Marketing Acceptability of Locally Made Cosmetic Products in Nigeria
Cosmetics as defined by encyclopedia ‘ Are substance attractiveness of a person. Cosmetic preparations are thereby intended to promote the health and beauty of the complexion in lord, feet, nail, face and body of individuals. Cosmetic is a term used to describe things applied to the skin and hair to help them look or feel attractive, acceptable and desirable. According to Advanced Learners Dictionary (1980) cosmetics are “substance preparation for putting on the body especially to face, to make it beautiful. Lipstick, face cream and hair conditioners are examples of cosmetic”. They are used by different purposes. They are used on newly born babies, young children by teenagers, young adult and old people. To order the Complete Project Material, Pay thr Sum of N3,000 to: BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122 Then send the Project Topic, Your Email Address and Full Name to 07033378184.
To order the Complete Project Material, Pay thr Sum of N3,000 to:
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Female constitute the major target market for cosmetic manufactures in Nigeria. This is sequel to their greater desire to remain beautiful youthful and attractive all the time and to mach their counterpart in the world.
The use of cosmetics has been an ancient practice. They are used to protect the skin and hairs, nourish them to attractiveness as well as perfume them to please fragrance.
Deolu Delano (1975) stated that “evidence of the use of make up and aromatic ointments has been found in Egyptian tombs dating back to 3500”. The earliest records of cosmetic substances and their use were found in Egypt.
At about 3000BC dead pharaoh were buried with their comforts of cosmetics and luxuries. Among these were vase relics containing some quantities of aromatics that were still elusively fragrant. Egyptian ladies use some what crude paints to enhance their beauty.
By the 13th Century B.C. the Egyptians, Romans, Greek and middle Eastern culture had developed such cosmetics as powders, Kohl to darken the eyelids, eyelashes and eyebrows, rouge for cheeks and perfumes”.
Eye make-up received greatest attention as shown by recorded evidence. The eye under were painted green, the lashes, lids and brows were painted black using kohl. Kohl is made up of anti among products and applied with ivory or wooden stick.
In Nigeria use of cosmetics antedates recorded history. It is as old and diverse as the culture of different tribes and ethnic groups constituting Nigeria. Review at traditional and cultural cosmetology in Nigeria showed many indigenous types.
ADINAL, BON – Coconut Oil, Ori sheer Butter, OSE DUDU Blacksoap, are all found among the Yoruba culture. Umeasiegbu (1981) mentioned those found among the Igbo’s as “ULI, UFILE and OTANGELE”.
NATURE OF COSMETIC PRODUCT
Cosmetic products are either flufelly, Jelly like solids. They are classed into creams lotion, Oil, powders, soap etc.
Creams are form Jelly like emulsions some comprising of unsaturated oils such as stearate and palmetto esters. Other active ingredients include urea, ammonia, ingerson, hydroxygunoline salicylate and other patented compounds.
Lotions are more liquidized forms of creams. They contain less oil than creams.
Oil can be of pure extract such as olive oil or mixture with efficacious intention such as epidermal oils.
Powder can be of plan or pure substance while others may contain substances such as method and bupivercaise an anaesthetic substance that smoothes the skin.
Soaps are ester of stearate, palmitrate or glycrerate of sodium. They may be perfumed, medicated by addition of medicinal substances such as hydroxyguinoline, ingerson or mercuric iodide. They are used according to need or want.
Lipstick are made of waxes fats and oils and pigments molded into smooth, creamy sticks. The are made firm enough to resist breaking when handled.
Mascara is a mixture of pigment waxes and synthetic regin in a volatile solvent. It is water-resistant and is applied to the eyelashes with a wet brush.
Eye shadow is a creamy preparation of pigments mixed with lanolin and petroleum.
Shampoos, are liquid or Jelly like soap containing ester of coconut oil, sodium hydroxide, patented substances which straightens coiled hairs cleanses dirty ones and prevents brittleness of the hairs. The concentration of these active ingredients is a function of its strength made to a given hair texture.
Hair conditioners contain a lot of lubricants often patented, used to nourish the hair. Some of the active ingredients include egg extract, albumen allantion and cool oil.
Hair lotions used in wave setting contain dilute gum solutions, which make hair easier to set and ensure a bouncing texture.
Hair traits contain water soluble synthetic dyes of wide range of colours. They are used in achieving desired hair colouration.
Nail lacquers are made of intro-celluloe with added plasticizers. They sometimes contain in addition gum to enhance adherence.
Nail polish removes are made of acetions and a small quantity of vegetable oil or lanolin.
Some of the raw-material (active ingredients) mentioned above which are used in the manufacture of these local cosmetics are partially made outside Nigeria and has to be imported in order to complete the production of these products from them. These raw material are not sourced locally in Nigeria. Example include hydroxyginolines, ingerson salicylate used in making soap. Companies like A. J. Steward and P-Z Nigeria Ltd sources these raw-materials from abroad.
