Motivation – Effect of Sales Force Motivation on Sales Turnover

Motivation  – Effect of Sales Force Motivation on Sales Turnover

Motivation – The word motivation comes from a Latin word “mover” which means to move. It is a general term that refers to an internal state that activates and gives direction to our thought and sustains behaviour towards a goal. “Motivation is the process of directing and energizing behaviour at work” (Craft et al, s1990:134).

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Motivation can be described as the driving force within individuals than impels them to action. This driving force is produced by a state of tension, which exists as a result of an unfilled need. Individuals strive both consciously and subconsciously, to reduce this tension through behaviour that they anticipate will fulfill their needs and thus relieve them of the stress they fell. The specific goals they select and the patterns of action they undertake to achieve their goals are the results of individual thinking and learning (Ozo, 2002:58).

What happen in the motivation process is that an individual begins to be aware of a pressing need. This need makes the individual to be uncomfortable or to have tension as the tension begins to rise to drive. A drive is a strong stimuli that encourage action to satisfy a need. Thus, a strong stimuli or drive manifesting in the individual pushes him to engage in behaviour that will lead to the satisfaction of their need. Behaviour here means covert or overt acts of activities of the individual aimed at satisfying the need and reducing tension.

The final stage in the motivational process is that the individuals’ behaviour will be directed at a specific goal, which implies acquiring or purchasing product that will be used to satisfy the need. The specific courses of action or behaviour undertaker by the consumer and the specific goals chosen are selected on the basis of their thinking processes (i.e., cognition) and previous learning. For that reason, marketers who understand motivational theory attempt to influence the consumer’s cognitive process. Once the individual attains a goal or purchase and consumes a product, the need is fulfilled and consequently there is tension reduction. The individual then gets into a state of balance. (Ozo, 2002:59)

Motivation presents a very complex challenge for the manager. This is because no two persons are alike what motivates Okonkwo, may not motivate Okafor. What motivates Okonkwo today may not motivate him tomorrow. The only thing helpful is that there are basic assumptions about how human behaviour is energized, directed and sustained over time. We can, on the basis of this assumption produce a generalized model of basic motivational process to help us appreciate the concept.

The model has the following four components:

  1. Needs or expectation
  2. Behaviour
  3. Goals
  4. Feedback

Over the years, many psychologists and scholars have put forth several theories of motivation. Most of these theories have contributed in various ways in braodering managerial understanding of the forces that move people towards accomplishing goals and objectives. Many of the available theories of motivation are (Maslows Hierachy of Needs Theory, Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory of motivation, Douglas McGregor etc.

Schein sees motivation as a form of psychological contract between the organisation and its employees based on the expectation of the contribution of each. From Scheins classification, we can relate the major approaches to management theory, with the concept of motivation, the basis of which is that all human motives are directed towards desired ends and that behaviour is selected rationally or instructively in pursuance of these ends.

(Shein 1995:219)

History of Emenite Limited

The foundation stone of the company was laid on 3rd October 1961 by late Dr. The Hon. M.I. Okpara, the premier of the Eastern Nigeria and the company in-corporated on 6th October 1961 with registration No. Rc 2712 and with the name Turners Asbestos cement (Nig) ltd. The company was owned by Turners and Newal Ltd La Manchesier, U.K. based company) -80% and the Government of Eastern Nigeria-20%. The reasons for sitting the company at it location at Emene-Enugu are due to proximity.

  • To the cement factory at Nkalagu
  • To the airport
  • To railway line
  • To a river (Ekulu river)

Production started in 1963 with the company manufacturing asbestors fibre-cement pipes roofing and ceiling products. During the Nigerian civil war (1967-1970), with the absence of the British management, Nigerians managed the company under the supervision of Mr. I.A. Onyeani. Due to the 1973 indigensation decree, the shareholding of the company changed to turners and Newal Ltd-60% and government of Eastern Nigeria 40%. The name of the company then changed to turners Building Products (Emene) Ltd. And the company headquaters moved from Tinubu square Lagos to No.70 Id Abakaliki Road, Emene-Enugu By 24th March 1988, Turners and Newall limited transferred 51% of its shareholding to Eterontremer societe Anonyme of Belgium (now Etex Group S. A. Belgium) the ultimate holding company/technical partners, while Imo, Anambra, Abia, and Enugu states share the remaining 49% and the company changed it name to the present name Emenite limited.

Performance of the Company

Due to lack of government patronage and the poor economic situation in the country, the manufacturer of pipes and the first sheet machine line were discontinued with in 1986. Subsequently, the company could not continue with the three-shift system of production and was forced to run on two shifts for three days in the past two to three years. However, in March 1998 when the prospects of the company started improving, three-shifts production on five days a week was resumed. Meanwhile, there have been constant machine upgrading and computerization has been fully integrated in all aspects of the company’s processes.

