Adult Education – Career Opportunities for Adult Education Graduates

Adult Education – Career Opportunities for Adult Education Graduates

In this chapter, some previous little work has been received on this subject.  Since little on nothing has been documented on career opportunities.  For adult education graduates in Enugu state, review of literature is based on adult education in general.

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Therefore, the review is organized under the following subheadings:

  • Adult and adult education
  • Career guidance and education
  • Career within an organization
  • Career dilemma and career plateau
  • Theories in career development
  • Adult literacy and career motive


Contextual Definition of Adult

M.D Stephen (1990) defines adult in the volume as a student who will be over the legal age of 18 years and will have completed his or her initial education (school and for the privilege for higher education) the provision for such adult within Enugu is considerable diversify.  The Oxford Learners Dictionary contributes those adults as an adjective is the one who has grown to dull size or strength intellectually and emotionally matured.  As noun, person or animal grown to full size on strength (legal) person old enough to vote, marry etc.

Based on the above fact , we can even see that adult education is not popular established for those in mind.

Based on the above statements and definitions we can move to identify what adult education is.

Adult Education

We can all imprisoned by the historical experiences of the country in which we live. Adult education provision within Enugu is now exception to that of Nigeria in general and the outside world. The industrial pace, companies, tailoring industries, mechanic, professional disciplines, school etc. all this witness the out pouring of trainees of adult age who want to make careers in such fields, NDE (1989).

Adult education as said is an optional taken an aged person to increase the development of his or her brain which geared towards achieving ones objectives.  This could occur as retraining in the same field of work for career purposes.  Gerry Branity (1991).

However, the professional adult education like Knowles Dare Stein, Mrs Monic Chris Ejiogu (Mr.) and others just a few indication operates which are as follows:

1.       The national council of adult school association, which was found in 1899 with 350 schools and being run by the association with 45,000 members.

2.       The little national adult school union was found in 1914,also state in particular.

i.        The ABC university of the air to be cooperating with the institute of management and technology IMT, Enugu and university of Nigeria Nsukka was launched in 1976.

ii.       While the school of continuing education known as staff development and district education (SDDE) was established in 1978,which was the final of its kind in the adult education formulation in this country.

iii.      The national certificate of education (NCE). This certificate, among adult school and other education, although relatively new in our country, has also gone a long way in upbringing walls academically and otherwise.

Adult education, bring a new discipline with the field of education when compared with other disciplines within the field is relatively young.  That is why Okedara order the disciplines which have enjoyed systematic research and training.  In addition, Knowles (1980) also observed that adult education is such a relatively new field of social practices, that it is still in the process of forming new identity. Dr. Eric Midwinter (1982) noted that suddenly, the education of the elderly people in the United Kingdom has become an important issue.

Despite the overwhelming ignorance of the need for adult education and its significance contributions this new baby in the field of discipline has variety of opportunities. Liveright (1968) list goals of adult education which are occupation, vocational, and professional competence, social and civic responsibilities and self fulfillment.

Based on the above, it is pertinent to say that adult education is so diversified that the graduate in it have many career opportunities in many areas.

Our Case Study

This writing also restricts itself to Nigeria and Enugu in particular. So an attempt to describe all areas of adult education would mean a much longer writing. Therefore, the present debate on adult education and mush of the resulting provision, are similar even in countries through the developing world.

The education of adult suffers from a bewildering range of title in Nigeria, which include the adult who engage in it. The team adult education is often regarded as a vocation meant for those who are into teaching field but it is more liberate in this writing. What beats every contender is the effective communication with the general public and the acceptable English usage that leads them into all areas of performance in the face of available careers.

Social Changes.

The description of adult education has be recognized as taking place against the dramatic rush into tearing manual work and early marriage syndrome of the past.  Life expectancy has increased by approaching so since 1980.

The Director of Schools, Staff Development and Distance Education (SDDE) of IMT Enugu, Mrs. Monic Eluka noted on July 5, 1997, That there has been upsurge of matured men and women, work people, non- work people of reasonable ages who are rushing schools to obtain one certificate or the other. That some are restraining to have a stable work or gain promotion in an existing work place, while some are just doing so to have a knowledge or to be known or seen as a graduate saying that this has contributed so much in the increase in schools of adult education in this part of the country.

