Problems of New Product Development – Research Methodology

Problems of New Product Development – Research Methodology

RESEARCH DESIGN
 Problems of New Product Development  –  Research design to be adopted in this study is survey research provide information on fact, opinions and attitude of people towards an event, problem or object. The method used in this types of research included interview, which is the major method of obtaining information and the use of questionnaire which is administered to the respondents.

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       Another research design to be adopted in this study is descriptive design since the subject matter is historical in nature.
       The research design relied mainly on information obtained from textbooks, newspapers, browsing from Internet, existing research work lecture notes, journals etc.
       The researcher intended to vuneil the problems of new product development in consumer goods industry.
3.2 SOURCES OF DATE
The researcher’s data was basically collected from two sources which are the primary and secondary sources data, extensively in the course of carrying out this study.
3.2.1 PRIMARY DATE
       The primary data refers to the first hand information generated purposely and specifically from the study. The primary data come from responses to questionnaires administered to the target respondents in the company during the field work. The researcher also used oral interview guide which helped in reaching the staff to obtain some relevant information that were not possible through the questionnaires method.
       The types of questionnaire used by the research was a structured one and consist of two different types of question are the open ended questionnaires which required the respondents to express their personal opinion. The second types of question is the multiple-choice questionnaire. This is more or less structured and are presented with alternatives yes or no. in other words, it is provided with alternative answers.
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
       According to Nworgu B.G (2003:68) The population defines limits within which the research findings are applicable. Population is also defined as a group in which all the individuals or items are singled out for study.
       The basic issue in finding the population is, who or what is be surveyed? In order words who or what constitutes the population to be studied? In most cases, it is practically impassable to cover the whole population especially where it is very large. Indeed sample is used where it may not be possible to embark on a sampling of the total population.
Nevertheless, the sample to be drawn will be representative of the research, the entire population.
       For the purpose of research, the researcher choose to study the staff/management of Paterson Zucchinis PLC Aba.
       This people are choose because they are in better position to offer better knowledge and authenticated on the offer knowledge and authenticated information on the subject matter. The method used in selecting the population is simple random sampling
3.4 DETERMINATION OF SAMPLES SIZE
       A sample is a smaller group of element drawn from the parent population through definite procedure or plan.
       Sample size is a particular portion of a defined population estimated by the use of certain statistical procedure. This is usually done when the population is too large and the researcher under normal circumstances cannot come in contact with each set of elements in the population.
       A sample of eight workers was selected with the use of simple random sampling (SRS). This is a method of selecting units out of N units such that every of the sample has an equal chance of being selected. A simple random sampling is drawn unit by unit.
       The units the population are number from 1 to N. the selection is usually carried out using the table of random numbers.

 

3.5 SAMPLING PROCEDUR
       According to Abonyi (2006,P.77-78) sampling is defined as a process of selecting or drawing the element of a simple. According to him, sampling technique should be seen as a plan o blue print specifying how the elements of a simple will be drawn from the parent population. Due to large size of the population which made it impossible for the researcher to reach all the staff in PZ PLC Aba, the researcher selected and examined only a limited number of the elements of the population to infer to the entire population.
3.6 SELECTION OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
       The research made use of personal interview and questionnaire, design in carrying out the research work. This method between the researcher and the interviewees where the researcher still made use of prepared questionnaire in gathering the needed information.
3.7 ADMINISTRATION OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
       Questionnaire is defined as a set of questions to which the respondents filled in answers most suitable questionnaire contains two section “A” which has a total of six questions on personal data of the respondent and section “B” which has a total of fifteen questions related to be the issue of the company’s products. A small box was provided beside each question option from were the respondent will tick based on the option chosen.
       This enables the researcher to reach a concrete conclusion.
3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
       In order to ensure easy manipulation and accuracy the researcher choose simple percentage distribution and frequency table for easy understanding.
       The data analysis method used is purely straight forward.
 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
       In this chapter, the researcher intends to present and analyze the data from respondents.
       The responses below are from the questionnaire administered and the personal interview conducted on how new product development can be carried out in a manufacturing industry or organization using Paterson- Zochonis plc Aba as a case study.
       Eighty (80) questionnaires were distributed, twenty (20) were not returned while ten (10) were not properly filled and completed. Fifty (50) were found useful and properly answered thus, representing 75% of the total questionnaire administered. Data gathered are hereby presented and discussed below.
QUESTION 1
What activities in your firm are directed towards achieving its objectives in development a new product?

