Human Resources Training and Development in Organizations

Human Resources Training and Development in Organizations

Human Resources Training  – This chapter deals with the literature review of related contributions of various authors in relation with human resources training and development in organizations. The researcher will examine in great detail the surrounding training and development of human resources which includes the following:

–        concept of training and development

–        important of training and development programme

–        principle tearing development needs

–        reasons for training

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–        forms of human resources development

–        problems associated with human recourses development forms

–        needs for human resources development

–        evaluation of human resources development


Training and development involves increasing skill for the performance of a specific job and education to increase general knowledge and understanding.   Do to the widely different nature of operation and managerial jobs it is usually not easy to describe the process of increasing operation skill as training and reserves the terms development for the process of enhancing managerial abilities. It is usually to speak of operative training and managements development.

Operative work tend to be highly structured   and scrutinized while managerial functions are more complex open-ended inert personal and verbal.

The skill required for operative work are often acquired through on the job training where as managerial activates requires more formal education.

“Training is the systematic development of knowledge skill and attitude required by an individual to perform adequately a give job (Michael Arm strong 1992).

Training achievement of greater job effectiveness improve inter personal relationship in the organization and batter adjustment of an executive to the total environment.

This is the immediate goads of training aimed at improving individual job effectiveness and also the climate of personal relation. Training and development is one of the aspect in personal management in an organization. The efficiency of an organization depends on how well its staff are trained. Training motivates workers to work hard and employee who knows these jobs are likely to have higher moral.

Training and development is a modern management tool which an organization cannot afford to do without it. It has to do more with social economic and technological changes which the world is facing today. Ti is almost necessary that a system of training and education has to be developed order to achieve the over demanding task of present and future channeling



  • To increase productivity
  • To improve the quality of work and raised moral
  • To develop the skill knowledge understanding and attitude
  • To use correct tolls machine processed method of modification there of.
  • To reduce waste accident turnover and other costs.
  • To obsolesce in skill technological method and market capital management etc
  • To bring incumbents to the appropriate level of performance for the job
  • The develop replacements prepare people for advancement improve manpower development and ensure continuous   leadership
  • To ensure survival and growth of the organization.

Robert Craig (1962) from the above objective said that it is important that employee should be trained as they may not have nay previous or sufficient experience to face the task required in their job.

Training develop effectiveness and enhance productivity. A well developed workers is confident worker and an asset. The need for over emphasize. Employee who have not received adequate training before assigning responsibilities lack necessary confident with which to carry out the job.

An employee should be encouraged to be able to cope with the duties assigned to him systematically by training and development. It is by so doing that he will feel confident in himself and the job.

Training should not be seen as the final step to the workers poor performance with these training has a two fold function such as:

  • To overcome deficiencies in individual that job even with the help of the supervisor
  • To develop the potentialities of up and doing employee

Training and development must be planned and systematic other wise it will accomplish by defunct following its own dynamic. When training and development accomplish it leads to a higher cost to the organization as it was planned hence there is no plan for training and development an d training will accomplish its self on the job with attendant error which usually leads to unanticipated losses in production. A planned programme will anticipate losses and efforts will be made to minimize them. Also the system will attempt to teach the best and method in the shortest possible time

The advantages of training and development programme are

1)      INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY:     An increase in skill and ability usually result in increase in both quality and quantity and output

2)HIGH MORAL:        Possession of need skill and knowledge increase confident and satisfaction which leads to reduction in supervision and grater independences

3 )     REDUCED COST:      An increase in skill and knowledge tends to reduce accidents spoilage etc which lead to lower operation

4)      INCREASED ORGANIZATION STABILITY AND FLEXIBILITY:  Stability is the ability of an organization to sustain its effectiveness despite the loss of key personnel. This is achieved through having reservoir or trained replacement.

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Flexibility is the ability to adjust to short run various on volume of works required by personnel with multiple skill that makes it possible for them to move the job where demand is highest.

5)      CAREER ENHANCEMENT:        Training and development programme meet the need of individual for meaning life lone carrier.


According to Dr. Ontenadum 1999 “training and development can be more effectively by basing them on the number of principal of learning which he states as follows:

1)      MOTIVATIONS:                   The more highly motivation a trainer the more quickly and through he is likely to learn certain aspect of performance can motivate such as participating activity in the process or other frings benefits like granting of loan promotion and so on.

2)      PROGRESS REPORT FEED BACK:     This is where information will question and enhance learning because it is the life write in any organization and precaution should be taken to avert wrong information

3)      REINFORCEMENT:   This is based on the fact that actions are rewarded positively because it is be repeated often and ob for every organization to be coming with successful trainer.

4)      PRACTICE AND REPETITIONS:         Opportunities must be called for practice or repetition because it makes perfect in every thing. It also makes individual to be more function with what they are suppose to do.

5)      MEANING FULENESS OF TRAINING:         There is three ways in which an organization can present their materials to be very important first the material must be meaning in the sense that it is understandable and interpretable by those participating in the training.

