The Role of Effective Leadership in the Achievement of Organization

The Role of Effective Leadership in the Achievement of Organization

Much have been said and written about the roles of effective leadership in the achievements of organization goals, even in the polytechnics.  Every organization including the polytechnics need an effective leadership in the achievement of her goals and objectives. It should also be noted that every group of people that performs near its total capability has some persons(s) as its head who is skilled in the art of leadership.  This skill seems to be a compound of at last three major ingredients – The ability to comprehend that human beings have different motivating forces – at varying times and in different situations, the ability to inspire,  and the ability to act in a way that will develop a climate for responding to and arousing motivations.

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The essence of leadership is fellowship in other words, it is the willingness of people to follow that makes a person a leader.,  What justifies the existence of any organization especially, the institute of management and technology, IMT, – Enugu, is her ability to achieve her organizational goals and objectives despite all odds.  It is ant this level that the researcher  want to review related literature in this area of study.

 DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP

Several definitions has been given by many authors in various situations regarding the – definition of leadership.  Leadership according to Fiefler (1967:6) means influence the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly  toward the achievement of group – goals.  This concept can  be enlarged to imply not only willingness to work but also willingness to work with zeal and confidence.  Zeal reflect ardor, earnestness and intensity in the execution- of work. Confidence reflects experience and technical ability. To lead is to guide, conduct, direct and achieve objectives with the maximum- application of its capabilities.  They do not stand behind a group to push and its produce they –place themselves before the group as they  facilitate progress and inspire the group to accomplish organizational goals.

A pertinent example is that of the orchestrate leader, whose function is to produce C0-ordinated sound and correct tempo through the integrated effect of the instrumentalists, depending upon the quality of he director’ leadership the orchestra will respond in desultory fashion or with accuracy and enthusiasm,

A slightly different but interesting concept of leadership is that proposes by Katz and kahn (1978:19) “they see it, a least as applied to formally organizes enterprise as the influential increament over the above mechanical compliance with the routine directives  of the organisation”.  In otherwords an orgnaisational role may encompass definite objectives and plans to achieve then, clear position, duties and all the many non-personal things  an individual must do to carry out a job.  But there is much to add to thee if an individual is to perform effectively.

According to Katz and Kahn (1978;19) these include supplementing the organisational design with information necessary for person to perform their roles, classifying roles in view of the changing environment and recognizing the fact that every role is a part of an open social system that responds to change by being aware of the interpreting them to organized enterprise and interpreting them to those working in it and by making adjustments for beings and their various behavious patterns.

The idea of leadership as an influential increament- made especially necessary by the fact that all enterprises are open system and that people have varying drives, attitudes and desires fits in very well with the approach of th9s research work. The authors by recognizing leading as a major function of managers, support the idea that we need on increamental influence beyond those portions of peoples role that can be defined through effective planning, organizing staffing and controlling.

TYPE OF LEADERSHIP STYLES.

Leadership styles are variously classified Nwachukwu (1988:150 – 151) quoting Ireland Bradford and Ronald Lippitt gave a summary of the leadership styles as autocratic, democratic and Laissez0 Faire.  Ejiofor (1988:19-20) making reference to likert (1961) identified Four-basic styles of leadership namely exploitative authoritative, benevolent authoritative consultative and participative.  Also Akpala (1990: 54-58) gave leadership styles as autocratic paternalistic, perticipative and Laissez faire.

From the above authorities, the leadership styles are follows

AUTHOCRTIC LEADERSHIP STYLE

The approach known as “autocratic leadership style” result in practically all authority centering in the leader.  The enforces diocesans by the use of rewards and the fear of punishment.

Rewards go to those who do as they are toid within the limits given the. Punishment on the other hand, go to those them. Punishment on the other hand, go to these who go contrary to what they are told to do so.  Communication tends to be primarily in one direction, from the leader to followers.  There are certain situations where autocratic leadership style may serve.  These include:

–                     in a situation of emergency and in cases where heterogeneous workforce are involved and where the leader is wise, just and considerable (Terry, 1968:456)

This is in line with MC Grogoris theory x.  Therefore the autocratic style is at one end of the leadership continuum.  Decision making in this leadership style is located solely within the province of the leader.

The autocratic leader assigns task, provides-facilities and direction without consultation with the individual carry out the work.  Such leadership can employ either positive or negative approaches.   If the approach used to stimulated and influence others are grounded primarily on fear and force,  It is labelled negative leadership and its methods looked at as coercive.  The coercive leader is one who commends and expects compliance.

The leader is dogmatic and leads by his or her ability to give or with held rewards, and punishment.  If the leaders methods are based on incentive and reward, it is characterized as positive leadership.  Such autocratic leaders can implement his decision through benevolence, and or manipulation.  The benevolent leader uses- positive techniques such as praises a” a pat on the back” tack, and diplomacy to get the desired results.  The manipulative leaders appears to allow the subordinates to participate in the decision –making process.

An advantage of autocratic leadership  is the speed with which deciding.  A potentially offsetting disadvantage may be  the effect of autocratic leadership upon group moral.