 

Table 1
Option
No of respondents
Percentage (%)
Giving the greatest information to customer
15
30
monitoring the action of competitors
30
60
Aggressive selling practice
5
10
Total
50
100
      From the above table, in achieving the firms objectives, 60% agreed that monitoring the action of competitors is one of the firms weapons that are directed towards achieving their objectives.
QUESTION 2
Does your product pass through test marketing before developing new product?
Table 2
Option
No of respondents
Percentage %
Yes
35
70
No
15
30
Total
50
100
  From the above table, shows that 70% accepted that their product pass through test marketing, while 30% accepted that their product does not pass through test marketing.
QUESTION 3
What is the objective of the company in developing a new product?
Option
No of respondents
Percentages (%)
To create customer satisfaction
25
50
To make profit
15
30
To obtain maximum sales
10
20
Total
50
100
From the above table, 50% of respondents agreed that the objective is to create customer satisfaction, 30% agreed it is to make profit, while 20% maintained it is to maximum sales.
       Therefore, the more objective of the company is to satisfy the customers because through this the company will obtain maximum sales and make profit.
QUESTION 4
Is the price of your new products in market acceptable by consumer?
Table 4
Option
No of respondents
Percentage (%)
Yes
35
70
No
15
30
Total
50
100
From the above table, shows that 70% respondents agreed that the price of the company’s product is not acceptable by consumer, while 30% said that the price of company’s product is acceptable by consumer.
QUESTION 5
What is the performance of your new product in the market. Presently?
Table 5
Option
No of respondents
Percentage (%)
Satisfactory
10
20
Non satisfactory
40
80
Total
50
100
From the above table, 80% of the respondents agreed that company’s performance is not satisfactory, while 20% said that company. Performance is satisfactory. This is to show that the company do not achieve their aim
QUESTION 6
Are your products facing hard or stift competition in market?
Table 6
Option
No of respondents
Percentage (%)
To a large extent
10
20
To a great extent
10
20
To some extent
30
60
Not at all
Total
50
100
 From the table above depicts that 60% of respondents agreed that the company face stift competition to some extent while 20% each agrees that the stift competition is to a very great extent and 20% agrees to a large extent.
QUESTION 7
Has your company experienced product failure in the past? If yes what reasons are responsible?
Table 7
Option
No of respondents
Percentage (%)
Existence of competitive brands
25
50
Insufficient capital and lcak of qualities personal
8
16
Poor planning and inadequate forecasting
6
12
Inability to satisfy customers
11
22
Others (specify
Total
50
100
Obviously from the analysis above, 50% of respondents agreed that the company’s product has experienced failure in the market due to existence of competitive brand, 22% agreed that it was the inability to product to satisfy customers capital and lack of qualities personal while 12% said it was poor planning and inadequate forecasting.
QUESTION 8
Do you always evaluate your product in the market to ascertain their actual performances?
Table 8
Option
No of respondents
Percentage (%)
Yes
30
60
No
20
40
Total
50
150
 The above table shows that 60% accepted yes while 40% disagrees.
QUESTION 9
Does your product pass through the new product development process?
Table 9
Option
No of respondents
Percentage (%)
Yes
35
70
No
Don’t know
15
30
Total
50
100
As in the above, 70% of the respondents accepted that their product pass through the new product development process while 30% said that they don’t know.
QUESTION 10
By what means does your firm come about the product idea of all the products you have in the market?
Table 10
Option
No of respondents
Percentage (%)
By monitoring competitors products/action
10
20
By studying the existing products in the market
25
50
Through information gathered from customers
5
10
Product knowledge
5
10
Brainstorming
5
110
Total
50
100
In analyzing the table, 50% it is studying the existing product in the market 20% says it is monitoring competitors product, 50% each said it is through information from customers, product knowledge and brainstorming.
QUESTION 11
Are your products easily distinguishable from those of your competitors?
Table 11
Option
No of respondents
Percentage (%)
Yes
50
100
No
Total
50
100
The table shows that 100% accepted that their product is easily distinguishable from competitors product.