Some techniques available to trainer are organizing meaningful unit creating association with familiar terms and providing a conceptual basis or logical reason for the material


6)      TRANSFER OF TRAINING:         Clearly the purpose of training to employee is to prepare them for some position in the organization. One important aspect   of training programme therefore is the degree to which the material to be learnt can be transferred to the job.

The possible strategies for obtaining transferability is to make the training situation similar to the actual term of the physical characters of the situation.

Training will maximize similarities in which one will display this own

  • Newly employed person needs to become acquit ant with the organization goals policies structure product or service etc this information can be dissemination through economical and information groups action. The training and development is one unit best equipped to give such instruction
  • A newly policy is to be implement supervisor and others whose work will be influenced by the policy expect the need to answer question and get the feedback
  • In the case of a new records from or a new machine or a modification or present usage is being introduced reason of training them arises.
  • The quality of written report letter or other document need to be improved it calls for training and development.
  • A realization that productivity is inadequate
  • A desire to reduce the amount of scrap and improve quality
  • An increased in the number of accident


The following are the method of training which includes

1)      ON THE JOB TRAINING:   Here the person being trained learns the job by working alongside some who has already acquired the skill. This can be might be stressful and unpleasant

2)      OFF THE JOB TRAINING: It may take place in specialist training areas or establishment within the business or where there is sufficient local demand from coverall business at a college or higher education.

3)      THE TRAINING AGENCY:          This is a government body which is designed to implement training for a variety of needs according to the provided need.


The most basic issue facing man is whether or not he can design and develop a social system that will provide the opportunity for the fulfillment of each and every one of its members.

Organizations can develop its human resources through different forms or factors which includes training performance appraisal participation, redeployment and transfer job enlargement job rotation and   job enrichment


According to Mathias and Jackson (1982) training was defined as a learning process where by people acquire skill concept attitudes or knowledge to aid in the achievement of goals” they found that training in a limited sense is concerned with teaching specific and immediate usable skill while in broad sense it provides general information used to develop knowledge for further lone term application. The elements of training becomes important for the attainment of organizational goal and objectives.

Anyanwu (1982) approached the definition from the point of view of the trainers expectation and defined “training as the development in an individual of those knowledge skill and attitude which are directly related to the job” he sees training as a process by which the trainer expect to bring about a consistent change in the behaviour of the trainer. The emphasis here are on development of skill knowledge attitude and behaviour.

Beach (1975) defined training “as an organization procedure by which people learn knowledge or skills for a definite purpose”

Loyol and Rue (1979) defined training “as a process which involves developing skill and learning concepts rules or attitude in order to   increase effectiveness in doing a particular job”.

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A researcher on development conducted by Flippo (1980); stated that development will include bottle training to increase skill in performing a specific job and education to increase general knowledge and understanding total environment”. His discovery brought to light the importance of education as a part in progress with training as vital tool that enhances smooth and effective human resource development.

The purpose of training is to give employees at all levels sufficient instruction and guidance to enable them to perform their job effectively and prepare themselves for promotion.

The main types of training are as follows:

1)      INDUCTION:               The purpose of induction training is to introducer new recruits to the business the objectives method organization and the people they will be working with. The length of time devoted to an induction course can vary from a few hours to several months depending on the job.

2)      TRAINING IN ATTITUDES:        This is a long term process and less easy to evaluated. Attitude training might be on job with the encouragement; example a person judged to have the right attitude and with the off job using role play case studies and similar simulations followed by group discussion the purpose of the exercise is the extend the experience of the individual in a relatively controlling environment.

3)      TRAINING FOR PROMOTION:  Depending upon the type of job training for promotion will use a mix of the techniques give above. A person about to be promoted to supervisor might need knowledge of health and safely registration (short courses or lectures) and will also need develop skill in staff management.

4)      TRAINING FOR CHANGE:          Organization and technological change will require training programmes. A change in technology may mean that all the skilled operations employed in a business will need familiarization with new equipment and techniques.


According to Hammond (1988) “performance appraisal means the process of reviewing the progress appearance or capacity of a person or thing”

“performance appraisal has also been defined as the process by which organizations evaluate employee performance by measuring and reporting employee behaviour and accomplishment for a give period for the purpose of improving job performance” (weather and Davis1985). The periodic assessment of the new employee performance con firm the original opinion formed when employed for the job

Macgregor (1972); outlines three (3) reason for measuring employee performance. They include:


  1. To provide a means of telling a subordinate how well he is doing and suggesting needed knowledge and letting the employee know where he stand with the boss
  2. To provide a basic for coaching and counseling of the individual by the supervisor

The goal of the performance management process is to support the organizations statement of objective principles and work unit operating plans as well as to meet this goal.


According to Hammond (1988) ; participation is defined as a process where by people taken an active part in reaching a decision. This to make them to feel a sense of commitment putting the decision into practice. Workers participation in decision making is a highly effective motivation.

