Problems Militating Against Effective Performance of Student Teachers on Teaching Practice Exercise – Research Method



Problems Militating Against Effective Performance of Student Teachers on Teaching Practice Exercise – Research Method

Research method
This chapter explains the procedure, which the researcher intends to adopt in carrying out this research study. The chapter was treated under the following sub-headings:

           Design of the study
           Area of the study
           Population of the study
           Sample and sampling technique
           Instrument for data collection
        Validation of the instrument 
           Reliability of instrument
Administration of the instrument
           Method of data analysis
Design of the study
This is a survey research. A survey research is one in which facts and figures are obtained from systematically selected segments of a population with the purpose to ascertain the general characteristics of the population Hence, A survey research is a Design in which a group of people or items are studied by collecting and analyzing data from only a few people considered to be representative of the entire group. In survey, information about the work is gotten through textbooks, journal. Nworgu (1991).
Area of the study
This was entirely based in the heart of UGWUNAGBO LOCAL GEVERNMENT AREA IN ABA, ABIA STATE. Using students who have at least one or two teaching practice exercise from ABIA STATE UNIERSITY. There are four categories of students from four departments who are sent to the practicing schools in the area of practice, which are: Technology and vocational Education, Health and Physical, Foundations and science and computer departments.
Population of the study
           The population of this study was all the students of the faculty of education ABIA STATE UNIVERSITY, who participated in the 2002/2001 academic session teaching practice exercise. In all, they were total of 500students who participated in the teaching practice exercise (statistics from teaching practice committee Abia State University 2001).
Sample and sampling technique
           Proportionate simple random sampling technique was used to draw up the sample. This study had the sample size of 120, 50% of each of the population of the 4 departments stated were used to draw up sample. Science and computer has the sample size of 30 students, education foundation 50, physical and health 20, Technology and Vocational Education 20.
Instrument for data collection
           The questionnaire was the instrument employed for data collection. The questionnaire was divided into 3 sections. A deal with the Bio data of the student teachers, including the school of last practice. Section B, deals with the items on the problems encountered by students teachers during teaching practice period; section C deals with the strategies that could be adopted to improve the teaching practice programme.
           The questionnaire on a 4 (four) point scale of strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (D), and Strongly Disagree (SD) with normal values of 4.3.2.1 assigned to them respectively. In all, there are 22 items to be responded to. The options were weighed 4, 3, 2, and 1 respectively.
Validation of the instrument
           The instrument was face validated by two experts in the faculty of education. The experts were requested to criticize the instrument and make corrections on the language of the instrument and suitability of the items. The corrections were used to produce final draft of the questionnaire.
Reliability of instrument
           The questionnaire was distributed twice at different occasions to the population. This is to ensure stability and reliability.


Administration of the instrument
           The instrument was administered personally to the respondent by hand and was collected the same day. In all, a total of 254 copies of the questionnaire were used for data collection.
Method of data analysis
           Data collected was analysed using mean and standard deviation to determine the degree of agreement or disagreement of the respondent on the items.
           This approach was used to determine the mean cut off point as follows using the following formula.
                    X = SFX
                       N
Where: X = Mean
S= Summation of options     
           FX = Nominal value
           N = Number of items
Hence;
           X (mean) = 4 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 10   = 2.5
                                   4              4
Decision rule
           The decision rule for this study holds that any mean above 2.5 was regarded as agreed while any mean below 2.5 was regarded as disagreed.

Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data
           In this chapter, the data collected were presented and analyzed to answer the research questions. The data were analysed using mean and standard deviation.
Research Question 1 – What are the personal problems encountered by student teachers during teaching practice exercise?


 TABLE 1
Personal problems encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programme/strategies that could be adopted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme
Item No
Items
X
SD
DECISION
1
Students are not properly educated on the exercise.
2.37
1.01
R
2.
Students in the school, tend to look down on the student teachers.
2.83
0.90
A
3.
The student teachers have the feeling of inferiority complex during teaching practice exercise.
2.63
0.87
A
4.
The identity of student teachers should not be disclosed to students used for the exercise.
2.66
0.93
A
           From the  TABLE 1 above, the result showed that 3 items were regarded as personal problems facing student teachers during teaching practice exercise and item explain the strategies that could be adopted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme. Also the CLUSTER reveals that one item was not accepted. Its mean is below the cut off mean 2.50. But  generally, the result (average mean) of the research B 2.62 which shows that it  B Accepted by all.
Research Question 2: What are the problems of practicing school during the teaching practice programme/strategies that could be adopted to improve the teaching practice programme for efficiency?
TABLE 2
Item No
Items
X
SD
DECISION
1.
The permanent teachers, do not co-operate well with the student teachers.
2.93
0.88
A
2.
Some schools do have enough equipment for teaching.
2.96
0.85
A
3.
Equipment should be provided to schools.
2.52
0.81
A
4.
School principals and teachers should guide the student teachers.
2.45
0.75
R
           The TABLE 2 above has four (4) items in which one (1) item was not accepted. Its mean is below the cut-off mean of 2.50. Among the 4 items, 2 items are regarded as the problems of practicing schools during the teaching practice programme. While the remaining 2 items, explains the strategies that could be adopted to improve the teaching practice programme for efficiency. Such items are 3 and 4. but generally, the result of the finding is Accepted.
Research Question 3: Supervision problems encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programmes/the strategies that could be adopted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme.
TABLE 3
Item No
Items
X
SD
DECISION
1.
The principals and teachers of the schools should supervise student teachers before the proper supervision.
270
0.91
A
2.
The student teachers find it difficult to manage the lesson period allocated to them effectively as a result of the presence of the supervisor.
2.73
0.88
A
3.
Orientation should be given to the supervisors on supervision in other to accommodate every student teachers that is placed under each supervisor.
2.88
0.94
A
4.
The supervisors should be friendly and appreciable to remove fear of failure from the student teachers.
2.83
0.94
A
           Table 3 above, equally contains 4 items which comprises of 2 (1 and 2) supervision problems and 2 (3 and 4) strategies to which such problems could be solved. Generally, the summary of the findings according to table 3 shows that the result is uncompromising or genuinely accepted. This is so because the average mean is above the normal mean (2. 50).
Research Question 4: Curriculum problems encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programme/the strategies that could be adopted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme.


