Parental Influence on Career Choice of Secondary School Students – Research Methodology

Parental Influence on Career Choice of Secondary School Students – Research Methodology

       These chapters have been discussed under the following headings
Design of the study
       This study is a descriptive survey of parental influence on career choice of secondary school students in Ezza North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

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Area of the Study
       The areas covered are the six communities that made up of Ezza North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The communities include: Okposi, Oriuzor, Oshiegbe, Okaleru, Umuezeokoha and Umuoghara, all the communities listed above were cover in this study
Population of the study
       The population of the study consist of all the parents in the six communities that made up Ezza North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Ezza North is a Local Government with about two thousand eight hundred and three (2,803) parents. The source is from the comptroller of National population commission in Ezza North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Mrs. Eche, in 2006 population and housing census.
Sample and sampling Techniques
       Two hundred and eight five (285) parents out of two thousand eight hundred and three (2,803) parents in Ezza North Local Government Area were randomly selected for the study. The population of parents in each of the communities are as followes:
1)         Umoughara:- Six hundred and ten (610) parents.
2)         Umuezeokoha:- Five hundred and eighty one (581) parents.
3)         Oriuzor:- Four hundred and eighty two (482) parents.
4)         Okposi:- Five hundred and twenty (520) parents.
5)         Oshiegbe:- Three hundred and twenty two (322) parents.
6)         Okaleru:- Two hundred and eighty eight (288) parents.
      However, the total population of parents in the six communities listed above are two thousand eight hundred and three (2,803) parents.
             In addition, fourty seven (47) parents from each of the six communities were chosen through random sampling to participate in the study except umuoghara where (50) parents were chosen.
Instrument for data collection
       A structured questionnaire was distributed to the parents of both sexes. Questions on parents’ professional and educational background were asked, questions on influence of socio-economic background of parents to students choice of career, questions on parents occupational preference, questions on parents cultural background and one other question that will help to elicit appropriate answer and solution to parental influence on career choice of secondary school students.
Validity of the Instrument     
       The questionnaire was structured by the researcher and sent to the supervisor of the work and some experts in Educational Administration and measurement and Evaluation who made the necessary corrections before it was approved for use.
Method of Data Collection
       The questionnaires were personally administered by the researcher. The researcher distributed about two hundred and eighty five (285) questionnaires with the help of some friends. The distribution was done in the six communities that made up the Local Government Area (Ezza North) which includes: Okposi Oriuzor, Okaleru, Oshiegbe, Umuezeokoha, and Umuoghara. The distribution was not completed the same day; it took days for the completion. Almost all the questionnaire distributed by the researcher was retrieved immediately, while others were given to the researchers friends to distribute to the parents in their respective communities. The questionnaires from the respondents were later collected on the appointed dates.
Data Analysis
       The information relating to the research question were collated and presented in chapter four for analysis and interpretation. The method used in presenting the data the data are tables, that is data presented in tables as shown in chapter four.
       However, the score for each respondent was obtained by using the modified likert type scale with assigned values as follows:
Strongly Agree –    SA   4
Agree  –                A     3
Disagree –            D      2
Strongly Disagree – SD   1
The data were presented and analyzed in statistically to be accepted, retain or reject the research questions.
In addition, the decision rule of this study is done in the way that any value above 50% or the mean score of 2.5 is agreed, while any value that is less than 50% or the mean score of 2.5 is disagreed.
Furthermore, the researcher used the values assigned to the modified like type scale in dividing the responded questionnaire to get the specific percentage of the number of parents that responded.

Data Presentation and Analysis

       In this chapter, the collected data for the study are presented, analysed and interpreted with reference to the research questions.
       Analysis in respect to the research questions are shown bellow:

Research Question 1

       To what extent does parent’s educational background influence students choice of career?

Table I

       Frequencies and percentage of parental educational background.