She also said that, as was meant to understand when the system was about to be conceived, little or no hope was there in terms of getting sufficient adults to register for much programme but today, the school supporting this, the director of the centre for policy on aging, Dr. Eric Midwinter, also said that there ha been suddenly the education of the elderly people in 1982 both in U.K and other part of the world.

You see, before this period in discussion, there was an influencing rush for marriage and training of handwork by our people. Anybody who manages to get to class 5 then sees himself as lord. But the demand for the day has changed the situation P. Eya, when engaged in discussion over this issue said that that is a much higher percentage of over 60 years old in the population with the attached political clout. Similarly, divorce was rare at the beginning of the century. But now two-thirds of married women now have gained employment, which again is a content with 1970.

This change in education revolution has created an overwhelming struggle by al in search of living.  For which the issue in question has as well created opportunities for all too.

The Career Guidance /Education  

This society is changing with unprecedented rapidity; new technologies are not only transferring work itself but offering new ways of learning. The system is changing, what we do and how we think about it. These changes are reflected in our use of words and behaviour. Example, people tend to make money quick so as to settle down for a particular job that will carry him/her for a lifetime, women and marriage, men and money etc.  Those in academics line trains and retrains for a stable post in the office. There are pursuits of careers.

It is on this note that people are to be guided accordingly to activate these objectives appropriately as it concerns education.

Therefore, Nigerian adult students need to be guided on their choice of occupation during their engagement in school. These people instead of considering the positions of the job market before enrolling in any preparation should consider other factors as well.

Ajawari (1982) discovers that the desire for higher finances enumeration and high prestige are material values which motivates career selection among those adults when embarking in their retraining.

The needs for career guidance is inevitable from all indications, vocational educational guidance seems to be more programmatic than the concentration of guidance function on emotional, social and psychological issues.

Mallam (1984) observed that information about the world of work is indispensable, because one cannot choose what one does not know and as many career are unknown to most of us, one may humble into an appropriate career by Mereshere Luck, but the wise choice occupation requires accurate information about what career are available, what they require and what they offer.

The opinions of some students in the department of SDDE (IMT), Enugu revealed that most students and graduates jump into adult education with little or no information about the career job available if those who have one will leave such place other than teaching.  Supporting this issue, Durojye (1982) states that a well co-ordinated follow up service should follow to obtain from recent graduates a realistic picture of what lies ahead for present students.

However, writing on the importance, et al (1970) defines career guidance as helping people to choose work in which they will be reasonably contented and successful with the limits of their abilities.  He further content that vacations guidance is becoming importance because of infused education opportunities and the wide range of occupation career offered by a growing complex society.

Danga and Shaikh (1982:1978) respectively observed that the role of school counselor is to aid the individuals to become aware of himself and his career opportunities and then facilitating his planning for the future against a background of opportunities available to him, in the same vein, Leviton (1977) discovered that even where counselors are available, students normally to their friends or families and parents in case of younger ones for career guidance.

Subsequently, these adult educators should be also trained on how to train the adults well with an awareness of their ability to the general popular as well as the employers.

These people should be made of the lucrative opportunity they have engaged by directing them to invest into future on the job they are presently handling on the effort to get enlightened only so that they will get what it takes to have what it gives to invest in the future.  As having in mind to invest in the future means creating way for career.   Michael D. Stephen (1990) notes that the adult in England engage themselves in retraining in a special field despite where there is an opportunity to make career in that field.  Barry P. Bright (1989), in his class teaching to adult students advice them to think more about a career in learning you have embarked upon.  Christ Ejiofor, on 4th July, 1997 said that the ugly thing is that none of these adults knows, think about career in their present training but on just how to receive their certificate and go away.

Nevertheless, that he will henceforth advice other lecturers in the department including himself to direct the students in how to carry out career and not the certificate for better future.  One of these students, Rose Ude, asking on 6th July 1997, says that she knew what she was doing, that she will now peer into making management a career so as to go into private business in future.

