The Effects of Human Relations Policies on the Performance of Secretaries

The Effects of Human Relations Policies on the Performance of Secretaries

This chapter took global view of human relations polices in organization even thought here has been relevant on human relations but yet been devoted to determining cover human relations policies available in modern business organizations especially in Nigeria Breweries.

However, the literature of this research shall be reviewed through the following guide lines.

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  1. Historical background of human relation
  2. The concept of human relations
  3. Human relations policy as a factor to industrial harmony.
  4. The impact of human relations policies.

 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF HUMAN RELATIONS

Human relations are as old as man himself. It started right from the time of Adam, when god created him and later saw that he was feeling lonely, (Gen. 2:18) it is not good that man should be alone I will make him a helper. As a result God made Even and gave her to Adam as a partner. They started living in the garden.  As a result of the cordial relationship between them Adam accepted the forbidden fruit form her and ate. On the other hand, science tells us that millions of years ago, man lived in a state of nature. A stage, which Aobes described as “The war the case until man started relating fairly with each other through the social contact, an agreement to live in peace with each other under selected leaders and customers. Human relations have sine then passed through the stage of custom to the stage of conscience, a point where the relations of one man (the boss) to another (he worker) is not purely or only based on laws and principles but only on person. Indeed the first reflections on human were done by the tribesman who first perceived in the social relations of his following an enduring pattern or structure that outclassed the particular individuals composing it at a given time. Of course, long before the adventure, the greet philosophers, the church fathers and thinkers of the enlightenment to mention only the most outstanding figures of western intellectuals history reflected on the origin and foundation of human relations. For the early philosophers and theologian according to Wrong and Gray (1972) generally, regarded human social relations as part of a divinely ordained cosmic order or as the expression of a fixed and timeless human nature.

The political philosophers and classical economists, who were the predecessors of human relations movement, see human relations exclusively as political and economic relations. Towards this direction Adam Smith saw the contractual relations between traders in an exchange economy as the prototype of all social relations. After the great political and economic revolutions of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries the social consequences that resulted made it possible for structure of social relation to be perceived as an autonomous realm, a variable partially independent of political regimes and market relations.

From the perspective of the individuals, it is know that we live and work in social groups, and the evidence that isolating the individuals from others can lead serve cognitive and emotional problems. The way in which we experience our lives is very much determined for us by the way other people see us according to Fontana (1991). We need the esteem and support of the group if we are to develop into happy and well-adjusted people.

A child’s first human relationship starts from he home. That is, from his family and for the majority of children, this remains the most important throughout their adolescent are. But a close second to the family is the school where the child interacts with his teacher(s) and other children. In view of the close relationship and its importance of being together and doing things with his family and that of his peers as a groups. A child who is made to feel nervous and anxious by parents may attach strongly to them because they represent the only security in the unsecured world. But the important issues from the psychological point of view are simply that in human.

  1. Attachment appears to be a necessary phase in early child development.
  2. Attachment takes place principally between the child’s most significant caregiver (whether his real mother or not).
  3. Attachment is the first step in a child’s social learning.

From the above, we conveniently say that human relations start as early as when a child recognizes this mother or whoever is closer to him after birth. A child brought up by parents who always respond with love, has understanding, clear and sensible guidance, stands and excellent chance of learning how to relate successfully with other people. He learns that other people are good to be with, that they look after him and provide him with fund and happiness. As he grows, older, he learns the other rights and needs and mixes freely with them. He accepts their views in social interactions, learns to be at ease, confident and articulate while preserving his personal autonomy and independence. In the 1930s and through the 1950, the term human relations in industries was applied widely to a variety of disciplinary research studies, the most characteristic feature of human relations approach was a shift away from the traditional scientific management, with its uncritical emphasis on payment by reuslt incentives, to an interest in the efforts of an employee of informal group membership and supervisory practices. The human relations movement, as it came to be know has been the subject of broad controversy; and the term human relationship implied that increased group cohesiveness leads to job effectiveness and efficiency in the literature of human relations, managers were urged to be concerned with providing mutually compatible groups and opportunity for group interactions. The ways a person perceives a situation and its potential consequences influences his behaviour. In the work situation people are constantly affected by eh way hey interpret the nature of their jobs, the manages reactions and the action of their peers.

Elton Mayo and his Harvard associate a famous study on human behaviour on work situation at Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company (WEC) from 1927 to 1932. According to McFarland (1979) they discovered that in any work situation there are informal organizations and informal groups which influences performance and work effectiveness and efficiency. The outcome of the research was called the Hawthorne effect which according to Akpala (1990) states that when special attention is given to workers by management and when small work groups, informal groups are allowed to develop to help direct workers behaviour at work, effectiveness and efficiency is likely to increase regardless of changes in the working conditions, but in a very simplified form, the Hawthorne discovery was that, bedsides the need for money, people also have need to feel that they are accepted, that they belong. This implies that job effectives and efficiency is not merely an engineering problems and that financial incentives only cannot increase job efficiency. It further proved that social environment of employees have a great influence on efficiency, it determines the quality of work done. Another research conducted by Cole (1990) man as a social animal at work as well as outside it, and that membership of a group is important to individuals.

The conclusion indicates that:

  1. Individual workers cannot be treated in isolation but must be seen as member of a group
  2. The need to belong to a group and have status within it is more important than monetary incentives or good physical working conditions.
  3. informal group at work exercises a strong influence over the behaviour of work.
  4. supervisions and managers need to be aware of these social needs and cater for them if workers are to collaborate with officials of the organization in organizing than working against it.

Supporting the Mayo experiences, J. A. Litter (1978) stated that people at work are interested in many things other than money. They are motivated by desire for accomplishment, responsibility and feelings of control over their own lives and to be part of a social entity.

 —-This article is not complete———–This article is not complete————

This article was extracted from a Project Research Work Topic

THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN RELATIONS POLICIES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SECRETARIES IN EMENITE PLC AND AMAH BREWERIES NGWO

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