Training used in Developing Human Resources

Training used in Developing Human Resources

According to Mathias and Jackson (1982) training was defined as a learning process where by people acquire skill concept attitudes or knowledge to aid in the achievement of goals” they found that training in a limited sense is concerned  with teaching specific and immediate usable skill while in broad sense it provides general information used to develop knowledge for further lone term application.  The elements of training becomes important for the attainment of organizational goal and objectives.

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Anyanwu (1982) approached the definition from the point of view  of the trainers expectation and defined “training as the development in an individual of those knowledge skill and attitude which are directly related to the job” he sees training as a process by which the trainer expect to bring about a consistent change in the behaviour of  the trainer. The emphasis here are on development of skill knowledge attitude and behaviour.

Beach (1975) defined training “as an organization procedure by which people learn knowledge or skills for a definite purpose”

Loyol and Rue (1979) defined training “as a process which involves developing skill and learning concepts rules or attitude in order to   increase effectiveness in doing a particular job”.

A researcher on development conducted by Flippo (1980); stated that development will  include bottle training to increase skill in performing a specific job and education to increase general knowledge and understanding total environment”.  His discovery brought to light the importance of education as a part in progress with training as vital tool that enhances smooth and effective human resource development.

The purpose of training is to give employees at all levels sufficient instruction and guidance to enable them to perform their job effectively and prepare themselves for promotion.

The main types of training are as follows:

1)      INDUCTION:               The purpose of induction training is to introduce new recruits to the business the objectives method organization and the people they will be working with.  The length of time devoted to an induction course can vary from a few hours to several months depending on the job.

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2)      TRAINING IN ATTITUDES:        This is a long term process and less easy to evaluated.  Attitude training might be on job with the encouragement; example a person judged to have the right attitude and with the off job using role play case studies and similar simulations followed by group discussion the purpose of the exercise is the extend the experience of the individual in a relatively controlling environment.

3)      TRAINING FOR PROMOTION:  Depending upon the type of job training for promotion will  use a mix of the techniques give above.  A person about to be promoted to supervisor might need knowledge of health and safely registration (short courses or lectures) and will also need develop skill in staff management.

4)      TRAINING FOR CHANGE:          Organization and technological change will require training programmes.  A change in technology may mean that all the skilled operations employed in a business will need familiarization with new equipment and techniques.


According to Hammond (1988) “performance appraisal means the process of reviewing the progress appearance or capacity of a person or thing”

“performance appraisal has also been defined as the process by which organizations evaluate employee performance by measuring and reporting employee behaviour and accomplishment for a give period for the purpose of improving job performance” (weather and Davis1985).  The periodic assessment of the new employee performance con firm the original opinion formed when employed for the job

Macgregor (1972); outlines three (3) reason for measuring employee performance. They include:

i)                   To provide a means of telling a subordinate how well he is doing and suggesting needed knowledge and letting the employee know where he stand with the boss

ii)                To provide a basic for coaching and counseling of the individual by the supervisor

The goal of the performance management process is to support the organizations statement of objective principles and work unit operating plans as well  as to meet this goal.


According to Hammond (1988) ; participation is defined as a process where by people  taken an active part in reaching a decision. This to make them to feel a sense of commitment putting the decision into practice.  Workers participation in decision making is a highly effective motivation.

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Also involving employees in the decision making process of a business reduces the    feeling of alimentation which may be present and  increase employee’s commitment to the achievement of objective of the organization box with financial rewards for cost- reduction suggestion.  It may consist of an elaborate system of meetings of employee representative or it may be merely meetings between management and employee representatives.

Also Carhuff (1977) defined participation as a source of human resources development through problem solving  or decision making process.  Ho sated that participation by the employee means that at least his frame of reference was taken  into consideration in the development of the program calculated to benefit him. At a minimum participation increase motivation and personal satisfaction. At a maximum increase motivation may lead to increase performance and accordingly, a high quality outcome of the program.


The transfer of workers from one department to another is a deliberate move in staff development. It helps to widen the range of promotion.  It may be a part of a job enriched or enlargement scheme


This is the process of increasing the responsibility workers take for their own work and the formal recognition give given it.  This can also increase the promotion prospects of employees by adding to their range of experience thereby developing them.  Job enrichment give employees more control over the way in which they organized  the work over the allocation of tasks to members of a group and over quality control.  Job enrichment to be successful should be supported by a training programme so that worker can aquire the additional skill they will need


This means the widening of variety of tasks within a give job in it. Can also be described as the  redesign of jobs.  Jobs enlargement help in developing worker because seemingly endless repetition of a task can lead to boredom and lower standard of work.


1)                In a situation whereby a business provides the facilities off job training can be expensive

2)                It can also pose problems when the trainer is required to transfer learned skill to the working environment particularly if the equipment used in training is efficient form the which is used on the shop floor.

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The problem that can arise in the process of performance appraisal are as follows:

1)                People become resentful if they feel their  work is being criticized.  This can result to loss efficiency as working relationship dotoriate.

2)                Badly designed forms can require subjective judgment on a person’s ability.

3)                Some jobs are more difficult to appraise than others. The more complex the job, the greater the difficulty in judging the efficiency with which it is done and the greater the difficultly of finding somebody capable of analyzing problems and offering constructive support.

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