Problems of Human Resources Management
Problems of Human Resources Management – Gluck (1979:20) defined human resources management as that function of all enterprises which provides for effective utilization of human resources to achieve both the objective of the enterprise and the satisfaction and development of employees. To order the Complete Project Material, Pay thr Sum of N3,000 to: BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122 Then send the Project Topic, Your Email Address and Full Name to 07033378184.
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Floppo (1986:10) defined it as the planning organization directing and controlling of that procurement development compensation integration and maintenance of people for the purpose of contributing to the organizational goals let us take a close look at these definitions. Personnel or human resources management is said to have two possible meaning. According to Udeze (200: 24) “it is used by some authors to refer to the function’s of managing people at work” every manager who works with people must be involved in personnel management.
The second meaning of the term personnel (human resources) management refers to the unit of the organization that coordinates personnel activities: this is specialized sections of the organization that handles staff matter’s Guick also did recognized that the essence human resources is to maintain these specific functions aimed at accomplishing the goals of an organization. Floppo on this side was more specific in this regard. He mentioned planning development maintenance compensation nod integration as those vital functions of human resources management.
Ubeku (1975:18) want into even more detail in discussion the functions of personnel or human resources management. According to him the traditional functions of human resources management are:
– Recruitment selection and placement
– Wages and salaries administration
– Training and development
– Motivation and
– Organizational development.
Gluck however did capture an important aspect of modern human resources management which Floppo omitted.
The later part of Gluck’s definition indicates that the objective of human resources management is just to enable workers achieve organizational objectives and their and satisfaction. A distinct feature of Floppo’s definition is that it embodies two different sets of functions the first set consist of planning organizing directing and controlling are what he appropriately termed the managerial functions of human resources management. While the later function includes procurement development compensation and integration.
THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
Tracing the origin of human resources management implies tracing the origin of management generally paying particular attention to the aspect of this origin that ahs to do with management attitude and treatment of their workers hick and gullet in discussing the development of management divided the period under discussion into four:
– The pre- scientific management and administration (1880-1888)
– The scientific management and administration management (18880-1930)
– The human relations period
– Refinement election and synthesis (1950-present )
However the period that are relevant for our purpose are the three period
THE PRE- SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT PERIOD
The period prior to 1880 can be called the management period is a period of great extremes. A period when there was sharp class distractions in the society. The period of the Lord and peasant emperor and the slaves the king and the footman the have -and the -have note. During this period workers were not even paid wages in the stick sense of allowances just enough to keep them alive. Worker were dominated by their supervisor mainly because their relationship then was based on social caste system the blunt exercise of power and authority sums up management and organizational though during this period. No effort was made to develop the field of management in general and human resources management in particular
THE SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT PERIOD.
This is the period between 1880-1980. during this period Fredrick Taylor’s revolutionary work on management scientific management was produced. His opinion was that by maximizing the efficiency of cash worker scientific management will also maximize the earnings of workers
Although actual achievement during this period were mainly on the area of productive technology. Fredrick Toylor showed remarkable concern for the workers. Another rule stone in the history of the development of personnel management during the scientific management period was the Hawthorne experiment associated with Elton Mayo and E.J Proethlisher and there colleagues. These men set out to determine the effect of working conditions on productivity. As aspect of the investigation on workers productivity.
HUMAN RELATIONS PERIOD
Mainly due to the outcome of the Hawthorne experiments this period emphasized human relations in organizations. It was during this period that industrialist generally came to the recognition of the fact that the worker is not an unfeeling unidentified human unit on an assemble line but a person of emotions and worth. That one is not necessary responsive only to economic incentives but is also a product of personal sentiments and emotional involvement.
PROBLEM OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Having traced the origin and the inception of government owned establishment it is now due to review some of their problems with reference to human resources management in the public sector.
According to Mbanefo and Ugwuegbu (1981:42) the management problems of the government owned parastatals could arise from a number of sources. The noted problems like manpower inefficiency lack of performance evaluation or appraisal and human relation problems the duties and responsibilities of a human resources manager vary according to individual but problems are generally identified their problems could arise from a number of sources.
1) PROBLEM OF PLANNING MANAGEMENT: Planning is one of the major management problem facing government owned establishments manpower planning is supposed to be function of human resources managers this means assisting in the development of manpower forecast and modern manpower. For long in Nigeria many states owned organizations have ended to operate as though there is total flexibility in the supply of labour. This has caused in no small measure the distorted programmes and under utilization of manpower in key positions.
Any enterprise that have an eye on breaking even cannot ignore the size of wages and salaries and other items in the balance sheet of the enterprises.
Ubeku says “one problem with these state enterprise in the ares of manpower planning is that at times the problems of availability of management skill is complicated by the fact that sometimes appointment position are unduly influenced by political consideration.
2) MANAGEMENT NOT BASED ON ESTABLISHED MERIT:
When one takes a closer look at people in various positions of management one would discovery to one’s utmost dismay that not every personnel manager is appointed based on established merit. The researcher has learnt this as a human resources manager since people assume management positions with due training in human resources management this tends to dwindle the rate of manpower management and development in some organizations
3) LACK OF TECHNOLOGICAL EXPERIENCE:
Some problem could arise from the appointment of persons without appropriate capabilities relevant to the boards they are to serve. This could also apply to the appointment of some of the enterprises managerial personnel. All these are pointing at defects in the application of the management principles in a nut shall Akpala (1990:253) observed that the public services do not give the public clear ideas defined authority and clear sense of direction in a way that makes for managing on a principles of way age and let manage the outcome is a framework of problems on which the public companies buid their management system.