 

S/N
ITEMS
SA
A
D
SD
Total %
Total Score
Mean
x
Decision
1
Parents educational background affect students choice of career
160
40%
60
20%
50
25%
15
15%
100%
285
2.85
Accept
2
Parents educational background doesn’t affect students choice of career.
20
5%
45
15%
160
80%
0
0%
100%
225
2.25
Reject
3
Parents encourage their wards to make their choice of career irrespective of their educational background
24
6%
12
4%
160
80%
10
10%
100%
206
2.06
Reject
From table 1, item 1, 60% of the total respondents agreed that parents professional and educational background affect students choice of career, while 40% of the respondents disagree. So the findings proved that parents professional and educational background affect students choice of career with 60% which is above 50% or 2.5.
       In the second item, 20% of the respondents agreed, while 80% of the respondents disagreed that parents professional and educational background doesn’t affect students choice of career. So the above result proved that it affects students choice of career.
       In the third item, 10% of the respondents agreed, while 90% disagreed that parents encourage their words to make their choice of career.

Research Question II

       How does parents’ socio-economic status influence the choice of subject or indeed causes of study of the students?

Table II

       Frequencies and percentage of parent’s socio-economic status influence on student’s choice of career?

 

S/N
ITEMS
SA
A
D
SD
Total %
Total Score
Mean
x
Decision
4
Parents encourage their wards o choose occupation base on their socio-economic status.
84
21%
135
45%
44
22%
12
12%
100%
275
2.75
Accept
5
Parent’s socio-economic status does not influence occupational choice of their wards.
24
6%
12
4
160
80%
10
10%
100%
206
2.06
Reject
6
Parents encourage their children to make their choice of career irrespective of their socio-economic status
20
5%
45
15%
160
80%
0
0%
100%
225
2.25
Reject
From table II, item 4, 66% of the total respondents agreed, while 34% of the respondents disagreed that parents encourage their wards to choose occupation base on their socio-economic status. So the findings proved that parents encourage their wards to choose occupation base on their socio-economic status.
       In the fifth item, 10% of the total respondents agreed, while 90% of the respondent disagreed. So, the above result proved that its influence occupational choice of their wands.
       In the sixth item, 20% of the respondents agreed, while 80% disagreed that parents encourage their children to make their choice of career irrespective of their socio-economic status. So the findings proved that parents does not encourage their children to make their choice of career.
Research Question III
       To what extent does parent’s occupational preference affect student’s choice of career?
Table III
Frequencies and percentage of parents occupational influence on students choice of career

 

S/N
ITEMS
SA
A
D
SD
Total %
Total Score
Mean
x
Decision
7
Parents occupational preference affect occupational choice of their children
64
16%
150
50%
36
18%
16
16%
100%
266
2.66
Accept
8
Parents choose occupation for their wads because of their position in the society.
80
20%
117
39%
40
20%
21
21%
100%
258
2.58
Accept
9
Parents encourage their children to make their choice of career by themselves irrespective of their occupational background
48
12%
24
8%
144
72%
8
8%
100%
224
2.24
Reject
From table III, item 7, 66% of the total respondents agree, while 34% of the respondents disagreed that parents’ occupational preference affect occupational choice of their children. So the findings proved that parents occupational preference affect occupational choice of their children.
       In the 8th item, 59% of the respondents agreed while 41% disagreed that parents choose occupation for their wards because of their position in the society. So the result proved that it affects students’ choice of career with 59% which is above 50%.
       In the 9th item, 20% of the respondents agree that parents encourage their children to make their choice of career by themselves irrespective of their occupational background, while 80% disagreed. So the findings proved that parents does not encourage their children to make their choice of career by themselves irrespective of their occupational background with 80%, which is above 50%.
Research Question IV
       To what extent does parent’s cultural background influence students choice of career?
Table IV
       Frequencies and percentage of parent’s cultural influences on career choice of students

 

