Motivation as a Means of Staff Performance

Motivation as a Means of Staff Performance

The importance of management in organization with respect to motivating subordinates to perform extra-ordinary cannot be oven emphasized.  Perhaps, this informed the reason why Nwachukwu (1988) argued that motivation is a issue of continuing interest particularly in Nigeria.
Cole (1997:75) in his survey of motivation theories and research has pointed out that there are as man y different definition and concepts of motivation as there persons who have attempted to define the concept.

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For him, “motivation is a process in which people between alternative forms of behaviour in order to achieve personal goals.
Stephen (1996:212) defined motivation “as the willingness to extent high level of effort towards organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need”.

John Adain (1990:1) motivation covdens “all underline the why in which person” for Flippo (1984:392) motivation “is a skill in aligning employee and organizational interests so that behaviour result in achievement of employee wants simultaneously with attainment of organizational objectives.

Kneitner (1983:105) motivation “is a psychological process that gives behaviour purpose and direction.
Inegbenbon and Agbududu (1995:141) picture motivation as “consisting of chain reaction, beginning with unsatisfied need, resulting in wants (goals), which give rise to tension and this in turn leads to action directed at satisfying the need”.

Iboeli Geofrey (1990:137) looked at motivation as a general term that refers to “all those inner process sue as desires, drives or motives, wishes and so forth which kindle direct and system behaviour toward a goals.

Weihnich and Koontz (1994: 464-465) motivation refer to ‘the drive and effort to satisfy a want or goals” in other words, motivation are things that induce an individual’s to perform.  That is the influence an individual behaviour.
In the words of Richard and Fred (1997:332) motivation is a ‘psychological process through which unsatisfied wants or needs lead to drives that are aimed at goals or incentives”.
According to Robert Apple by (1981:124) motivation refers to “the way urges, aspiration, drives and needs of human beings direct on control on explain their behaviour”, “it may simply be described as a keenness for a particular pattern of behaviour”. Cole (1997:75) further described motivation “as the behaviour caused by stimulus but directed towards a desired out come”.
Profession Nwachukwu (1988:181) defined motivation from his point of view “as that energizing power that induces on compels and maintain behaviour.

Stone et al (1996:442) defined motivation as a “human psychological characteristics that contributes to a pension’s degree of commitment.  It includes the factors that cause, channel, and sustain human behaviour in a particular committed direction”.  Motivating is the management process of influencing people’s behaviour based on this knowledge of what makes people tick”.

Thus, motivation and motivating bolt dual with the range of conscious human behaviour somewhere between extremes.  Human behaviour ultimately aims at satisfying some needs.  The need becomes to motive power for the action or behaviour.  In other words, need satisfaction is the source of motivation.  The need moves or drives a person to some behaviour towards its realization.  The need may be consciously, subconsciously of unconsciously felt by the person.  It may also be culturally determined; and very from pension to person and temporally.  Maluku (1998:12).

There is the need for managers to acquaint themselves with these variables which can motivates employees for effectives performance.
What are these variables which managerial leadership can motivate employees from effective performance?  What motivates employees is of enormous complexity.  Complex in the sense that there are obvious distinctions among people in their general habits, apparent difference in their emotional response, mode of though and desire.  As it is, what satisfies one person so as to be motivated may not be applicable to another.
Yet, authorities in managerial psychology and human resources management are of the view that management in any group on organizational setting must be able to make clean of what is expected and discuss it with subordinate, cultivates personal relationships, do every thing to support them by showing keenness and skill in their desires.
The discovery of an employee needs is fundamental to the effort of a manager to influence his performance over and above his mechanical compliance with a company’s policies and directives.  Once his needs have been discovered, they should be integrated on reconciled with the company objectives.
What are human needs?  A number of theories have been developed to explain them.


McClelland as in Boone and Kurtz (1984:313-314) identifies three needs.
a.    Need for Achievement:-    The desires to  accomplish some goals on task more effectively that has been the case in the past.
b.    Needs for Affiliated:-    The desire to have close amendable relations with other people.
c.    Needs for power:-    The desire to be influential and to have impact on a group.

McClelland and asked to write narrative comments about a series of want related pictures.  These stories are then analysed and second according to the person’s relative concern for achievement, affiliating, and power.  A comparison to nation wide norms is also point of the process.  He also studies the degree of self-continual on inhibition that the individuals exhibit in their stories.

