Policy Making as a Tool for Efficient Management System

Policy Making as a Tool for Efficient Management System

Policy Making – The modern management approach to the issue of policy making management and implementation and based on the philosophies and approaches of certain authors and scholars like Thompson and Strickland, Azhar Kazmi etc. However, in the subsequent part of this chapter, the researcher will deal on the theme of this research work “policy making and implementation as a tool for efficient management system to achieve the objective of and organization.

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Furthermore, while trying to review the works of these scholars, and authors as well as the views and opinion on the subject matter, attempt will be made to critically examine the concept and principle of policy making and implementation.

 CONCEPT OF ORGANISAITON

As defined by Chritensen and Others (1982) policy is the study of the functions and responsibilities of senior management, the crucial problems that effect success in the total organization and the decision that determine the direction of the organization and shape its future.

Policymaking and implementation in the view of Image (1996) is one of the best-known models of rational planning process, which has been most widely applied by management to achieve the objective of an organization.

This planning process in the view Argenti (1980) has some inherent problem: namely:-

  1. The dynamic nature of the environment makes the plan to be redundant unless it is changed.
  2. Information is never available in the quantity and quality required to undertake a comprehensive analysis of the internal external environment.
  3. Line managers or operational managers often display resistance to decision in which they are involved.

Other problems noted by Peters and Waterman (1982) include:

  1. That problems of policy making and implementation normally crop up at the implementation stage.
  2. That implementation of changes proposed in the plan normally takes longer time than expected.
  3. That crisis within the organization normally turns attention away from implementing the policy.
  4. That problem often arise in the introduction of policy making and implementation process.

Despite these numerous problem inherent in policy making and implementation, in view of Chris Madu (1999) when an organization ceases to adjust the environment to its policy, does not react to the demands of the environment by its policy, the result are less achievement of corporate objective.

However, despite the short fallings of policy making and implementation as noted above, it is the opinion of the researcher that policy making and implementation is still very important tool for an efficient management system to achieve the objective of the organization.

 DEFINITION OF POLICY

Policy, in the view of: Christenson Andrew and Bower (1973) is defined ad the duties, functions, roles and responsibilities of the general management levels of the organization.

Ovurie (1986) defined it as guide for making administrative decisions.

Chris Madu (1999) defined policy as action or statement of ideas, proposed or adopted by an enterprise.

Akpala (1993) defined as a predetermined guide established to provide direction in decision making.  It is a verbal, written or implied guide, setting out how and boundaries or the general limits in which managerial action will take place.

From the above definition, the researcher can define policy as a grand plan of action for directing and controlling all the resources of an organization to achieve the objective of the organization.

TYPES OF POLICY

Policy, in the view of Chris Madu can be classified into basic, major and minor policies.

BASIC POLICY

The basic policy in his view is the statement of mission of an organization guiding and directing the organization to move along the line for which it was established to do.  He further regard it as broad and fundamental in nature, made to achieve corporate objectives.

MAJOR POLICY

The major policy, he sees and regarded as “Modus Operaudi” which is made to control and direct all the activities and resources in the functional areas of an organization towards achieving the objectives of the organization.

MINOR POLICY

The minor policy he regarded as a basic and sees as a policy made to control and direct all the activities and resources at the departmental or sectional areas of an organization towards achieving the objectives of the organization.  In view of Imaga (1998); policy can be classified into: corporate, functional and operational policies.  However, in the view of thee researcher , policy can be grouped into strategic, tactical and programmed policies.

POLICY MAKING AND IMPLEMENTATION

Policy making and implementation, according to Glueck (1979): is defined as the process leading to the development and implementation of an effective policy to achieve an objective.  This process according to him involves.