Also involving employees in the decision making process of a business reduces the   feeling of alimentation which may be present and increase employee’s commitment to the achievement of objective of the organization box with financial rewards for cost- reduction suggestion. It may consist of an elaborate system of meetings of employee representative or it may be merely meetings between management and employee representatives.

Also Carhuff (1977) defined participation as a source of human resources development through problem solving or decision making process. Ho sated that participation by the employee means that at least his frame of reference was taken into consideration in the development of the program calculated to benefit him. At a minimum participation increase motivation and personal satisfaction. At a maximum increase motivation may lead to increase performance and accordingly, a high quality outcome of the program.


The transfer of workers from one department to another is a deliberate move in staff development. It helps to widen the range of promotion. It may be a part of a job enriched or enlargement scheme



This is the process of increasing the responsibility workers take for their own work and the formal recognition give given it. This can also increase the promotion prospects of employees by adding to their range of experience thereby developing them. Job enrichment give employees more control over the way in which they organized the work over the allocation of tasks to members of a group and over quality control. Job enrichment to be successful should be supported by a training programme so that worker can aquire the additional skill they will need


This means the widening of variety of tasks within a give job in it. Can also be described as the redesign of jobs. Jobs enlargement help in developing worker because seemingly endless repetition of a task can lead to boredom and lower standard of work.

  • In a situation whereby a business provides the facilities off job training can be expensive
  • It can also pose problems when the trainer is required to transfer learned skill to the working environment particularly if the equipment used in training is efficient form the which is used on the shop floor.

The problem that can arise in the process of performance appraisal are as follows:

  • People become resentful if they feel their work is being criticized. This can result to loss efficiency as working relationship dotoriate.
  • Badly designed forms can require subjective judgment on a person’s ability.
  • Some jobs are more difficult to appraise than others. The more complex the job, the greater the difficulty in judging the efficiency with which it is done and the greater the difficultly of finding somebody capable of analyzing problems and offering constructive support.
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The transfer instigated by the business for organizational reason may make the person to fell threatens in job security and status


Fredrick Taylor (1856-1915) stated that if “jobs were designed to make maximum output possible than the personnel will be recruited for their ability trained thoroughly and paid well according to output then they would work more productively achieve higher pay and the business would make more profit.

Also Henri Fayol (1841-1925) stated that “managers should develop their human resources by communicating to the workers the decision reached in the application of the principles of management which includes planning organizing communication co-ordination and control”

Ubeku (1975) in his studies of the need/ importance of human resource development revealed that money spent on training and development is well spent. He asserted that employee who have received inadequate training before being assigned with a responsibility lack necessary confidence with which they carry out their jobs

Okoye (1982); in a workshop situation conduced investigation on the merits of human resources development with the participation being aware and confidently commutated such benefit as:

  1. Increase production
  2. Improved quality of workmanship
  • Less wastage of materials
  1. Increase versatility of the employees
  2. Better working climate
  3. Improvement in the superiorly moral
  • Diminished labour turnover
  • Increase profitability of organization
  1. Reduced overhead cost of production

He concluded that the organization should adopt systematic human resource development programme that reflect both individual training needs as well as corporate objective to enjoy the above stated merits


An investigation carried out by Tracy (1977) on how to make human resource development programmes cost effective evolved ten principles that can see organization through in carrying out the assignment as thus:

  • Evaluation must be relevant
  • Evaluation must be planned
  • Evaluation must be a continuous process
  • Evaluation must be a co-operative process
  • Evaluation must be verifiable
  • Evaluation must be specific
  • Evaluation must be cost effective
  • Evaluation must be easy
  • Evaluation must be quantitative.


His view indicates that any human resource development which is not systematic does not relate to the objectives of the organization is counter productive and should not be embarked upon.

Similarly Mathias and Jacson (1982) in the resource on human resources development discovered that evaluation of training compares the post training result to the objective expected by managers trainer and trainees as with Tracy’s (1977) discovery. In their views they felt human resources development programmes should be evaluated at four levels inorder to achieve its objective. The four (4) level include:

1)      Reaction:    Hoe did the trainee like the training?

2)      Learning:    To   what extend did the trainee learn the facts principles and approaches that were included in the training?

3)      Behaviour:  To what extend did job behaviour change because of the programme

4)      Result:        What final results were achieved? (reduction in cost reduction in turnover improvement in production etc)

Okoye in his guest to evolve an effective human resources development programme for organizations made his discoveries know in managers in a workshop as follows:

  • Assessing of training objective have been achieved.
  • Cost/ benefit assessment is the company’s getting values for its training activities
  • Could the result have been achieved more effectively?

Graham (1994) summed up identification of training needs paper implementation evaluation as a follow up of training needs and banded it systematic approach to training. His views clearly shared that the following steps may be useful on systematic approach;

Analyze job performance standard and requirement of training originate training programs administer training and check results.

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