4) REMUNERATION AND MOTIVATION IN STATE OWNED ESTABLISHMENTS: On the issue brown (1982:187) observed that the question of remuneration is associated with how to motivate employees to put in great effort and to gain a greater sense of satisfaction from their work. He continued by saying that we can only motivate employees to the extent we can identify what people are working for and how the achievement or frustration of these goals influences future willingness of employees to achieve a set goal.
Trying to discover what makes employees want to work or not takes us to the area of the psychological concept of motivation. from the psychological point of view brown (1982: 184) defined motivation as that which incites moves and direct an individual worker to perform in accordance with the goals and objectives of an organization psychologists over the years have developed some general management approaches for motivating employees to greater performance on their jobs. Reanimation and motivation therefore constitute problem because the need and aspirations the of the employees can never to attained to in the same way by management.
5) LACK OF EMPLOYEES TRANINING AND DEVELOPMENT: Employees training and development are at the heat employees utilization productivity commitment motivation and growth many organizations have been failed by their employees because their need for training has not bee identify and provided for as an indispensable part of management function.
Training is an organizational effort aimed at helping an employee acquire basic skill required for effective and efficient execution of the functions for which he was employees while development deals with the activities undertaken to expose an employee to perform addition duties and assume position of higher importance in the organizational hierarchy. Employee productivity is a function of ability will and situated factors. An organization may have employee of ability and determination with appropriate equipment and managerial support yet productivity falls below expected standard. The missing factors in many cases is the lack of adequate skill and knowledge which are acquired through training and development.
WAYS OF ALLEVIATING THESE PROBLEM
1. adoption of strategic planning Hayes (1976) described strategic planning as the rational analysis of the opportunities offered by environment and of the strengths and weaknesses of the firm in selection of a match between the two options to know which best the objectives of the firm. Ranchman and Messcon (1982) was of the view that strategic planning is a technique that involves figuring out how best to play corporate assets. In supporting this views Akpala (1990:50) posited that strategic planning aims at finding out how a company competes successfully within the environment strategic planning aims at:
i) Improving marking position
ii) Widening market position
iii) Widening the opportunities for capital base and
2. APPOINTMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGERS WITH TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE: Technological is a board concept referring to the application of available knowledge and skill to create and use materials process and products. As a body of knowledge skill or procedures for making utilizing or doing useful things those to be appointed into positions of human resources management should have the needed technological development to ensure veracity in approach of human resource issue the impact of technology is seen in new products new machines new tools new materials and new services. A few of the benefits from technology are greater productivity high standard more leisure times and a great variety of products.
3) SETTING STANDARD FOR MOTIVATION AND REMUNERATION: Human behaviour should be motivated since is it goal directed. Motivation is an internal psychological process which its process presence or absence is inferred from observed performance. Management should as matter of necessity adopt a workable standard for motivation workers through needs satisfaction. A satisfied need indicates a work to achieve his heart desire.
Human resource managers should a light any of the following approach in a view to setting standards for motivation an remuneration of employee:
a) Remuneration approaches: these approaches are based on economic theory that man is motivated by economic needs formerly they were beloved to be only effective means getting workers to perform job. But unfortunately these economic motivations such as healthcare transport allowance among other are lacking in the public sector.
b) The financial incentive approach: this state that “if you should increase the salaries of workers you should see than being motivated this includes regular payment of wages as and when due payment of living wages to worker among others. Irregular payment of salaries to workers can value that not to give their beat.
c) The earn as you produce approach (price rate)this approach require giving job analysis and job clement naira value. Monetary incentives are motivators to some workers
d) Human oriented approach: according to Mbanefo and Ugwuegbu (1981:110) these approaches based their appeal on practicality rather than altruism. Their contentions are as follows:
i) Happy workers are productive worker.
ii) Organization should be concerned about human well-being of their employees because it increases profitability.
iii) Good human relations make for happy workers.
iv) The behavioural approaches consider the worker psychological as well as serological needs.
4) Training and development of the employees: The success of any business is determined by the performance and effectiveness of the employees. Therefore employers should be concerned with the training and development of employees ones they on their payroll. Many outside programme are available to help to improve the skills and abilities of employee result in higher productivity better job performance moral and reduced staff tumors.
The governments of this country should as a matter of urgency encourage manpower programmes to assist in the change in quality of worker force. Manpower programme account for the rapid economic development that has taken place in the advanced countries of the world. This should be worthy of not in planning such programmes for Enugu state broadcasting service and other government owned establishments. The lower level of the education system should be re-oriented to give adequate emphasis to the acquisition of practical skill. There are over ten federal/state training schools in the country with emphasis on the acquisition of rudimentary skills necessary for successful careers in many organizations. They should all be well equipped to enable them carry out the function for which they are established.
Many other institutions set up by the government such as:
i) National manpower board (NMB) which is responsible for the periodic appraisal of requirement for manpower in areas of development measures in service training of employees.
ii) Administrative staff college of Nigeria (ASCON): This is an establishment that provides diverse training facilities for senior managers in the administration of economic
iii) Nigeria institute of management (NIN) and center for management development (C.M.D): These were established for manpower development to promote and encourage the acquisition of skills in industry and commerce with a view to generating a pad of indigenously trained manpower sufficient to meet the need of the economy.
In conclusion the above remedies if strictly adhered to will surely reduce the rate of human resource management problems in the government owned establishment. The outcome will be greater output effective and efficient utilization of human resource management organization .
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This article was extracted from a Project Research Work Topic “PROBLEMS OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN ENUGU STATE GOVERNMENT PAPA STATES
(A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU STATE BROADCASTING SERVICE (ESBS) ENUGU)”
Problems of Human Resources Management
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