Also leaders that choose to use a leadership style that merely orders or dictated may have employees that are  less committed, that are relieved of  responsibilities.  Effectiveness of autocratic leadership is often short-lived (Akpala, 1990).

DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE

In contrast tot he autocratic style, democratic or participate leadership takes into consideration the wishes and suggestions of the members as well as those of the leader. I is a human relationship approach where all members of the group are seen as important contributors to the final decision.  Participation is sought to encourage member commitment to the decision and to improve the quality of the decision.

The leader suggests possible actions with his recommendations but awaits the reaction of the group before putting them into effect.  In some situations participate or supportive leadership is merely a manipulative approach because behind the pen discussion, the manager pulls the string such a leader  discusses a problem.  With the subordinates get with pros and cons of each possibility, and them, after a full discussion, he himself decides what is called joint consultation in industry. But where it is honestly experimented, it is broadly a mortal emotional involvement of followers to make contribution to goals and to assured their share of the responsibility for achieving the goals.  It I based on assumption that people went to participate, form which they feel that are somebody or have contributed to ultimate decision made.  The superior allows them an opportunity to use their own initiative and  make contributions.  He also supports them in accomplishing their task.  Thus system applies especially in situations where the leader and the subordinate group and are knowledge workers.

Participate management however, does not mean that the subordinates decide what is done or what is not because the ultimate responsibility for the decision still rests with the leader.

It is the decision making process that is shared among the group members.  This is the leadership approach which comes into what is called  management by objectives.  Akpala (1990) citing Webbor (1973; 175) has outlined some of the benefit of participative leadership.  The follower who has participated in determining what us to be done will probably understand the decision and  agree that a certain course of actions is necessary and proper.  He thus exercise some power and the opportunity to express himself and exercise his abilities.  He motivates people to contribute and encourage them to accept responsibility on the other hand, they will afford leader to recognise the followers power and expertise which  he can solicit and combine with his own to road a joint perhaps better decision.  Webber concluded that most practising managers are not enthusiastic about participative leadership because they fear loosing of power and also because it is difficult to apply.  It is time consuming.  Other disadvantages includes slower decision, diluted accountability.

For decision, and possible compromises that are designed to please everyone but are not the best solutions.

 LAISSEZ – FAIRE LEADERSHIP STYLE

The laissez-faire style of leadership is at the other end of the continuum from the autocratic style.  With this style, the leader attempts to pass the responsibility for decision making to the group.  The leader gives little or  no directions and allows group members s great deal of freedom.  Also the group is loosely  structure.  The leader functions largely a group member, providing only as much advice and direction as is requested.

An advantages of Laissez – faire leadership is the opportunity for individual development offered to group members.  All persons are given the chance to express themselves and to function relatively undenpently.  A disadvantage that may result is lack of group cohesion and unity towards organisation objective without a leader, the group may have little direction and a lack of control. The result can be inefficiency or even worse chavs.

(Hicks and Gullott, 1987, 483).

PATERNALISTIC LEADERSHIP STYLE

Paternalistic leadership stresses a paternal or fatherly influence in the relationship between the leader the leader and the group and is manifested in a watchful care for the comfort and welfare of the followers.  It aims to protect sand guide in some instances, the approach is too sentimental. This types of leadership style has been criticized.  Some critics say that although intentions are usefully good, it result in group members not being able to develop self-reliance and independence.  It is also asserted that for the most part paternalism yields successful performance, but not on continuos.  Future basis because that success usually depends upon the continuation of the paternalistic leaders services .  The critic concluded that this types of leadership deficient in providing the necessary element of continuity in performance (Akpala 1990:131 –132)

NATURE OF LEADERSHIP

Every group of people that performs near its total capability has some person as its head – who is skilled in the art to leadership.  This skill seems to be a compound of at least three major ingredients-  The ability to  comprehend that human  beings have differing motivation forces at varying items and in different situations, the ability to inspire and the ability to act in a way that will develop a climate for responding to and arousing motivations .

As in all practices to is one thing to know motivation their categories of motivation forces and the nature of a system of motivation sand another thing to be able to apply this knowledge to people and situations.  All managing is situational and dependent on contingencies. But a manager or that leader who act at least knows the present state of motivation theory and who sees the elements state of motivation theory and who sees the elements in a system of motivation is better aware of there nature and strength of human needs and is more able to defined and design ways of satisfying them  and to administer a  system tat will get the desired responses.

The second ingredient of leadership as  stated by stogdill (1974m pp 36 –40) seems to be a rare ability to inspire, that is to animate or to enliven followers to apply their full capabilities to a project.  While the use of motivators seems to conter about subordinates and their needs, inspiration Ruminates from group leaders they any have charismatic qualities that induce loyalty,

Devotion and a zeal on the part of followers.

There is not as matter of need satisfaction, it is rather a matter of people giving altruistic support  to a chosen champion.  The best evidences of inspirational leadership came from hopeless and fearful situations such as a nation in the eve of battle a person came with exceptional morale, or a defeated leader understand by faithful follower. Some may argue  that such develotion is not entirely altruistic that it can also explain why those who face catastrophe will follow one whom they trust But few would deny the value of charisma in either case.