Much of his early work suggested that the need for achievement was important to business people, scientist and professional persons.  A latter report restricted to manager clouded that the need for power was most important to management McClelland identifies three types of managers:-
i.    Personal power managers (power greater than affiliation law inhibition)
ii.    Afflictive management (affiliation greater than power, high inhibition)
iii.    Institutional manager (power greater than affiliation high inhibition).

He concluded that the institutional managers, who were high in the need for power and self-continual, but low in the need for affiliation, were typically the mast successful leaders.
McClelland believes that the workshop technique can accurately assess people’s achievement, affiliation, and power motivations.  More importantly, he believes that people can be taught to adopt more appropriate approach to their job.

Douglas McGregor in Stephen (1996:214) proposed two distinct views of human beings: one basically negative, labeled theory, x, and the other labeled y.  After viewing the way in which managers dealt with employees, he concluded that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and that he or she tends to hold his on her behaviors toward subordinates according to these assumptions.

According to theory X, the four assumption held by managers are as follows:
1.    Employees inherently dislike would and whenever possible will attempt to avoid it.
2.    Since employees dislike work they must be concerned, controlled, of threatened with punishment to achieve goals.
3.    Employees will avoid responsibilities and seeks formed direction whenever possible must workers place security above all often factors associated with work and with display little ambition.

In contrast to these negative views about the nature of human beings, McGregor listed for positive assumptions, which he called theory Y:-
1.    Employees can view work as being as nature as rest on play.
2.    People will exercise self-direction and self-continual if they are committed to the objective.
3.    The average person can learn to accept, even seek responsibility.
4.    The ability to make innovative decision is widely dispensed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sale province of those in management positions.

What are the motivational implications to accept McGregor analysis?  The answer is best expressed in the prom work presented by maslow.  Theory X asscomes that lower under need dominate individuals McGregor himself hold to the belief that theory Y assumptions were move valid than theory Y assumptions were move valid than theory X.  Therefore, he proposed such ideals as a participative decision, making, responsible and challenging jobs, and good group relations as approaches that would maximize an employee’s job motivation.

Professor Herzbergs in Nwachukwu (1988:188) in his two-factor the theories have often been called motivation “maintenance theory, on “dual factor theory”.
According to Herzberge, achievement, recommendation, responsibility, advancement, and work itself, the labeled motivations.  These are factors that will induce on individual to put for the adequate effort in the accomplishment of organization goals.
On the other hand, factions such as relationship with supervisions, working conditions, relationship with peers, personal life, and compensation (money) are labeled hygiene factors of dissatisfy.
Herzberge et al, observed that an improvement in the hygiene factors, (company policies and administration, supervision, working condition, interpersonal, relations, personal life, money, stations and security would serve to remove the impediments to positive work attitudes.  When these factors deteriorate to level below that which the employee considers, acceptable, then the job dissatisfaction ensures.  However, the reverse does not hold true.  When the job context can be characterized as optimal, we will not got much in the way of positive attitudes.
He did not advocate the elimination of the hygiene factors; instead he feels that they are “louse keeping chones” that must be done.  If they are absent, motivations will not work as employees will complain and find unnecessary faults.
To encourage motivation, it is advocated that employers must encourage, it is advocated that employer must encourage job enrichment.  The involves making job meaningful to the jobholder so as to enable him derives satisfaction from work.  Good job design help the employee to derive recognition, a sense of achievement, growth, and responsibility.

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Evidence from different empirical studies point to the fact that there is no single motivation for everyone.  It is equally true that no single force motivates an individual every time.  Needs differ and the importance attached to needs by different people also differ.
Scott Myers raised three important questions about motivation.  These three questions and the answer are as follows:

i.    What motivate employees to work effectively?  A challenging job which allows a feelings of achievement, responsibility, growth, advancement, enjoyment of work itself and earned recognition.
ii.    What dissatisfies workers?  Mostly factors peripheral to the job-work rules, lighting, coffee break, titles, seniority rights, wages, fringe benefits, and the like.
iii.    When do workers become dissatisfied?  When opportunities for meaningful achievement are eliminated and they becomes sensitized to their environment and begin to find fault with the environment and management of the organization to which they belong.

