of the episode because some of the significance is attached to stimuli that brings about or awareness of conflict. Almost every information about opposing forces can being an individual about (students) into this phase of a conflict.
The third stage is termed felt stage, as it is reached when emotions are exited and feeling become hostile. We have all experienced these senses of anger towards another and realized that there could be a prelude to adversary behaviour in some form. When adversary behaviour is exhibited, it represents the fourth stage that manifest conflict. There are several type of manifested conflict that range from aggression to apathy, to strict adherence to rules in order to determine if there is in fact, manifest conflict, one must understand the situation in which it occurs. For example a part on the back can be considered a show of positive affection or put-down depending to the consent and intentions of the parties involved.
Conflict aftermaths is the condition that result after manifest conflict has occurred. The situation can result in resolution of the conflict or it can be the basis of a recycling of the episode to further stage of latent conflict example of in standing or it can produce a desire to continue the conflict Pondy (1978).
RAHIM’S STAGES OF CONFLICT
M. A. Rahim developed a fine stage model of the conflict by synthesizing the work of various scholars in the field. The model which is shown below in figure 2:3.2 can be used to described interpersonal and intergroup conflict episode antecedent conditions the first stage are those conditions within the individual(s) student) or group(s) that exist just prior to conflict occurring. These are behavioral structural and demographic in nature.
Like wise the task structure indicate the extent to which a task is simple or complex. Simple where goals are clearly defined, tend to produce less conflict can do complex task. Demographic condition refers to such variable as the conflicting parties age, education, tenure and so on.
Behavioural change can occurs after the conflict is initiated and they refers to aggressive behaviour are accompanies a reinforcing attitude. At this stage the conflicting parties begin to think of each other as enemies and it is not uncommon for the parties to describe each other in terms of negative stereo types. As the parties rely on rules and unwritten communication for-their interactions the further stage is decision process, in which the parties devise a substitute process or structure of decision making to mash the place of the usual methods. Conflict aftermaths – the fifth and the finally stage occurs after the conflict is resolved. There can be bitter ness or resentfulness if one party (student) perceives that (he) is a looser. The feeling can easily carry over into future interaction a cause latent conflict to be a factor of some significance. On the other hand, when a conflict is resolved from general consensus point of view, both parties, can approach future encounter on a more positive and co-operative note, committed to the agree – on.
CAUSE OF FRUSTRATION AND CONFLICT
According to he two students of IMT interviewed, they encounter frustration in many ways among which are.
1) Inadequate finance
2) High population of students hence inadequate facilities or accommodation.
3) Excess workload and strike
4) Unnecessary expenditures imposed by management which are unbudgeted for
5) Cause of malpractice and expulsion of students.
6) Loss of hope in academic career all these in a way or the other prevent them from achieving their desired aim.
On the other hand the student were able to state some of the cause of conflict among them and these are:-
1) Competition in making friends
2) Difference in perception and lack of understanding.
3) Striving for superiority especially among makes.
4) Non-nonchalant attitude or rather self interest.
5) Disagreement over values and acquisition of power or position.
However Baron, Byrne and Kartowitz (1980, p. 520) opined that as individual (student) may by frustrated because of some external objective threat, such as band grades, the death of a loved one, large debts or a broken lone one, affaire and also external threats based on subjective perception. For example, on individuals (student) may feel threatened by social situation because the or she fear rejection or ridicule.
The environment surrounds us with physical obstacle that frustrates Kagan and Havemann) such as broken alarm clock, flat tire or traffic jam that prevent its (students) from getting to class on time. Our relations with other people create social obstacle such as a refusal by other to give it’s the affection we desire. All of us are frustrated at time by personal obstacles. We may went to be musicians but find that we are tone deaf.
On the other hand, Appledy (1994 p. 167) identified fine major courses of conflict.
1) Need to share scare resources.
2) Difference in goal.
3) Interdependence of work activities.
4) Difference in attitude or perception.
5) Ambiguously defined work responsibilities or communication problem.
Deutsch (1969) in line with the view of Kagas and Hauemann suggested that conflict may originated from a number of different sources, including:-
1) Difference in information, beliefs, machine, interest or desires.
2) A scarcity of some resources such as money, power, time, spare or position.
3) Rivalries in which one person or group competes with one another
Tubs (1988. p. 279) cites Nye (1973) identifies three conditions that both causes and result from conflict competition, domination and provocation.
In light of these views, it can be seen that frustration and interpersonal conflict mainly result from coeternal factors or obstacles to our desire.
EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL FRUSTRATION AND INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT
According to Kagan and Hauemann (1972, p. 384 – 387) very person’s unique. In one way or another they persuade themselves that hey did not really want the goal form which they have been backed. They highlighted the defensive mechanism namely, rationalization, projection repression, repression, identification, reaction, information, substitution.
In this same direction, timothy and zackind (1963 p. 148-149) expanded these defensive response, representing it is a figure. This is shown in figure 2.5.1-3 below
Adjustive reaction compensation: Psychological process
individuals devotes to a pursuit with increased urgour to make up for some feeling of real or imagined inadequacy.
Displacement Re-directing pent-up
emotions towards persons idea or objects other than the primary sources of the emotion.
Individual Individual enhances his self esteem by patterning his own
Reaction Process Behaviour after another, frequently also internalizating. The values and beliefs of the other: also vicariously sharing the glories or suffering in the revents of other individuals or group.
Negativitism projection: Active of passive resistance operating unconsciously individual protects him self from awareness of his own undesirable traits or unacceptable felling by attributing them to others.
Rationalization Justifying inconsistent of the undesirable behaviour beliefs statement and motivation by periodical acceptable.
Regression Individual returns to an earlier and less mature level of adjustment in the face of frustration completely excluding from consciousness impulse experience and feelings which are psychologically disturbing because they arouse a sense of quit or anxiety.
Fixation maintaining a persistent non-adjective reaction even through all the cues indicate the behaviour will not cope with the problems.
Flight leading in which withdrawal: Frustration, anxiety or conflict is experienced ether physically or psychologically.
From the figure above it can be understood that some of these defensive responses apply to conflict as well. This is the fact that conflict can flow from frustration and aggression. Therefore defensive responses or mechanisms are the erect of frustration and conflict.
CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND MANAGEMENT
There are three basic strategies that individual can use in interpersonal conflict situations. These are the
1) Lose – Lose approach
2) Win – Lose approach
3) Win – win approach
i) Lose – Loss approach in a loser lose approach to conflict resolution both parties lose. This approach takes different firms. One of the more common forms is to compromise or take the middle ground in the disputer. A second form is the pay-off of one of the parties in conflict in the form of bribe. A third approach is to use on outside third party or arbitration. This is some times the only way that conflict can be resolved, but it is generally less desirable than the win-lose or especially the win-win strategy.
ii) Win – lose: A win – lose strategy is a very common way of resolving conflict. One party in a conflict situation attempts to marshal its forces to win and the other party loses. This strategy have some characteristics such as:
a) The parties see the issue from their own point of view.
b) The parties direct their energies towards each other in an atmosphere of victory and defendant.
c) Conflict are personalized and judgmental.
d) The emphasis is on solution rather than the attainment of goals, valves or objectives.
e) The parties take short-run view of the issue
—This article is not complete———–This article is not complete————
This article was extracted from a Project Research Work/Material Topic
“INDIVIDUAL FRUSTRATION AND INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT AMONG YOUTH
(A CASE STUDY OF IMT ENUGU).”
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