Design and Implementation of School Management System

Design and Implementation of School Management System (A Case Study of Divine Concept Int’l School)

Eya L.O. in his attempt to comment on the Educational Administration said that Education Laws should be made in form of educational legislations and edicts for the proper management and control of public and private institutions in Nigeria.  That the federal and state government of the federation must promulgate laws that will enhance smooth management and control of our schools. 

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Those areas like the establishment of schools, procurement, retraining and discipline of staff, admission and discipline of students, maintenance of educational standard through inspection and supervision of facilities and formation of councils, school boards, committee that would critically look into the school operations of the proper functioning of the education system.

Okeke in Ukeje defined educational administration as involving the provision and maintenance of the necessary manpower (personnel) and plant (facilities) in order to render useful services to those who teach the students with a view to bring about desired change in behavior.  In other word, it is the procurement and maintenance of men and materials and channeling them to act effectively in order that learning takes place on the part of the learners.

Eresimadu and Nduka viewed educational administration as specifically implying the careful arrangement of the resources and programmes available for education so that when mobilized they should operate as a unity for the achievement of educational objectives.

Okeke et al in his point of view pointed out that the educational administration is all about putting more emphasis on bringing men and materials together for effective and functional teaching and learning in schools.  This means that educational administration strives to achieve the overall educational objectives of the society by the best possible means.  It concerns itself with the management of human and material resources in an organization in order to ensure minimum input with the possible maximum output or productivity in the realm of education.

Brameld Theodore in his definition of Educational administrating pointed out that educational administrating in school operations aimed at forestalling the collapse of the educational institution.

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Eya L.O. in his concept of Administration and Organization defines Educational Administration as the coordination of human and material resources towards the attainment of some predetermined educational objectives.  It means bringing all the attributes of administration to bear on educational issues and problems in an effort to realize the educational objectives.

According to Dobson, L.A. management approach in schools would involve 2 areas of theoretical study and an analysis of practical tasks.  The starting point is organizational theory.  There is some agreement on the nature of formal organizations like schools, hospitals and factories and on the various constraint that operate on those working within them such as formal and informal authority structures and the varieties of job satisfaction.  An allied field is that of social psychology, interpersonal relationships and group dynamics which seeks to study concepts of leadership.

For the determination of every educational places, the enrolment ratios should be considered in each branch of education which is basically constructed based on the projections of trends and correlations with national income and demographic, geographic and socio-economic structure of the population.  The basis for global enrolment estimation is a reliable set of demographic forecasts which can be determined from the number of births in the relevant number of years previously or the number of students who completed their primary school education in the relevant years.  Enrolment ratios express the percentage of people of each age who are expected to be seeking for secondary education.

2.1    MANUAL SYSTEM

This is the case where the school activities such as enrollment, result processing and students’ information management are being carried out manually. This manual system of management from my investigation has many problems among which are:

  • Delays in carrying out these activities due to tediousness.
  • Missing result due to carelessness or misplacement.
  • Miscalculation of student’s results.

Due to this manual system, the desk officers both in Exams and in Records and Statistics who are in charge of students information and result processing finds it difficult to edit documented results and cancel out some errors such as omission or wrong entries. Even though these corrections are made, the paper work will look mutilated.

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Martin Holmes (2004) manual processing of results ends up with correction of errors and when they are given out to students, they look dauntingly messed up.

 

2.2    AUTOMATION OF ACTIVITIES

This is where we talk about the steps to take when automating a system more especially when it has to do with the result processing and student information management. Examination results of students are one of the most important elements of an institution. Processing of this data must be under severe management, while simple operation for result processing and transcript generation is required. In this situation it is beyond the ability of the desk officers of each department to carry out the processing of results and transcript generation manually and feels that an automated system should be introduced. I have proposed a basic concept for the design and implementation of result processing and transcript generation system which aims at safety, under the concept of full-proof system, server- client system and duplex system.

 

2.3   BENEFIT OF AUTOMATION

Dowsing et al (1996) there are a whole lot of benefits that arise from the automation of result processing and transcript generating system.

Anderson (1979) “computer analysis and utilization” The introduction of computer is of great benefit because it does the time consuming tasks, helps to draw analysis and assist with deductions.

There are a whole lot of benefits when the system is automated, which ranges from:

1) Improving result processing and transcript generating pattern.

2) Substantial saving of time and Decreasing cost.

3) Produces efficiency and speedy output when results are processed        and  transcripts            are generated.

4) The amount of staff time required to carry out these activities is        considerably

reduced.

 There are many other steps to take when automating a process. Automation offers many advantages; these advantages include an improved process while decreasing cost. When automating we lookout for outside help to ensure the system runs smoothly.

  • Successful automation can improve part quality, increase throughput, and reduce costs. A capable integrator recognizes what to automate and what not to automate and make sure that simple part meet necessary tolerance for automation.
  • Provide the primary goals you want to accomplish with automation (reducing cost, increasing throughput, improving quality and efficiency).


CHAPTER THREE

3.0  OVERVIEW OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM

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3.1  DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM

Most manual systems are faulty hence they need modification.  For a system to be suitably modified there should be an outright understanding of the mode of operating the system.  The system in this case is the principal who offers the utmost administrative power to the school together with the teachers which indirectly involve the students’ goal which is acquiring knowledge in a conducive atmosphere when adequate number of students are admitted in one class as well as unique motivation and encouragement they received through the strict, supervision of examination and accurate computation of students’ result.

Before the existing manual/mechanical system can be converted into a computer based system a feasibility study must be conducted to evaluate the inability and cost effectiveness of a proposed system.  The existing system has to be thoroughly investigated before the new system can be defined.  The program modules necessary for the smooth operation of the proposed system are then developed and coded, tested, debugged and modified where necessary after which they are considered adequate.  At every stage of the development of this proposed system all necessary information concerning it will be documented.  Procedures for its implementation are also included.

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