This study corresponds to Heinzberg’s study.  The answer to the first question corresponds to his first question correspondent and with Herizberg’s motivation while the answer to his second questions corresponds to his dissatisfied.  Although Herizberg’s theory is widely disused, it has been seriously contested for example, Herizberg listed money as a dissatisfaction, evidence point to the fact that money can be either a motivator or a dissatisfied, evidence point to the fact that money can be either a motivator or a dissatisfied depending on the individual’s pressing needs.  A man with a large family could be motivated by financial need to accept a job and work hand for it.  As long as the need persists, it will continue to be motivator of behaviour.  If the individual works hand but does not receive what he considers as adequate remuneration for the effort expending, he could be dissatisfied.  it is evident that management can motivate people by designing jobs so as satisfy motivational needs.  It is clean that any job that robs people of their needs for achievement, recognition, acceptance and self-fulfillment will tend to dissatisfy.  Money for example is not an end itself.  People need money to achieve independence, recognition from the society, status on privileges bestowed on people by society because of their wealth.  When a person special need for those, he works hand to earn more money for the attendant blessing not for the money itself.

Abraham Maslow perceived human needs arranged in a hierarchical order starting from physiological to self actualization needs:-
a.    Physiological needs:    These are needs that sustain human life such as air (oxygen) food, clothing, shelter, sleep and sex.
b.    Safety (security) needs:-    These are related to self-preservation and freedom from threat to self and property, job and means of livelihood.
c.    Affiliation (acceptance) needs:-        These are needs for love belongingness, the need to love and be loved.  We know that is not always true especially for creative people (Stonn, 1988:129)
d.    Esteem (Egoistic) needs:-    They are the needs for respect and especially to be respected into acquire status, titles, power, self confidence and be well spoken of.
e.    Self-actualization needs:-    These are the needs of maximizing or realizing one’s potentials autistic, intellectual, spiritual goals, to answer one’s calling, doing what a person seems destined to do in life.

Adapted from John Adam’s (1990) arranged in a proponent (pre-eminent) on preponderant order with the physiological needs being the lowest.  After the satisfaction of the physiological needs awareness for the next higher order (level) of needs is felt and so on.
To be beneficial, perceptive managers must determine the personality of the employee and make individuality application of Maslow theory.

Clayton Addenfer in Cole (1997:76) follows up Maslow’s idea with some studies, which led him to propose his so called ERG theory of motivation.  He argues that there are three groups of cone needs – existence, relatedness, and growth hence the label ERG theory.  The existence group is concerned with providing our back material existence readjustments.  It includes the items that maslows considered physiological and safety needs.  The second groups of needs are those of relatedness – the desire we have for maintaining, important interpersonal relationship.
These social and status desire requirement interaction with other if they maslow’s social needs and the external component of Maslow’s Esteem classification.  Finally Aldenfer Kolate growth needs.  An intrinsic desire for personal development.  These include the intrinsic components from maslow’s esteem category and the characteristics includes self actualization.

This theory state that an employee will behave in a ways that will lead to the attainment of valued, desired goals, which he believes, is attainable.  Need create a tension which an employee tries to reduce by a goal oriented behaviour, an employee in this circumstance assume three major things namely:-
1.    Goal availability:    The employee believes that his goal can be attained through the instrumentality of the organization.
2.    Goal value:    The reward offered by the enterprise is one of the employee desire of values.
3.    Perceived Effort:-    Reward portability
It is believed that equity will prevails in the organization.  It is hoped that the organization will consistently reward the behaviour it values.  As pointed out, it is left for management to achieve of create needs – real an imaginarily to induce the tension.  A manager that identified values and reward effort will motivate employee.

Victor vroom was dissatisfied with both Maslow and Hertzberg’s motivation theories and advanced the valence expectancy theory for better understanding of human motivation.  He asserted that motivation originate from a person anticipated goal and the degree of probability (valence) that the goal (expectancy) will be achieved.  Thus even for same person, the strength of the motivation will be determined by how strongly be expect the achievement of the goals and the degree of probability achieve it.
Force (of motivation) = valence x expectancy.  Force is a measure or zeal.  It can bother on fanatism especially in religion and accompanied by indoctrination.  The bravery of the Japanese soldiers during the would wun was induced by the strong feeling of in invulnerability procured by Hmohids and the expectation that the Kamikaze (divine wind of the sum good) will blow away the every worship.
Valence is borrowed from atomic physics instead of using weight to convey the sense that they are dynamic in the mind of the person.  If the valence is zero (0), the fence (motivation) becomes zero 0 XE = 0.  And so will it be if expectancy is zero (indifference).
F    =    0XE    =    VX0    =    0
As can be seen from this model, a valence of zero occurs when an individual in indifferent about achieving a certain goal, and there is a negative valence when the person would be, rather not achieve the goal.  The result would be, off course, no motivation.  Likewise, a person would have no motivation to achieve a good if the expectancy were zero or negative.  The force exerted to do something will depend on both valence and expectancy.
Moreover, a motivate to accomplish some action might be determined by a desire to a to accomplish something else, for example, of person might be willing to work hand to get out a product for a valence in the force of pay.  On a manager might be willing to work hand to achieve company goals sin marking or production for a promotion on positive on pay “valence”.  Koontz ec-tal (198:541).
Vroom’s theory is merited because with the principle of management by objectives.  However, it is difficult in practice to determine the valences, weight or probabilities involved in a given goals.