Market Performance

Emenite limited since inception in 1961 as Turner Asbestos Cement Nig. Ltd has been a key player in the building construction industry in Nigeria. With our range of roofing and ceiling products, given our market structure and size, the performances of these products have been encouraging. With the award of the ISO 9001:2000 QMS certificate in the year 1998, the company witnessed an improvement in sales volume and market expansion through market diversification. The ward of the ISO 14001:2004 Environmental management system certificate will take the company further as it would also enhance the consumer’s perception and acceptability of our products in the present and new markets. There is small improvement in the company’s turnover and profit. The company still manufactures fibre-cement roofing, ceiling products and other garden exquisite. All these products are made with about 90% local raw materials which is great benefits to the Nigeria economy.

The company’s range of products includes:

(a)  Roofing products

– Big six corrugated sheets (grey and coloured)

– Standard corrugated sheets

– Ultimate corrugated sheets

– Duratile (concrete tile)

(b)  Ceiling products

– Emceil flat sheets

– Duraceil

– Emlux

– Qualitile

– Supertile

– Decorative ceiling tiles

(c)  Garden items

Flower pots of various designs and dimension. The products are sold through a wide range of distribution network to ensure availability even in the remotest areas. They undergo strict quality control processes that are in accordance with international standards to ensure that customers derive full benefits from the products. For customers to enjoy full benefits of the products, the company offer, at no extra cost, full technical advisory service before and after sales. This is through a team of well trained engineers and technicians. This service ensures that customers enjoy high quality and problem-free installation.

The Future

The management of Emenite limited is aware that achieving the NIS ISO 14001:2004 standard award is not an end to itself but rather a beginning of a future that will entail a lot of hard work and dedication not only to maintain and improve on the Environmental management system but also the existing Quality Management system to which the company has been certified to for the past decade. Emenite core purpose is the provision of quality building products for shelter at competitive terms and her core values are customer satisfaction, employee commitment and well-being, punctuality, quality and environmental-friendliness. The company will continue to pursue these values while striving to achieve her big hairy, audacious goals and at the same time embrace and adapt to the current operational techniques or trends that arise within the environment.

Statement of Problem

  1. The problem of this research work is to find out if monetary incentives is the only motivating factor on sales turnover.
  2. How can an improved mutual understanding between the employees and sales force general activities have effect on sales turnover?
  3. What is the relevance between the relationship between the top management and sales force on sales turnover?

Objectives of The Study

The study has a broad objectives of investigating the effect of motivation on sales turnover in Emenite company limited Enugu State.

The specific objectives are stated as follows:

  1. To find out if the use of monetary incentive is the only motivating factor on sales turnover.
  2. To improve mutual understanding on the nature and roles of employees and sales force and their general activities.
  3. To examine top management and sales person relationship on sales turnover.

Research Hypotheses

Ho: Monetary incentives is not the only motivating factor on sales turnover.

Hi: Monetary incentives is the only motivating factor on sales turnover.

Ho: Improved mutual understanding between the employees and sales force general activities will not have any effect on the sales turnover.

Hi: Improved mutual understanding between the employees and sales force general activities will have any effect on the sales turnover.

Ho: The relationship between the top management and sales person does not play any role on sales       turnover.

Hi: The relationship between the top management and sales person plays a role on sales turnover.

Significance of The Study

This project will serve as a reference point for students or readers who might be interested in carrying out research work in relation with this topic.

The basic task of a manage is to create and maintain an environment in which employees will find personal satisfaction to be induced to contribute effectively towards the actualization of the organizational goals and objectives. The key action is how to get employees encouraged or motivated in order for them to increase their effort and enhance high sales-turnover which will in turn yield higher returns and motivate employees, but the issue on ground is practicing it. As a result of this work, workers will be motivated to add more effort in the accomplishment of company’s objectives and goals. Hence, this research work will get across to the organizations the most important action employed to increase sales turnover and also coming out with a recommendation on how best workers sales turnover in Emenite can be improved after careful examination of the nature of incentive that best appeals to employees of labour in this era.

Scope of The Study

From the research topic, the study is meant to cover the sales force and the management of Emenite company ltd.

Limitations of The Study

Research of this nature especially in a developing country like Nigeria is always subjected to some difficulties. The following problems were encountered in the course of this research.

Respondent Attitude

Generally, the writer had problems of lack of information from the respondents. Some of the Emenite company ltd staff refuses to give information of statistical data necessary to complete the study. this attitude becomes an evident to the saying that Nigeria even the educated ones do not fully understand the meaning of research and their tendencies to provide necessary.

Time Constraints

The researcher had to contend with the limited time available to produce this work. Nevertheless, the study made great efforts to satisfy the needs of such work, due to the fact that the time available to the researcher to enable him cover a large area is too small.


The researcher had to do with the little sum at his disposal as insufficient fund really affected the researcher’s ability to execute this project work effectively and efficiently.

Academic Program at the Time of Study

There were lots of disruptions more that what have been experienced by the researcher. As a result the researcher never staged at a place while writing, the motivating factors and joys that guide a researcher and academic work could not be properly scheduled.

Definition of Terms

1. Motivation: According to Ozo (2002:58) motivation can be described as the driving force within individuals that impels them to action.

2. Motive: A need that is sufficiently pressing to direct the person to seek satisfaction of the need. (KOTLER 2006: 146).