Some of the raw-material used in local production of cosmetic is taken outside Nigeria, Processed and re-imported into the country for further production use. An example is palm Kernel oil used in preparing penetrate used in making soaps and some lotions.
This unavoidable sourcing of some raw materials used in the local cosmetic production has a great deal of influence on management decisions on prices, product, promotion and distribution of the cosmetic products. Each of these decisions affects the acceptability of these local cosmetics by the consumers.
The first consideration relates to the product and specifically to all the steps leading to the development of a disciplines programme of product planning, management considers the shape, size and colour of the product, which they are looking forward to produce. If the cost of importing the raw materials, which depends on the value of the local currency (Naira) at the exchange, is high management decides on the quality of product which key will produce in order to recover the costs.
The high cost may also affect the size and shape of the cosmetic products. If the quality is low, they may decide to increase the size but if the quality is high, they may decide to reduce the size.
Cost considerations are often big constraints on pricing for local cosmetic industries especially the one that import raw materials. These firms play the role of price of setter. The price per unit of their products depends on the cost of producing the products. Management may decided to set low price and lower the quality of their products. Management may decide to set low price and lower the quality of their products, they manipulate the price of these products in order to recover the cost of production and enable consumers accept their products of an affordable price to survive in the competitive world market.
The manufacturers also ensure that the brands offered as well know among the consumers. They communicate the products in merits or benefits and persuade for get customers to accept their products. The extent of promotion to be used depends on their products like cycle and lost involved. The nature of these products are communicated to the consumers.
Availability of products (cosmetics) when and where needed is also a good consideration by manufacturers. Also before manufactures embark on production of a cosmetic production they consider the availability of raw-materials, when and where needed for the firms that import their raw-materials. The availability of their products is not always guaranteed. This is as a result of cost involved in their importation and time lag between order placement and arrival while firms, that do not import raw material or that the raw-material required for the production of the cosmetic is not imported, availability is never a hindering factor.
PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF PRODUCT DECISION
A manufacturing of cosmetic products has to go into the following decision area in order to develop and market individual producers effectively. These decision are as included.
1. Product quality decision
2. Packaging decision
3. Braiding decision
4. Pricing decision
5. Communication decision
PRODUCT QUALITY DECISION: Product quality, which is the major product attributes, is used in communicating and delivering the benefits accompanying tangible products. According to Philip Kotler (1990) “The benefits are communicated and delivered by tangible product attributes such as quality features and design”. This implies that consumer’s acceptance of product like cosmetics for manufacturer of cosmetic products. They have to build into gain acceptance or approved of their target customers.
Quality of a product may be symbolized by its price, the package, the store where the product is sold or by the brand name. A poor quality cosmetic product gives room for brand switching (either from foreign to local cosmetic or the reverse).
PACKAGING DECISIONS: Packaging is an aspect of the product decision which cosmetic producers should make to enhance the acceptance of their products. It should be able to perform the following functions.
a. It should be aesthetically pleasing and destructive enough to stand out when placed side by side with some competing brands of the retail shelf.
b. It should be convenient for customers to handle.
c. The package labeling should provide promotional information about the product.
The above mentioned functions of packaging and more, helps in influencing consumers acceptance of shopping products like cosmetics. According to Nwokoye (1981) “Cosmetic industry represent one of the industries where packaging is a marketing instruments plays a significant role”.
Packaging is recognized as the most conspicuous identification a product can have and also a major factor for a product success in terms of its acceptance. It is a principle way of communicating with customers. Through the consumer’s sense of touch and sight, his perception of the product is built into his cognition thereby build a modifying the customers’ experience about the product. This will turn determine or influence the overt behaviour of the customers towards the product. It contributes to the personality and influences the acceptability of product of many types.
With some cosmetic products, packaging is an indispensable part of the product mix. It adds glamour and excitement to a lipstick or to a face power. It gives psychological satisfactions that are of importance to life.
As a good clothing design gives our body the very sophisticated shape and allure so does a well designed modern package attracts one to buy a cosmetic products say Nwokoye (1989). Through the medium of packaging marketers communicate the quality of their particular brand of merchandise.
A poorly designed package tells the consumer that the maker of the products does not care. But a well designed package is a proof that the manufacturer really care about both the customers and the product and is willing to make an extra effort to please them.
BRANDING DECISION: This is another product decision that should be incorporated during product development because of its influence on consumer acceptance of the product.
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This article was extracted from a Project Research Work/Material Topic
“MARKETING ACCEPTABILITY OF LOCALLY MADE COSMETIC PRODUCTS (BEAUTY AIDS) IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED HAIR DRESSING SALON IN OBIAGU)”
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