Built in large part on expectancy, pointer and lawler have derived and substationally more complete model of motivation and have applied it in their study primarily to managers.
In their model, “Effort” (the strength of motivation and energy extended) depends on the values of a wond” plus perceived energy a person believes is required and the probability of actually receiving the remond.  The record of actual “performance” in turn, also influences the “perceived effort and probability of rewond” clearly, if people know they can do a job on have done it, they have a better appreciation of the effort required and know better the probability of rewonds.
This model of motivation, while more complex than other theories of motivation, is almost certainly a more adequate portrayer of the system.  To the practicing manager, this means that motivation is not a sample cause and effect matter.  It means, too that managers should carefully assess their rewond structurenes by that through careful planning, managing by objectives, and clean definition of duties and responsibilities by good organization structuring, the offer-performance-rewond-satisfaction system should be integrated in an entire system of managing.
B.F. Skinnen, a noted psychologist, has offered some important contributions to the study of motivation.  Skinner distinguishes between “operant behaviour” (that wish is voluntary) and “reflex behaviour” (that which is involuntary).  He advocates the premise that operant behaviour can be modified through behaviour can be modified through the process of reinforcement refers to the confirmation of outcomes of behaviour.  It can be either positive or negative.  Skinner described the difference as “positive” reinforce strengthens any behaviour that reduces on terminates it.
Many management experts believe that reinforcement theory can be applied successfully within an organizational perspective, management should reinforce positive behaviour and not negative behaviour.  Certainly, the terminology used in the skinner analysis has becomes widely prescriptive of many current management practices.

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Julian Rotter’s in his theory “locus of control” refers to a person’s perception of the controlling factor in their own destine.  Individuals who believe that what they do affect their lives are said to have internal control.  In other words, a person who thinks that extra effort on the job will result in a future promotion can be classified as some one with internal contract.
By contrast, external continual describes a situation in which individuals perceive outside variables as the determining factors in their own destinies.  However, someone who believes that luck, environmental factors, on others are the casual factors in their personal situation can be classified as an adherent to external control.  The terms internal and external are often used to identify these differing viewpoints in locus of continual.
Locus of control is an important aspect of understanding what motivate people.  This work has significant implications for management.  It suggests that, if a work force consisted largely of internals, management would be well advised to consider participative techniques.  If externals dominate the work force, management should provide relatively structured tasks with responsibilities clearly delineated so as to provide a surfeit of dues to help employees ascribe responsibility for success or failure to their own action.

For a work to develop an attitude, mental and emotional disposition towards his job, the experiment of Elton Mayo, joan wand ward as well as the motivational theory of Bamfourth etc.  Points to the general fact that managerial leadership variables such as the work itself, promotion, training for upward mobility, opportunities and above all, types of supervision, co-worker and the level of interpersonal relationship as well as general working conditions could be accountable for employee’s motivation and performance.
Locke put forward his theory if motivation and based on goals setting.  This so called goal theory suggested that; it is the goal that an individual is aiming for which motivates, rather than just the satisfaction of attaining it.  Locke’s view is that what a person values determines the goals he set for himself, but that which actually drives him (motivate him) are the goals themselves.
Another recent motivation theory is equity theory on social comparison theory, which suggests that people at work compare themselves with others doing similar work in circumstances and jude whether they are being family treated by comparison.  Adams and his colleagues found that if employees bough that employees thought that they were not being treated equitably in relation to other comparable employees, then their effort declined.