TABLE 4
Item No
Items
X
SD
DECISION
1.
The function for teaching practice exercise which is 6 weeks is not enough for students proper practice
2.67
0.92
A
2.
The teaching practice exercise runs concurrently with normal lectures.
2.73
1.03
A
3.
Proper Orientation exercise is not given to the student teachers before the teaching practice exercise.
2.47
0.76
R
4.
Orientation should be organized for the student teachers before teaching practice  exercise
3.03
0.83
A
5.
The duration of teaching practice exercise should be increased and should be done during the holidays to avoid clashing with normal lectures.
2.62
0.77
A
           In table 4 above, the items are five (5) in number which consist of about 3 (1,2 and 3) Curriculum problems and 2 (4 and 5) items which explains the strategy on how the curriculum problem should be improved. Amongst the 5 items, item number 3, showed Rejected ® in the Decision made. This is so, because its mean (2.47) is below 2.50 (which is the accepted mean so far). But generally, the Decision concluded in the table above shows that the result is accepted by all.
Research Question 5: Problems encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programmes/the strategies that could be adapted to the improvement of teaching practice programme.


TABLE 5
Item No
Items
X
SD
Decision
1.
The student teachers aim at passing the teaching practice examination even without effective teaching.
2.33
0.70
R
2.
The student teachers face the fear of failure during the exercise, especially the first timers.
2.48
0.71
R
3.
Workshop should be organized for student teachers in school on their relationship with permanent teachers.
2.83
0.75
R
4.
The student teachers should be paid to enhance dedication and efficiency.
2.05
0.81
R
5.
The teaching practice students should always engage in a group teaching exercise that is designed for them to avoid inferiority complex.
2.67
1.02
A
There are also (5 items contained in the table above. This table consists of 2 1 and 2 items which is on the opposite side, consists of the strategies in which such problem, and could be improved.
           Generally, it is very unfortunate that the rage mean of the result, according to the Decision is Rejected (R).
Research Hypothesis 1 Using The T-Test
TABLE 6
VARIABLES
No of pairs
X
SD
DF
t-value
Terif
Significance
Variable 1
120
2.36
1.01
119
-4.89
1.96
NS
Variable 6
2.95
0.85
Variable 2 
120
2.82
0.904
119
2.78
1.96
S
Variable 7
2.57
0.807
Variable 3
120
2.63
0.86
119
1.74
1.96
NS
Variable 8
2.45
0.75
Variable 4
120
2.65
0.93
119
-0.36
1.96
NS
Variable 9
2.70
0.91
Variable 5
120
2.93
0.87
119
1.68
1.96
NS
Variable 10
2.73
0.87
AVERAGE
T-test
0.15
1.96
NS


Research Hypothesis 2 Using The Chi- Square (X2).
TABLE 7
VARIABLES
DF
X2
Significance
01
3
19.66
0.0002
02
3
49.93
0.0000
03
3
59.66
0.0000
04
3
64.46
0.0000
05
3
30.53
0.0000
06
3
32.20
0.0000
07
3
50.93
0.0000
08
3
63.53
0.0000
09
3
23.40
0.0000
10
4
70.66
0.0000
11
3
30.26
0.0000
12
3
57.80
0.0000
13
3
51.40
0.0000
14
3
26.80
0.0000
15
3
70.86
0.0000
16
3
46.06
0.0000
17
3
62.86
0.0000
18
3
103.00
0.0000
19
3
68.86
0.0000
20
3
54.20
0.0000
21
3
45.46
0.0000
22
3
6.86
0.0763
Total
X2V
1089.38
0.0765
Average X Value = 1089.38     = 49.51
                                                       22
Average significance = 0.0765 = 0.0034
                                22