3. Job Enrichment: Concentrates on motivational issues and can be used to describe the expansion of the number of duties and responsibilities associated with a particular job also is a motivational concern that lay more emphasis on an individuals requisite knowledge, skills, abilities and capabilities. (Mc Cormick et al 1995:308)

4. Job Evaluation: Is the dominant procedure for establishing rates of pay for various jobs. (Mc Cormick et al 1995:384)

5. Job Satisfaction: Is a specific subset of attitudes held by organization members. It is the attitude they have towards their jobs. Stated another way, it is their affective responses to their jobs, (Mc Cormick et al 1995: 309).

6. Job Analysis: Involves determining what constitutes a given job. It involves a detailed study of a job to identify clearly every aspects of a position. (Nebo 2006:37).

7. Job Description: On the other hand is the document that contains the out come of job analysis. (Nebo 2006:38).

8. Job Specification: Involves relating the job to the personal characteristics and qualifications that applicants should have in order to be selected for the given job. (Nebo 2006:38).

Review of Related Literature

Definitions and Theories Of Motivation

Actually many definitions have been attributed to the word “motivation by many psychologist and other authors. The world motivation is derived from the verb to motivate which means to induce or to provide with a motive. Motives are the drives, impulses, wishes or desires which initiate the sequence of activities known as behaviour. In short, they are stimulated needs that an individual seeks so satisfy. (Etuk, 1985:193).

Managers need to discover how best to motivate employees and there by secure their commitment to the goals of organization. If organizations must succeed in an increasing competitive and turbulent environment, they need the full commitment of all the participants. We have seen the crucial nature of human resources. We have noted that the human resources of any enterprise represents its biggest single asset. Any failure to nurture this asset properly, will lead to sub-optimal returns on the investments of an organization. It is on account of the foregoing, that managers seek for how best to motivate the employees and secure their commitment (Eze, 2002:219)

Motivation, as perceived by Streers and Black (1994:132) is a word derived from the ancient Latin Movere, which means “to move”. As the word is used to study employee motivation in work settings, this definition appears inadequate. A more comprehensive approach, defines motivation as that which emphasizes three aspects of motivation namely;

  1. Motivation represents an energetic force that drive people to behave in particular ways.
  2. This drive is directed towards a goal

iii. This idea of motivation is best understood within a system frame work.

Kemper (1976:261) perceives motivation as the process of initiating and directing individual or group behaviour, when he finds it rewarding to do so. When the behaviour accomplishes an objective, which satisfies a need. In a work setting, an individual will be motivated to carryout his duties to the extent that doing so, will satisfy also his personal needs.

Denga (1990:43-44) defines motivation as an internal force, which ignites, propels, energises, arouses, directs, regulates and sustains behaviour towards goal attainment. Motivational forces are intangible but they are there and generate the necessary impetus towards a desired goal. In the words of (Cole 1996:33) motivation as “a process in which people choose between alternative forms of behaviour in order to achieve personal goals.

Early Theories of Motivation

The human relationists tried to find out what triggers and sustains human behaviour in the work place. This is captured here thus:

Douglas Mc Gregor’s Theory X and Theory Y

Mc Gregor’s theory x and theory y are also sets of assumptions about people’s behaviour. Mc Gregor saw two, clearly different assumptions made by managers in respect of their employees.

i.Employees are inherently lazy, requiring coercion and control, avoiding responsibility and only seeking security. This is the attitude which Mc Gregor termed theory x. This in substance is the theory of scientific management with its emphasis on controls and overt rewards.

  1. Employees are seen in a more favourable light. Here, they are seen to like work, which is as natural as play rest. They do not have to be controlled and coerced, so long as they are committed to the organization’s objectives.

Hertzberg’s Motivated-Hygiene Theory

Hertzberg’s studies conducted in 1959 (Cole 1996:34) concerned satisfaction at work. Cole is a professor of psychology at case Western Reserve University  in Cleveland U.S.A., his best known book is “work and the Nature of Man” It focused on human motivation at work and the impact of work on man’s psychological growth. His best known theory is “the motivation-Hygiene theory of job attitudes. The study was designed to test a theory that the factors involved in producing job satisfaction were not the same as the factors involved in producing “dissatisfaction”.

D.C. Mc Clelland

What we have seen mainly is the concern of social and industrial psychologists for common factors in human motivation. There are few who tried to focus on differences between individuals. This groups includes D.C. Mc Clelleand of Harvard university. He highlighted three sets of needs, the need for achievement (n-Ach) the need for power (n-Pow) and the need for Affiliation (n-Aff). He saw n-Ach as the leading human motive and one that is influenced strongly by personality and environment.

Abraham Maslow’s Theory of Human


The work of Abraham Maslow is another important contribution to the theory of human motivation. He conducted studies, the out come of which led him to describe a hierarchy of human needs, which every individual pursues in levels from birth to death. His hierarchy model has basic needs at the base and higher needs at the top of the model.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

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This article was extracted from a Project Research Work/Material Topic “EFFECT OF SALES FORCE MOTIVATION ON SALES TURNOVER (A CASE OF EMENITE COMPANY LIMITED EMENE)”


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