Edgan Schein as in Cole (1997:81) identifies a number of assumptions that have been made about motivation, he summarized them in order of historical appearance as follows:-
1.    Rational economics view:-    This suggest that people are primarily motivated by self-interest and the maximization of gain.
2.    Social view:-    This view of motivation sees people as motivation primarily be their social need.
3.    Self-actualizing view:-    This view sees people as motivated more by self fulfillment needs that by an others – actualizing people need challenge, responsibility, and a sense of price in their work.
4.    Complex view:-    This view of motivation sees it as an altogether more complex matter than previously conceived.  People are complex and variably; they respond to a variety of managerial strategies, and are affected by different tasks and different work-go ups.
Combel ec-tal (1986: 69) pointed out that any activity which increases the quality (productivity) of labour person may be considered an investment in human capital.  Thus human capital investments include not only expenditures on formal education and on-the-job training, but also expenditure of health and migration.  Workers can become more productive by improving their physical on mental health and also by moving from locations and jobs where their productivity is relatively low to often locations and jobs where their productivity is relatively high.
Kaplan and Nouton (1992:71) in their views, after observing and working with many companies, have found that senior executives do not rely one the set of measures to the exclusion of the other.  They realize that no single measures can provide the clean performance target or focus attention on the critical areas of a business.

Employees are also motivated when management integrates their goals into the organizational goals through MBO management by objective is one of latest method advocated by Peter Druke (1955:119) for achieving organizational objectives.  The basic concept is that the executive and managers should be involved in determining company objective and define major areas of responsibility, and integrates into item the goal of the employees.
Corrol as in Nwachukwu (1988:192) sees M.B.O “as a process by which manager and their subordinates participate jointly in setting goals, activities, and target duties as well as the ovulation of performance as it relates to established objectives”
Management by objective is one of the most effective ways of integrating activities and balancing organizational objectives.  Peter Drucken postulates that company’s objectives should be set in all the major areas such as:
1.    Productivity
2.    Marketing standard
3.    Innovation
4.    Physical and financial resources
5.    Profitability
6.    Manager performance and development
7.    Public relations or responsibility and
8.    Worker performance and attitude
M.B.O convents company objectives into individual’s goals and as a result, it contributes to higher levels of job satisfaction.  By integrating employee goals, there is goals congruency, which will help to elicit employee commitment with resultant increase in productivity.  M.B.O is often called “management by result”.  By this method both the manager and employee able evaluated by results achieved.  Nwachukwu (1988:193).

Robert Appleby (1981:225) defined production as “the activity of transforming raw materials on components into finished product”.  Productivity is the power on ability to increase production.  Peter Drucken (1964:39) refers to productivity, as “the balance between all factors of production will give the greatest output for the smallest efforts”.  It includes all the effort the enterprise contributes and excludes everything it does not control.  Productivity is the first test of management competence.  Technically, it is defined as the amount of output an individual on group can be expected to perform oven a given period.
Productivity        =    A/T per period of time
Where A        =    Achievement
T        =    Time
Greater productivity therefore implies better utilization of resources certain factors which can contribute to the efficiency of an organization are therefore.
–    Modern techniques of production.
–    Effective utilizations of material and human resources.
–    Type of organization structure.
–    Technology and equipment’s.
–    The way specific knowledge, ability experience and reputation of the firm are utilized.
–    The degree of balance between the various functions of the business.
–     The consideration of employees working condition, salaries and incentives.  Dr. E.M. Abolo (1999:1-8).

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Thomson and Mabey (1994:153) has acquired that “the maximum prosperity of both employer is usually seen in relation to performance and productivity”.  For the employer, increased productivity means profits, leading to maximum prosperity; for the employee increased productivity may lead to valued out-comes that also lead towards maximum prosperity (if not always in financials terms).  It is not surprising therefore that so much research has been undertake-and is still continuing into ways in which human productivity can be increased.  The relation between job on employee satisfaction on performance can be looked at in two ways; the effect of satisfaction on performance and conversely, the effect of performance on satisfaction.

Communication according to Koontz ac-tal (1980:688) “the transfer of information from the sender to the receiver with the information being understood by the receiver”.  From this definition, it show the extent to which manager can motivate employee toward performance depends on communication.  Employees must be given a clean picture of what is expected of them in terms of result by communication with them.  Thus; today’s management reveals that in no other area has intelligent manager would so well to run organization effectively, that the area of communication.
Managers must find out what subordinate want to know and what they at any point in time.