S/N
ITEMS
SA
A
D
SD
Total %
Total Score
Mean
x
Decision
10
Parents encourage their wards to choose occupation base on their cultural background.
24
6%
12
4%
160
80%
10
10%
100%
206
2.06
Reject
11
Parents encourage their wards to make their choice of occupation irrespective of their culture
160
40%
60
20%
50
25%
15
15%
100%
285
2.85
Accept
12
Parents encourage their wards to choose occupation according to their intellectual ability
48
12%
24
8%
144
72%
8
8%
100%
224
2.24
Reject
From table IV, item 10, 10% of the respondents agreed that parents encourage their wards to choose occupation base on their cultural background, while 90% disagreed. So the findings proved that parent’s cultural background does not encourage their wards to choose their occupational choice with 90%, which is above 50%.
       In the 11th item, 60% of the respondents agreed that parents encourage their wards to make their choice of occupation irrespective of their culture, while 40% disagree. So the findings proved that parents encourage their wards to make their choice of occupation irrespective of their culture with 60%, which is above 50%.
       In item 12, 20% of the respondents agreed that parents encourage their wards to choose occupation according to their intellectual abilities, while 80% disagreed. So the above result above result proved that parents does not encourage their wards to choose occupation according to their own intellectual abilities with 80%, which is above 50%.

 

