Training and Development Prerequisite for High Productivity

Training and Development Prerequisite for High Productivity

Training and Development Prerequisite for High Productivity – Planned- change is one problem area in organization; this because involves changing the behaviour of employees.  One easy way to affect this change is through training.  Training must be purposeful.  This must be so since successful performance of nay organization is depending on the competence of its people present and  future.

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All training must to able to give out new knowledge managers is responsible for the performance of his subordinates he must ensure that they have the knowledge and skills to do the job i.e. that they are competently trained. He must therefore decide what training is necessary to ensure  the necessary performance he expects. Having decide the training required he then must decide who would do the training and  perhaps “educated” and workers “trained: it would seen one way to settle the matter is Turlock at how people use the two terms in an individual or commercial context

Often we find that education is used to describe what goes on in school and colleges if a formal theoretical or academic nature (through even here we do talk about industrial training at a technical college), or where the learning is directed to wider aspect of study than the work of the organization to which the employee belongs.  On the other hand training is very often used to describe the importing of specific practical skill often manual to employees; who will be relevant to the employer’s present or next immediate job regularly there are organizations whose view of training is even more restricted than even this last definition. Despite remarkable training resources they limited training to impart the minimum amount of knowledge and skill to cover just their present needs.  Such training can be said to be “job-centred” certainly we do not want to view it in the light of the narrow immediate situation.  True we need to import to employees the knowledge and skill they need in order to do their jobs effectively now but it would be an unusual thing for organization that did not change in some way sooner later.  We indeed live in a world of accelerating change.  Hardly has one marvel thing passed into everyday use before twice a time machine might last fifty years: recently it was learnt that the expected life of new world processor was about seven life of a new world processor was about seven year ago.

Example of training needs to have efficiency and safety in the operation of particular machines or equipment: the need for competent management in the organization.

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Development (according to Shokan O.O 1995) consist of learning activities that increase the competence and ability of employees to progress with the management in the organization

The Origin of the Subject Area

IN.D. Folley (1984) in selecting a particular technique/ method to use in training and development there are several phenomena’s taken into consideration no method is always the best the best method chosen depends upon cost effectiveness availability of time number of employees to be trained as well as he characteristic of the trainees.

In terms of cost-effectiveness not all organizations have equal financial footing hence any method chosen must have a bearing with the organizations financial strength and relative gains that accrue as result of training.

With reference to time organization must consider training method which requires less time period is the best.

However this approach does not make it easy to distinguished the appropriateness of methods for communicating knowledge rather than developing skill or attitudes for example. The location and hence the context of training is of course important.  At this point it will be necessary to define the difference between on- the-job and off-the –job training.  Training methods chosen in any particular instance do partly depend upon training located.

On The Job Training

L. F Wendell (1982) say this is the training which takes place in the normal work place of the job holder using the equipment tools etc.  which the employee would normally use. Where a job consist of a variety of tasks the trainee is given instructions in   a simple task then as this is mastered also increasingly challenging assignments until he is capable of carrying out his job on his own.

Off The Job Training

According to H.A Jonne (1963) off the training or vestibule training as it is called in the U.S.A takes place away from the normal work place. Typical location on the firms premises are special training  areas for operative equipped with basic workshop equipment an office training department classrooms; the boardroom. Sometimes such training takes place away from the company in hotels colleges and residential training establishment.

Method Available

According to G.A. Cole (1993) a wide variety of training methods is in current use but these are the ones supervisor  or manager is likely to encounter most are: demonstrations lecture skill practice case analysis simulation vestibule training apprentice training role playing etc.

School Of Thoughts Within The Subject Area

According to “the times” (July 1991) the effective of  a company’s training programme depends largely on assigning to line managers and training specialist the responsibility to train and the care and skill with which the training is planned implemented and evaluated.

Before any training programme management should be award not only of the abilities of trainees but also their job contents in relation to specific objectives. In manufacturing industry top management can influence   the quality of training in the policies.  It formulates the practices it condones and the extent to which it support and participates in the actual training exercise. Management is therefore required to provide a climate that is conducive for continuing learning and growth.

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Training is not a personnel programme but a management tools. Therefore each manager must accept the development of his subordinates as one his primary responsibilities and expect to be appraised on the bases of how well he carries out these responsibilities conducting and evaluating the training activities in helping the subordinate apply what they have learnt from their training to solve the problem of low productivity. The essence of training lies in its utility.  It is not a little award rather it should challenge employees to creativity efficiency and adopting the right attitude to solve the problem of low productivity.

Empirically training  and development of workers have been stressed as the only sure way to cooperate survival especially at the period of global technological advancement of which training is the core must be a particularly activity for the manufacturing industry.

The School Of Thought Relevant To The Problem Of The Study

According to J.Kenny (1963) & W. William & K Davis (1985) management and employee training programme aimed at educating supervisor and non-supervisory employees above and beyond the immediate technical requirements of their job.  Human relation decision making and the executive roles are example of courses that might included the importance of employee and management development training programme is to increase the organization present and future capability in attaining its goals. Implicit in the employee objectives of this programme is the avoidance of managerial and employee obsolescence constant challenge in a highly competitive and changing business world.

To enhance job satisfaction in an organization the employee must have the knowledge of what is going on within the company and their cooperation must be sought in solving the problems of low productivity.  A high degree of specialization in many managerial and professional jobs probably gives impetus to a good deal of general managerial development.  That is the necessity of having managers who can not only with their speciabities   but can be also manage complex organizations tends to stimulate interest in broad training for such areas theory specialties other than their own.

Different Methods Of Studying The Problem

W.D. Benelt (1986) says, it is the responsibility of the personnel manager to formulate suitable programme aimed at employee development as well  as provide training policies to effectively monitor the overall implantation of  various programme necessary for the realization of organizational objectives.

In the process of training and development method a  foremost question to put into consideration is how does the organization embank on training and development effort.  Werther  and Davies (1985). A training programme commence with an accurate assessment of the training and development need reminiscent of individual training needs on the other hand and weakness in to the present strength job task  requirements.

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In essence employee performance appraisal records interviewing as well as productivity records are ways through which information vital for identification  of individual training  needs are being assembled.

With regards to organization training needs it  has been argued that no organization can plan a realistic training programme unless through diagnosis of the present manpower position which has been determined and the future manpower requirements which have been decided upon. The following are the identified techniques of assessing the training and development needs of  an organization by Eric B. (1976)

  1. Organization analysis
  2. Task analysis
  3. Human resources inventory and forecasting


All control process involve evaluation and this is the same in training feedback is required to assess the value of training and the more precisely standard of training are set the more easy its is to evaluate.

A well recognized definition of evaluation by Hamblin (1974) is any attempt to obtain information (feed back ) in the effect of a training programme and to asses the value of the training in the light of that information.  Hamblin provide a detail of training programme.

The place of evaluation activities in training can be demonstrated diagrammatically below

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