It is obvious that a good industrial relations climate is fundamental to the administration of incentives.  Whether on the purpose of an organization is to make profit, employee of labour are continually under pressure to ensure that resource are sufficiently utilized and labour cost stabilized, on reduced, workers on the other hand, inspite of their collective interest to improve their standard of living through improved wages and salaries with different personal interest.  Yesufu (1984:132).
So much depends on the mutual trust between management and employees.  In fashioning and implementing incentive plans.  If this mutual trust is absent from the beginning, there can be little hope for effective motivation.  The better the organizational climate, the better the chance of implementing organization plans.  The incentive scheme is not an alternative for good management.  Therefore, management must first establish a good for incentive before expecting the pay off an benefits for example, the opinions of that union members their representatives, shop stewards must he sought.
An incentive system must be precise non-discriminatory and equitable, distributed in accordance with employment status.  There should be a defined system for computing an employee’s output that will enable him to know his current earning level, and future projection.
Generally, there must be steady flow of materials, money and machinery and information necessary for a motivated worker.

Financial incentive scheme is that which is designed on put in place to encourage an individual on group of people to improve an aspect of productivity, usually monetary in nature.  It is made on local negotiation and ultimately a bargain on what the rate should be.  The main objective of financial incentive scheme are:-
–    To improve the average rate of workers effectiveness of the employees.
–    To improve working method
–    To improve the level of co-operation and sense of common interest among the employees.
Financial incentive scheme can be implemented based on the under listed methods for individual workers:
A.    Piece rate
Under the price rate system, an individual is paid in accordance with the piece rate per day for example if an employee is paid N10 to a package a carton of milk and he is expected to do ten (10) carton a day, he receives N100.  Total pay is calculated readily and effort tied directly to productivity.  However, it is necessary to develop a productivity-based system so as to ensure quality.
B.    Standard hours method
This is closely related to the piece rate system.  The basic difference is that a standard in terms of unit is set.  Also, the number of employee is specified.
C.    Time saving bonus
This is money paid on saved from period earmarked for the services.
D       Commission
This depends on the amount of money realized from sates. This mostly applies to salesmen, promoters etc.
E        Group incentive
The group incentive plans are yet another aspect of financial incentives and way be administered for a section, department on the whole organization.  Group incentives can be viewed from the following broad categories.
i.    Group piece rate:    They are incentive plans designed for group efforts where the efforts of a single worker cannot be differentiated.
ii.    Production sharing plans:    These are bonuses shared among employees resulting from reduction in the cast of production.  The generated fund is considered to have emanated from their efficiency, hence reduction of case of production
iii.    Profit sharing plans:    Under this system, profits from annual business transaction are distributed in distinctive proportion to all employees according to their status.  The major objectives of profit sharing plans are to elicit profit consciousness, to encourage co-operation, sense of belonging and teamwork.

Non-financial incentives
The non-financial incentives are on the contrary ways by which an organization may reward their employee for their services to the organization.  Money along will never builds confidence in employees with respect to the management and organization goals.
Their non-financial incentives have been touched when discussing various motivational theories earlier in this chapter.  But however, few will be mentioned and disused here:-
a.    Opportunity
Most workers are interested in upward mobility in an organization.  Opportunities should be made available to the workers in an objective way.
b.    Justice and democracy
This can be defined as the confidence that one has been treated fairly.  He must not suffer any from of discrimination.  His security must not be threatened and he shall have access to staff on person.
c.    Praise and reproof when necessary
Praise is another non-financial incentives that care motivates an employee to work productively.  Even when reproof is necessary, it should be applied, not always but objectively praising first and criticizing later.  When Peter Drucken (1964) wrote what effective managerial leadership is not a “box of tricks” but a “bundle of techniques”, he was in fact referring to such a technical ways of leading and managing people.
d.    Security and interest
This is important to every employee.  They must not be made to face threats of possible dismissals, particularly that which is considered to be unfair.  Security could also mean protection against work hazards such as diseases, accidents, fire, accommodation and other working conditions.
e.    Physiological needs
These represents those need that can be satisfied physiological, such needs though involve money, are administered by organizations as if little on money is involve, where workers are well taken care of, they would be willing to put in their best.
Generally speaking, whether an incentive plan is individual on group oriented financial on non-financial, the genesis cannot be divorced from the managerial leadership of an organization.

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