On the above, I picked a student and while asking her some questions, she said that she is determined to continue her academic pursuit until she graduate in accountancy and make her MBA despite the hardship.

This tells me the role ignorance played in the life of man is much.  There should be room for excursion to some companies and other areas of work so that they will not only be taught in the class but see things physically and if possible have a coach and participating temporary to these areas, just to trigger their enthusiasm towards thinking about career in their different areas of interest.

Gerry Brainley (1991) notes that career are infused into people especially adults, when taken to library to search for the books they need which in turn, in most cases portray them fancifulness of establishing a well arranged pattern of work.  This also lead them to think of an opportunity of having his own thing arranged like that with orders to be issued out by him.

Mr. Emmanuel Ogili, a lecturer in the department SDDE, IMT Enugu on 3rd July 1997 said that he himself had determined to make a career in teaching adult and that it has been his ambition therefore, that the adults studying under their department will be well directed to their department will be well directed to their chosen areas of career.  He promised that these adult will be made aware of the areas they will embrace in the career and it will become effective hence their complete ignorance both on the areas of employers themselves and the tutors as well.

Career within an Organization

Adult educators will do well to educate this adults of career potentials, even within an organization, they have found themselves or in the existing one.  This awareness will equip them the knowledge of the processes they are going to go through and thereby by prepare themselves for it.

Career within an organization is motivated when a worker discovers the lucrativeness of such job as regards to the incentives thereof.  Edgan Schein, on this said that this include the individual positions and relationship with the organization change over time.  This has offered a somewhat unique perspective on careers.  Schein focuses particularly on how the individuals movement through the various part of the organization will affect his or her actions and way in which helper is perceived by organization can be viewed more usefully as a three dimensions one rather than only as the traditional hierarchical triangle.  See diagram.  The three dimensions of the cone through the various parts of the organization.  Vertical movement up and down the organization represents, hierarchical change in one’s formal rank or management level.  Radial movement represents movement towards on away from the organizations “central core” inner circle of power circumferential movement represents a transfer to a difficult division, function or department.

Source:       Edgan H. Scein; the individual, the organization and the career; A conceptual scheme”, journal of behavioural science, volume 17, N0. 4 (1971) P.404 copyright 1971 NTL institutor for applied behavioural science reproduced by special permission.

Each of these types of movement suggest Scheme involves passage through appropriate boundaries, hierarchical boundaries separates one management from another.  Inclusion boundaries separates groups closen to the centre of power from those further away and circumferential boundaries separates one division of department from another.  A central concept in this model is that they just be the members of the group they are trying to join.

Schein also suggested that individuals within the organization might move through the organization in one on all of the three possible ways.  An outstanding scientist for example, might be promoted to oven higher levels t(keep him or her from leaving for a better job) without even coming an inch closen  to the core of administrative power.  Conversely, a foreman of long standing who has moved radially toward the centre of power by building good relationship with the production manager and another important manager may wield more influence within the organization than the higher ranking scientist.

The Diagram Reflects The Movements.

Those destined for the upper levels of management may first move across a number of functional boundaries (such as production, sales, and finance) to acquire a generalist’s background before they are promoted to a higher rank and allow a greater influence. Continued circumferential movement without an upward passage through the boundaries of rank may be the mark of an individual who is needed by the organization but also is not considered suitable for promotion.

But to achieve this, a person career with the organization involves series of steps or passages from one position to the other which will attempt to influence the organization in return.  If the individual moves circumferentially members of the new individual.  Such a move requires that the individual be taught new skills more than new attitudes and values.  Successful socialization or training will cause individual to became attempted and prepares the way for the individual to move the next position

The individuals attempt to influence the organization is termed innovation by Schein.   Innovation, She in believer, will most likely occur when the individual is in the middle of a given stage of a career, rather than when the individual has just entered or is about to leave that stage.  New arrivals, obviously have still not become fully accepted they therefore, are comparatively powerless to induce change.  People who are about to move to another position have “Lame Duck” status, solid schein, and therefore have less influence.  At the middle of the stage, the individual is fully involved in his or her present job and therefore can recommend changes with some confidence and authority.