A third ingredient of leadership as stated by Stodill  (1974, pp 38 –42) has to do with the style of the leader and the climate he or she develop as a result. This awareness has led to considerable research on and theories of Leadership behaviour.  Those with have long- approached leadership as a psychological study of interpersonal relationships have tended to merge their thinking with that of the authors stated above, who see the primary task of managers as the design and maintenance of an environment for performance.  It should be clear that since almost every possible role in organised enterprise is made more satisfying to participants and more productive for the enterprises by those who can  help others fulfil their desires of such things as many, status power, or pride of accomplishment leaders must always exist in social life.  As a mater of fact, perhaps the fundamental principle of leadership is since people tend to follow those whom they see as means of satisfying their own personal goals, the more subordinates and how these motivations operate, and the more they reflects this understanding in carrying out their managerial actions the more effective leaders they are likely to be.

As cab be readily seem, the principle of leadership is closely related to the principle of harmony of objectives.  If managers can induce subordinates to behave that their personal objectives are in harmony with those of an organization, this very accomplishment tends to make managers effective leaders.

VARIOUS APPROACHES R LEADERSHIP

 THE TRAIT APPROACH TO LEADERSHIP

The earliest studies of leadership was based largely on attempt to identify the traits that leaders actually posses.  Starting with the “great man” theory that leaders are born and not made, abolief dating back to the  ancient Great and Romans, inquires were made to identify the physical, mental and personality traits of various leaders.

The “great man”  theory lost much of its acceptability with the rise in influence of the behaviour school of psychology, which emphasized that people are not born with traits, other than inherited physical characteristics and perhaps tendencies toward good health.

Prior to 1949, most studies of leadership did tend to concentrate on identifying traits,

From in most recent years, such studied have been made.

Stogdill (1948, pp 35 –71) found that various related to leadership ability (such as energy, appearance and heights) four intelligence ad ability traits sixteen personality traits (such as confidence) six task related characteristics (such adaptability aggressiveness, enthusiasm and self confidence) six task related characteristics (such as achievement drive, persistence and initiative) and nine social characteristic.

(such as Cooperatives interpersonal skills an administrative ability) in general, the study f leader traits has not been a very fruitful approach to explaining leadership.  Not all leader possess all the traits and many non leaders may posses most or all of them.   Also the trait approach  given no guide as to how much o any traits a person should have further more out of dozens of studies, there is no uniformly of identified trait or any significant correctives of traits with actual instances of leadership.  As psychologist Engene E.  Jennings has said “research has produced such a variegated list of tracts presumably purposes.  It describes that all for all practical purposes.  It describes nothing fifty years of study have failed to produce one personality tract or set of qualities that can be used to discriminate between leaders and non- leaders.

Nevertheless, some studies have indicated a significant correlative between certain traits and leadership effectiveness , Stodgill (1948. pp 35-71) found from review of the literature that  there was a definite correlation between the traits of intelligence, scholarship dependability responsibility  social participation and social economic status of leaders compared with non leaders.  Chuselli (1969.p.40) found significant correlation between leadership effectiveness and the tracts of intelligence supervisory ability, initiative, self-assurance and indivisibility in the way work was done.  Kerth Davis (1974.p 58) likewise found that leaders d have high intelligence broad social interests and maturity, strong motivation to accomplish and great respect for, and interest in, people

But even these correlation between traits and leadership are not persuasive most of these so called traits are really patterns of behaviours that one would expect from a leader and particularly from a leader in a managerial position.

THE SITUATIONAL APPROACH TO LEADERSHIP

After increasing disillusionment with the “great man” and trait approaches to understanding leadership, attention turned to the study of situations and the belief that leaders are the product of given situations.   A large number of studies have  been made on the promise that leadership is strongly effected by the situation from which the leader emerges and in which he or she operated.  That this is persuasive approach, is indicated by the situation that gave rise to a Hilter in Germany in the 1930’s that earlier rise of Mussolini in Italy, the emergency of F. D. Rosseveit in the great depression of the  1930’s in the unite states, and the rise  of Mao. Isotung in China in the period after world war II.  This approach to leadership recognizes that there exists in interaction followers their that people tend to follow those in whom they perceive (accurately or inaccurately) a means of accomplishing their the person who recognize those desires ad does those things, or undertakes those programs, designed to meet them.

This multi- dimensional approach to leader was detected early in the  studies of Stogdill (1948, pp 35 –71) and his  associates when it was discovered that analyzing 470 Navy officers occupying forty-five different positions, their jobs , the organizational environment in which they operate and the characteristics of  people they were assigned to lead.  Other studies made over the years have shown that effective leadership depends upon responses to such environmental factors as the history of the enterprise, the community in which organization operate, the psychological climate of the group being led, group member personalities and cultural influences and the time required for making  decisions.

—-This article is not complete———–This article is not complete————

This article was extracted from a Project Research Work Topic

THE ROLE OF EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP IN THE ACHIEVEMENT OF ORGANIZATION

(A CASE STUDY OF INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY IMT ENUGU STATE)

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