  1. Defining the mission and objectives of the organization:          This step becomes necessary in order to make the mission and objective of an organization to be clear to all and sundry within the outside the organization.  Also, the step help in the development of an effective policy that will had to the achievement of the objective of an organization.
  2. Appraising and analyzing the environment:          This step according to Glueck (1976); involve searching the environment to determine what factors in the environment present threads to the organization present policy and objective accomplishment and factors that present opportunities for greater accomplishment of objectives by adjusting the organization’s policy.

In the view of Chris Madu (1999); when an organization ceases to adjust its policy to the environment or does not react to the demands of the environment by changing its policy, the result are less achievement of corporate objective.

Therefore, for an effective policy to be made for the achievement of organizational objective, the organization has to be examined and understood.

iii.      Choosing an effective policy: This step according to Glueck (1979); involve generating a reasonable number of alternative policies that will help fill the gap or take advantage of opportunities and match the environmental threats and then make the best policy choice that will exploit the opportunities and match the threats in the environment.

However, the ultimate measure adopted in choosing a policy is whether the policy will meet the criteria of the management and achieve the objective of the organization.

iv.      Implementing the policy:       Before this step in taken, according to Gluck (1976) the management of the organization should ensure that the policy is communicated and to both the organization and it people; that the resources of the organization are allocated efficiently to reinforce the policy and that other policies and decisions of the organization are made consistent with the policy.

These measures according to him have to be take by the management before policy is implemented, the management of the organization should restructure the organization to adjust to the policy, develop policies to reinforce the policy, recruit and select personnel that will willingly implement the policy to achieve the objective of the organization.

Therefore, policy implementation is a vital step toward the achievement of the objective of an organization.

v.       Evaluating the policy:  This step according to Gluck (1976); involve the management of an organization determining whether the policy implementation is meeting the objectives of the organization.

In the view Chris Madu (2000); he likened the steps to a physician who continually monitor his patient in order to determine the propriety of diagnosis and the efficacy of this prescription lest his patient dies, in the same way, he continued, a policy maker must continually evaluate the implementation and result of his policy lest his organization dies.

Another requirement for evaluation is information in usable form to evaluate the strategy.  This in turns require an effective management information, system and honest complete reporting result of the strategy.  Therefore, one can see that evaluation is like a feed back mechanism into the system of policy making and implementation.  The process is not unidirectional – it is continuous process.  An evaluation if not performed, can be a missing link in the policy making and implementation process.  This is because, as Gluck (1980) has observed, “from which systematically evaluate the result of the strategic choice and implementation are more effective than those which do not?

AREAS OF IMPLEMENTATION

In general, policies are developed in the following functional areas;

  1. Operations
  2. Finance and accounting
  3. Personnel
  4. Research and development

From what we have so far, unraveled on the subject matter, we can see that an efficient management system can achieve its set objective though effective policy formulation and implementation.  An effective policy serve many purposes including the following:-

  1. It economize the time of managers, since policies direct future actions, managers do not to engaged in daily guiding of subordinates.
  2. It circumscribes the freedom and authority of subordinates.
  3.   It helps in the training of future managers by showing how things should be done.
  4. It serves in directing and guiding future actions.
  5. It coordinates the activities of various functional areas so that members of the organization work with one another rather than at cross-purpose.

In summary, policies are general statement or understanding that guides managers thinking in decision making.  In modern business management and eventual success there is nothing like luck.  What people refers to as luck is the logic of what happens when opportunities meets with preparedness.  In other word, policies are broad guidelines that help the managers translate strategies into action.  They ensure that decisions fall within boundaries.  They must be based on thorough analysis of organizational objectives and separate policies should cover each of the important areas of business organizations.

—This article is not complete———–This article is not complete————
This article was extracted from a Project Research Work/Material Topic

“POLICY MAKING AND IMPLEMENTATION A TOOL FOR AN EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM TO ACHIEVE THE OBJECTIVE OF AN ORGANIZATION

(A CASE STUDY OF MICHAEL OPARA FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE UMUDIKE ABIA STATE)”

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 Policy Making as a Tool for Efficient Management System

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