Finally Schein it.  Edgar, suggests that socialization for training and innovation continue throughout the persons career stages, when the individual has not yet been fully acclimated to the organization, is more prevalent at the later stages of the individual’s career, when he or she has more experience and status.

Career Dilemma and Career Plateau

Looking at the above observation, (2.3) the review and the analysis, with many managers, there are many problems that plagued managers early in their works.  Rose A. webber, (1973) pinpointed three classes of career problems that typically plague managers early in their working lives.  They are political intensivity and passitivity, loyalty dilemmas, and personal anxiety.  On the same vein, she suggested that the new comers who is forewarned of these problems may either sidestep them entirely a keep their potential damaging.  Consequences to a minimum.

1.       Political Insensitivity and Paivity

The struggle for the exercise of power is inevitable and probably essential part of organizational life.  Stoner (1973) observes that managers seek power because with power they can easily achieve their personal and organizational goals.  This they do in order to influence their subordinates to perform effectively to protect the integrity of their units.

Young business school graduates aware frequently insensitive to the role of “Office Politics” when they just enter an organization.  On the webber, notes that managers who can “ Play Politics” well i.e. who are skilled in gaining the corporation of superiors and peers may obtain a proportionately larger share of organizational resources than managers.

Promotion and salary increase may depend on how politically well or influential the manager is, to his subordinate and peers to suit his prejudices and values rather than on merit alone.

Co-operated with this realities, new employees frequently become passive or withdrawn; suggested by webber.  Instead of seeking to understand their surroundings, forming their own political connections and beginning to build a power base of their own narrow specialist and permit their career to drift.

Loyalty Dilemma:

The new employees on entering the organization, they face a lot of demands on their loyalty from their superior.  Webber suggests that there are five common ways in which this loyalty can be defined by a superior or supervisor to the subordinate.

1.       Obey me

2.       Protect me and do not make me look bad

3.       Work hard

4.       Be successful, whatever it takes and

5.       Tell me the truth

Each of these definitions of loyalty is legitimate because a certain amount of compliance with each in necessary to keep the organization functioning.  However, these loyalty demand often conflict with reality as the young subordinate perceives it, moreover, if taken to an extreme, meeting this definitions of loyalty can cause the organization harm.

Personal Anxiety

Any time assignment is growing more challenging and salary increase as well as promotion, which signal recognition of their efforts, the young managers derive greater satisfaction from their jobs.  Webber suggests that, ponadoxically, they also begin to feel anxiety about their growing commitment to the organization.  The independence and integrity they valued as students and young managers sometimes came in conflict with the increasing demands made on them by jobs the manner in which they resolve this conflict will play an important role in influencing how their career unfold.

The Career Plateau

The career plateau may be defined as the point in a career where the likelihood of additional hierarchical promotion is very low.  This term has a negative connotation because it seems to imply that the individual is no longer promotable because of lack of ability or some other flaw.  Infact, reaching a career plateau is a normal organizational occurrence.  Just about every other plateau – practical example of this case is Prince E.O Adirika, a lecturer in the department of marketing and also the director of business studies IMT Enugu who started with the school (IMT) and have now reacted plateau state in the school (IMT).

Lack of ability, skill in the office, inaccurate assessment by a superior, etc may affect individual’s career plateau.  Since job openings become progressively scarcer as one ascends the organizational hierarchy even highly successful managers eventually reach a career Plateau.

Theories in Career Development:

Here, we are going to see the problems these graduates encountered in their new jobs or the existing one.  There are apparent problems that reoccur at particular times over the course of a person’s career.

Having known the role of ignorance among these share, how would the people involved known all these and make themselves ready to meet somebody who knows the content of adult education and the worth of the graduates.

Adult Literacy and Career Motive

Adult education graduates are traditionally teachers by profession.  This is because they acquire necessary teaching skills like any other graduates in education which qualifies him to reach in the post primary and in any other tertiary institutions.  But that is no longer what people think about it.  Education is diversed these days that is why Mr. Chris Ejiofor, in his discussion, during the search of materials for this writing, said that adult education is profoundly known these days as those who are pursuing every student to better their academic ability and the social well being of the society.


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 Adult Education – Career Opportunities for Adult Education Graduates

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