Summary of Findings
(1)      From the research conducted so far, the researcher found out that parents professional and educational background affect students’ choice of career to a large extent
(2)      In the research question two, the result proves that socio-economic status of parents affect career choice of their children.
(3)      In table three, the result proves that parents occupation affect students choice of career to a large extent.
(4)      In table four, the result proves that parents encourage their children to choose occupation of their choice irrespective of their culture.
CHAPTER FIVE
Discussion of findings, summary, recommendations limitations, suggestions and conclusion
       The discussion on the findings of this study are summarized and concluded in this chapter.
       Recommendations on the solution to the problem of parental influence on career choice of secondary school students in Ezza North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
Discussion of results
       From table one, research question one shows that out of the 285 respondents, representing 100%, 220 respondents which represent 60%, of the sample agreed that parents professional and educational background affect students choice of career to a great extent, while only insignificant number representing 40% of the population disagreed with the item. Therefore, greater percentage of the respondents overwhelmingly disagreed that parent’s professional and educational background affect students choice of career.
       The data from item two, table one reveals that 160 respondent representing 80% of the population disagreed that item two in the table one is a bane to hitch students choice of career. While 20% of the population agreed that parent’s professional and educational background doesn’t affect students choice of career.
       From the data collected in item three of research question one, 170 of the total population representing 9% showed negative attitude that parents encourage their words to make their choice of career irrespective of their educational and professional background, which 10% of the population have positive attitude.
       The summary of the data collected from the research question one showed that overwhelming majority of the population support that the above items are the factors responsible for parents influence on students choice of career.
       In table two, research question two, item four, the data collected shows that respondents representing 66% agreed that parents encourage their wards to choose occupation based on their socio-economic status, while 34% disagreed.
       Results from item five table two depicts that 170 respondents representing 90% of the population disagreed that parents socio-economic status does not influence occupational choice of their words, while 36 respondents representing 10% of the population agreed with the idea that parents socio-economic status does not influence occupational choice of their wards.
       The Date collected from item six, research question two reviewed that 160 respondents, representing 80% of the parents that responded disagreed that parents encourage their children to make their choice of career irrespective of their socio-economic status, while 65 respondents representing 20% of the population agreed with the idea. From the above data it shows that majority of the respondents agreed that the items in the table two, research question two affects students choice of career.
       In table three. Research question three, item seven, the data collected revealed that 214 respondents, representing 66% agreed that parents occupational preference affect occupational choice of their children, while 52 respondents, representing 34% of the population of the parents disagreed with the idea.
       The information collected from item eight, research question three revealed that 97 respondents, representing 59% agreed that parents choose occupation for their wards because of their position in the society, while 61 respondents, representing 41% of the total respondents disagreed.
       The data collected from item nine, research question three shows that 152 respondents, representing 80% of the total respondents disagreed that parents encourage their children to make their choice of career irrespective of their occupational background, while 72 respondents, representing 20% of the total respondents agreed with the idea. The data collected from the above research question three shows that majority of the responded parents support that parents occupational preference affect students choice of career.
       The data collected from table four, item 10, research question four, revealed that 170 responds representing 90% of the population disagreed that parents encourage their wards to choose occupation based on their cultural background. In item eleven, research question four showed that 220 respondents, representing 60% of the population agreed that parents encourage their wards to make their choice of occupation irrespective of their culture, while 65 respondents, representing 40% of the total population that responded disagreed with the questionnaire that culture influence students choice of career.
       From the data collected from item twelve research question four, which revealed that 152 respondents, representing 80% of the total parents that responded disagreed that parents encourage their wards to choose occupation according to their intellectual abilities, while 72 respondents, representing 20% agreed with the idea. Therefore, the results of the above tables, shows that majority of the total respondents supported that the items in the above tables militates against effective control of students choice of career.
Summary of the study
       The study was prompted by the present problems of change of subjects and course among students and undergraduates in the Nigeria secondary schools and universities respectively. The researcher realizing the repercussions of this problem decided to investigate the influence of parents on the students of the six communities in Ezza North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State which includes: Okposi, Oriuzar, Oshiegbe, Okaleru, Umuoghara and Umuezeokoha.
       The aim of the investigation is to find out if there exists some significant relationship between parent occupation or Education on students choice of career choice. It is also the intension of the researcher to identify some of the parental factors that influence students educational aspiration, such as: Educational and professional background, Economic factor, occupational and cultural factors.
       To accomplish the task, questionnaires were distributed and data collected from the total number of 285 parents in the six communities were used for the study. Information concerning students career choice and parents occupation and educational background, Economic status and cultural background were derived from the questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using percentages.
Recommendations for the study
       With respect to the specific findings which this project has dwelled on, the following recommendations are made:-
1.          Parents should not allow their professional and educational background to overwhelm their children intellectual abilities in making choice of career.
2.          Parents should not encourage their children to choose high rated occupation because of their Economic Status but should engage more in guiding them to choose courses that suet their intellectual abilities.
3.          Intelligent children from poor socio-economic background should be encouraged to take professional courses through scholarship, which will help them, enhance to a brighter future.
4.          Teachers should also be allowed to identify the best course for each child through continuous assessment.
Limitation of the study
       This research work has been greatly hindered by the following factors.
a.          Finance. The researcher encountered problem on finance. This was as a result of economic constraint in the Nation. So, there were not enough fund to conduct this research which demanded enemeous study by its Nature.
b.          Co-operation: Some of the respondents had to be seriously urged before they agreed to co-operate with the questions asked in the questionnaire.
c.           Time: The time given for this study was very short compared with the work to be done.
d.          Material resources: Some information and materials used for this study posed a little difficulty but with the assistance of prof. B.G. Nwaogu and some friends who provided some valuable materials for this work, and also the effort of the researcher who spent time to locate materials where necessary.
Suggestion for Further Research
       The researcher has obvious constraints of limitation of scope and availability of resources to carry out further studies on related issues bordering the influence of parents on career choice of secondary school students.
       The researcher recommended that this study should be carried out in Ikwo local government areas to find out if the study will be same.
       Further studies can also be carried out in the state level of primary education to find out whether the disagreement emanated more from above (high level). This will help to bring final solution to the parental influence on career choice of secondary school students not in Ezza North alone but through out the federation.
Conclusion
       From the research conducted, it was discovered that there were many areas of influence of parents on career choice of secondary school students in Ezza North local government area. One of these areas is that most of the wealthy parents always insist that their children must be enrolled in the high rated careers such as: Medicine, Law, Engineering etc without knowing if the Childs intellectual abilities are in congruent with such career.
       The researchers questionnaire reveals that educated parents prefers choosing career for their children, while children from uneducated parents a times go astray in making their choice of career because there is no one to guide or advice such child.
       The researcher’s questionnaire also reviewed that most parents wants their children to take after their profession and educated parents prefers making choice of career for their children.
       Finally, it revealed that some parents insist on a particular occupation for their children, even when the child will excel better in other profession, their parents will force them to take a particular occupation with reasons best   known to them.

—————-not complete———–not complete————–

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Parental Influence on Career Choice of Secondary School Students – Research Methodology

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