 

QUESTION 12
What major problem does your company faced while developing a new product?
Table 12
Option
No of respondents
Percentage (%)
Lack of qualified personnel
20
40
Finance
25
50
Poor planning and inadequate forecasting
5
10
Total
50
100
       It can be seen from the above analysis that 50% accepted that it is finance, 40% said that it is lack of qualified personnel while 10% agreed that it is poor planning.
QUESTION 13
Sex of Respondent
Table 13
Option
No of respondents
Percentage (%)
Male
35
70
Female
15
30
Total
50
100
       It can be seen from the above table that 70% of the staff of the company are male while 30% comprises female.
FINDINGS ON RESEARCH QUESTIONS
       A research is useful to management, because it assists them in decision-making process.
       In this research, it is being observed that insufficient finance and lack of qualified personnel his personnel
Has negative effect/impact on the success of new product development.
       In this research, the researcher observed that one of the firms weapons that is directed towards achieving their objective is by monitoring action of competitors.
       It was observed that the main objective of the company was to create customer’s satisfaction.
       It was observed that the nature of the company’s product was that consumer goods which we found out was fairly selling in the market.
       In this research, the researcher observed that the company hand experienced a product failure in the market which was caused by existing competitive brands, insufficient capital, poor planning and inadequate forecasting, lack of qualified personnel.
       It was also observed that the company normally carry out a research or evaluate their product in the market to ascertain the actual performance of their products compared to their substitutes.
       In this research, it is been observed that the firm came about the product ideas of all their products they have in the market by studying the existing products in the market from this research, we found out that PZ plc has a systematic, and that company product are sufficiently distinguishable from those of their competitors.
       From this research also, it has been observed that the staff of PZ are— of males than females. This may be a result socio-cultural tendencies that discourage females from going into company work.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
       The preceding chapter has given a background and development as regards to manufacturing firms/industry. Consumers perceptions of the industries performance, problems encountered by industries while carrying out new product development have been discussed.
       It also gives brief account of what new product is and why this study was carried out, like finding out the appropriate process involved in new product development.
5.1                 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
Based on the data collected and analysed, the researcher came up with the following findings:
i.            It was discovered that due to the existence of competitive brands in the market, new product do not survive all the time in the market.

 

ii.         Insufficient capital and inability to satisfy customers was also a problem that militate against product development.
iii.       Lack of qualified personnel in the manufacturing firm, negative affect product quality.
iv.        Inadequate research of the market, demand and high prices of product leads to product failure.
v.          The major problems that the company faced while developing a new product were finance and qualified personnel.
vi.        Late introduction of the product into the market causes product failure.
5.2     CONCLUSION
       Product innovation or new product development are more critical and demanding than just what an ordinary man may envisage. Increasingly, Industries/firms are being expected to play a direct role in meeting consumer needs and wants with their product (s).
       The first responsibility the firm or an industry owns to their customers is to ensure that they plan and develop their product in such a way that it will meet the target needs and wants of their actual and potential buyers which will help them in the attainment of their objectives.
       It is pertinent to conclude that in future, for firm to effectively gain big market shares and customer loyalty which would in turn serve as a sources of resources input, and consumption outlet for their outlet, firms must achieve their objectives by carrying out qualitative product development.
       It should however be noted that industries should not carryout the idea of new product development which they lack competence, otherwise they may experience product failure which leads to time, efforts and resource (s) waste.
5.3     RECOMMENDATION
       Since a product cannot be successful without proper care and handling of new product development the following causes of action are recommended.
1.          Competitive product (s) should be given grate attention as to monitor the steps they are taking and to differentiate their product from the competitor’s.
2.          Management should release adequate capital to the marketing department to enable them carry out their product development successfully.
3.          Qualified personnel must be recruited in production firm. Those that will plan for the product development, train their workers to be fit in their areas of operation and promote those that have achieved the goals of the firm.
4.          Any product that has been developed by the manufacturing firm should be launched in the market without delay to avoid competitors producing exactly what they have produced.
5.          Manufacturing company should leave the process of new product development to be handled by specialists.
6.          Effective market survey should be carried out to determine what the market wants or requires. Also appropriate pricing strategies should be adopted by firms in relation to competitor’s price in order to make their product prices with the range of market acceptance.

 

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
Based on the data collected and analyzed, the researcher came up with the following findings.
i.            It was discovered that due to the existence of competitive brands in the market, new products o not survive all the time in the market.
ii.         Insufficient capital and inability to satisfy customers was also a problem that militate against product development.
iii.       Lack of qualified personnel in the manufacturing firm, negatively affect product quality.
iv.        Inadequate research of the market, demand and high prices of product leads to product failure.
v.          The major problems that the company face while developing a new product were finance and qualified personnel
vi.        Late introduction of the product into the market causes product failure.

 

—————-not complete———–not complete————–

This article was extracted from a Project Research Work/Material Topic
PROBLEMS OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IN CONSUMER GOODS INDUSTRY
(A CASE STUDY OF PATERSON ZOCHONIS PLC ABA)”

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