Attitude of Female Mass Communication Students Towards Journalism as a Career

Attitude of Female Mass Communication Students Towards Journalism as a Career

Attitude studies have been the concern of many researchers. Cruth field et al, noted that not all attitude governs action is in part determined by its particular pattern of characteristics.

Katz and Stotland defined three component of attitude. They are cognitive, feeling and action components.

Cognitive component of an attitude consists of evaluated beliefs, which involve the attribution of favourable or unfavourable good or bad. The feeling component of attitude refers to the emotions, connect with the object is the object pleasing or displeasing, is it liked or disliked. The action tendency component of an attitude includes all the behavioral readiness associated with the attitude.

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The study of Lubell and Kimball show that students saw several negative aspects of journalism carries, such as low pay, and prestige. Long pressure field hours, routine assignments and intense competition.

Nevertheless, certain perceived opportunities led some students to plan journalism carriers writing meeting people, traveling and keeping abreast of current happenings.

Students also rated several professions on certain aspects of carrier satisfaction. A third rank journalism ‘high in “prestige”, two thirds it high in “interest” and in usefulness to society, one fourth ranked if high in “satisfaction in family file and less than tenth ranked it high in “financial reward” when the ranking were averaged across all scales, journalist ranked eight behind doctor, lawyer, engineer, scientist, minister, business and teacher.

Another study carried out by Bower showed journalism compared most favorably on the dimension of interesting work and usefulness to society.

Compared least favorably on the financial reward journalism, more interesting than did makes, students with professional experience ranked it higher on community prestige and lower on family life than students such experience.

The result also showed that a desire for creative work was the most reason for choosing a carrier in journalism.

Wilson found out that Canadians left news jobs because of money. Advancement, lack of satisfaction, working conditions, personalities and dislike of the jobs.

Rice’s study of more 1,000 graduate of mid western journalism, programme uncovered a number of reasons for leaving journalism carriers among the were

  • Other work more attractive
  • Change of interest
  • Mother hood
  • Military obligations and
  • Low pay

David Hobes survey of west virgin university graduates revealed that more than 35% respondent most of them has been news editorial majors were working on newspaper

Neil’s survey of Washington correspondents who had left the Washington beat revealed lack of satisfaction and lack of money as the major reasons for leaving.

Samueison and his colleagues at standard produced, a standardized test to measure job satisfaction in the newsroom.

An analysis of responses of 200 hundred newsmen and new men resuited in validation of 14 job satisfaction areas of six attitudes clusters that were developed through a factor analysis, only one “formal relations with management” did reflect dissatisfaction were

  • Faith in future newspaper journalism
  • Satisfaction inherent in personal duties
  • Cogniality of employing newspaper as Arena for own carrier
  • Quality of leadership and
  • Satisfaction with the amount of salary.

According to Herzberge Moturation- hygiene theory of job satisfaction used in Harold C Shallers, study satisfaction, was in general the result positive presence of motivations while dissatisfaction was the result of the absence of hygiene factors and soliman provided a good summary of Herzbery theory. Its study shows that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not the obverse of each other rather are best viewed as too separate and parallel continuation. The motivation hygiene theory departs sharply from the conventional theory in which any job related factors may be a source of both satisfaction and or dissatisfaction and which is called the one factor theory of job attitudes.

Mc- clins study of Chicago advertising women indicated that they held positive attitudes towards their job

Pederson’s study showed on increasing popularity of journalism. In September 1972, there were 41, 691 students enrolled in 166 schools and department of 1971,6% in 1970 and 14% in 1969. Between 1962 and 1972, national journalism enrollment increased to 80%.

Journalism enrollment also increased in Nigeria in 1981 when 3 new institutions starled to offer courses leading to the award of diploma in mass communication. These institutions are Ozoro Auchi and Oko polytechnics.

However weigle’s study showed that fewer students were going to college to study journalism. He concluded that other professions apparently offered more glamour money and security students’ views of journalism as a carrier were largely negative. Low starting pay pressure and limited job opportunities.

In the study of Wisconsin, high school journalist fosdick and green berg reported that journalism was rated relatively highly only on the dimensions of interest and usefulness of society.

Rice’s study of five western journalism schools concluded that an interest in writing was the most important reason for majoring in journalism, following high school journalism and the influence of a teacher or adviser.

Krech et al, found that there is conflict between the roles of housewife and carrier woman. Women who occupy both positions frealuently experience trouble because the tow roles involve conflicting demands, for the housewife, her home and family are primarily for the carrier woman, the demand of the job are her first concern.

Ilomarousky, reported that many females students have an interest in a professional carrier, they are under pressure from their professor carrier, they are under pressure from their professor and intellectual on the other hand, the female student interest in men and marriage as well as the expectation of family members and “social others in their group, constrain them to excel in the social and in the pursuit of intellect.

Another journalist, Joel has written about the woman, her home and family are secondary in importance. Investigation have revealed that mixing outside carrier and caring for the family always prove distains. Outside job can really affect marital relationship. The carrier woman will also have the problem of compulsory overtime dictate by the nature of her profession if she is a journalist, doctor, secretary etc.


A synthesis of the literature review shows the following; high school student see several negative aspects of journalism on the ground of low pay, routine assignments, pressure filled hours, though still find god opportunities for studying journalism.

However journalism compared most favorably on the dimensions of interesting work and usefulness to society with other professions.

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This article was extracted from a Project Research Work Topic


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