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
Discussion of findings
          In Table A, which deals with the personal problems encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programme/strategies that could be adopted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme organized by the faculty of Education, ABSU, during the teaching practice programme (items 1,2,3 and 4) showed that students are not properly educated on the exercise for the student teachers before the teaching practice exercise, students in the school tend to look down on the student teachers, the students teachers have the feeling of inferiority complex during teaching practice exercise, and that the identity of student teachers is not supposed to be disclosed to students used for the exercise.
          In table B, which is on the problem of practicing schools during the teaching practice programme/strategies that could be adopted to improve the teaching practice programme for efficiency (items 1, 2, 3, and 4) showed that the cooperating teachers, do not cooperate well with the student teachers, some schools do not have enough equipment for teaching, Equipment should be provided to schools. The researcher suggests that school principals and teachers should always guide the student teachers.
          In Table C, which deals with the supervision problems, encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programme/strategies that could be adopted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme (items 1,2,3 and 4) showed that the principals and teachers of the schools, should supervise student teachers before the proper supervision, the student teachers find it difficult to manage the lesson period allocated to them effectively as a result of the presence of the supervisor, orientation should be given to the supervisors on supervision in other to accommodate every student teachers that is placed under each supervisor. The researcher suggests that the supervision should be friendly and approachable to remove fear of failure from the student teachers.
          In Table D which is on the curriculum problems encountered by student’s teachers in teaching practice programme/strategies that could be adapted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme. (items 1,2, and 3) showed that the duration for the exercise not enough for proper practice. The practice, run concurrently with normal lectures in the supporting facilities of the University, proper orientation exercise is not given to the student teachers before the teaching practice exercise. Item 4 and 5 explains some strategies of which the curriculum problems could be improved. It showed that orientation should be organized for the student teachers before teaching practice exercise; the duration of teaching practice exercise should be increased and should be done during the holiday to avoid clashing with normal lectures.  This simply explains that Table D, has five(5) items.
          In cluster E, Which is the final cluster, deals on student problems encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programme/strategies that could be adopted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme? (items 1,2, and 3) showed that the student teachers do not aim at passing the teaching practice  examination even without effective teaching, the student teachers, face the fear of failure during the exercise, especially the first timers and workshop should be organized for student teachers in each school on their relationship with permanent teachers. Also in cluster E, items 4 and 5, explains the strategies for which the student problem could be improved, which showed that the student teachers should be paid to enhance dedication and efficiency, and the teaching practice students should always engage in a group teaching exercise that is designed for them to avoid inferiority complex.


Recommendations
          In the light of the findings made, the student teachers still face a lot of problems. Therefore, the following recommendation will help to improve their present predicament.
1. Orientation should be organized for the student teachers before teaching practice exercise.
2. Workshop should be organized for subject teachers of cooperating schools, on their relationship with student teachers.
3. The student teachers should be paid to enhance dedication and efficiency.
4. The identity of student teachers should not be disclosed to co-operating students used for the exercise.
5. The teaching practice exercise could be done during the holidays to avoid it clashing with normal lectures in the University. Private lesson organized for pupil during holidays should be used.
6. Equipment should be provided to our schools by government.
7. School principals and cooperating teachers should give the students teachers access to the use of the school facilities for teaching.
8. The examiner (supervisor) should not just grade the student teachers but should visit regularly for guidance on effective teaching.
Implications of the study
          The problems encountered by students during teaching practice have some educational implications for the planners and students involved in it. The knowledge of this work will enable the student teachers to realize the importance of the programme and likely problems they might face during the period.  This knowledge makes it less difficult.
          Planners and organizers of teaching practice activity should as a matter of importance realize how to plan the stated periods for teaching practice programme for effectiveness. So that slated periods for teaching practice do not clash with normal lectures in the schools.
          Finally, the supervising lecturers will be made to realize the concerns of these student teachers.
Suggestions for further research
          These suggestions have been made for further investigation of the study.
1. An investigation into the relationship between cooperating teachers, supervisors and student teachers of the faculty of Education, Abia state University.
Conclusion
          Based on the findings of this research, the following conclusions were made;
1. From table A the result showed that 3 items were regarded as personal problems facing student teachers during teaching practice exercise among students. Among the problems include:
a. Lack of proper education on the exercise.
b. Inferiority complex.
          While the fourth (4) item is regarded as a strategy to improve the personal problem of the student teachers
2. Table B showed that 2 items were regarded as problems facing the practicing schools. The problems include:
a. Lack of cooperation between the permanent teachers with the student teachers. 
b. Lack of equipment for teaching.
          While the 3 and 4 items, were regarded as strategies that could be adopted to improve the teaching practice programme. The strategies include:
a. Equipment should be provided to schools.
b. School principals and teachers should always guide the student teachers.
3. Table C, showed that 2 items were also regarded as supervision problems encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programme/strategies.
          Also the two (2) remaining items 3 and 4 stress more on the strategies that could be adopted to improve the teaching practice programme.
4. Table D and E showed that there are 3 items each which are regarded as curriculum problems and student problems. While the remaining 2 items 4 and 5 each of Table D and E, explains the strategies that could be adopted to improve the teaching practice programme.
Problems Militating Against Effective Performance of Student Teachers on Teaching Practice Exercise – Research Method

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