Management of Employee Welfare with Emphasis on Industrial Accidents and Safety
Employee Welfare – The impact of industrial accidents on the world in its entity has been talked about by many people. These contribution will surely goading way to give us a clearer picture of the consequences of such accidents in the manufacturing industrial and the need for adopting safety measure in ensuring a good working environment.
Actually as varied as people are also they have varied opinions the researcher at this will try to bring out certain point made by reckonable authorities on the subject. To order the Complete Project Material, Pay thr Sum of N3,000 to: BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122 Then send the Project Topic, Your Email Address and Full Name to 07033378184.
To order the Complete Project Material, Pay thr Sum of N3,000 to:
BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC
ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122
Then send the Project Topic, Your Email Address and Full Name to 07033378184.
Take for a start the utterances of Beaument (1981). The concern for accident prevention emanates from the large industrialized countries e.g the united state of America United Kingdom Germany France etc.
Where such injuries and loss of life become common occurrence due to emergency of more industrialized working structure the effect of he these accidents is not just on the individual but to his family members work colleagues and the management of business. He importance of organizing a well directed safety movement was thus brought to the for front.
Further more a brief look at the work men compensation act of 1942 shows us that these industries or enterprises were legally liable for the injuries sustained their workers in the course of carrying out their occupational duties.
Another well known voice on this issue Emiola (1978) said a the upholding of the requirement of safety movement will lead to establishing specialized skill like safety engineering other skills include industrial hygiene and equipment maintenance injury preventive method before during and after work.
Also the federal ministry of labour productivity and employment (1986) under the factory inspectorate division stated that “ to ensure adequate safety in the factory or company in general there has to be a systematic means of monitoring closely these workers to ensure that they promptly comply with the factory act ordinance of (1955) it continues by suggesting that the following should be done;
- Organizing inspections by inspectors
- Maintaining records of statistics of cause of these factory accidents and how they were handled or solved.
- Improving the industrial health by organizing officials and committees is connection with accident safety and a welfare of workers in the industrial. A point to be noted is that the factory inspectory arm of the federal ministry of labour productivity and employment also has the responsibility of closing down any factory (s) that fails to comply with the factory act still does not satisfy the provision of the national safety council of Nigeria .
Blacke ( 1979) define the terms accidents as “ any unplanned or unintended misshape that disrupts working activities at any particular point in time” on this same note Emiola (1979) continues by explaining the terms as “an unforeseen happening or an unexpected occurrence which goes on to cause hurt or entire loss of life” “ certain accidents might not lead to outright or immediate injury but it surely leads to considerable damage which could be quite costly” the cost does not necessary need to be material since it could still be physical.
Beaumont (1983) wrote in one of his numerous articles concerning the issue he digressed a little to the way the workers union see the whole affaire that have a view that accident are mainly caused by too much pressure being put on the workers in order to meet up with the production schedule of the greater the amount and duration of work intensity the greater the accident rate become. A further look into this suggests that it has a lot of truth in it because when workers are over worked they tend to relax their consciousness on upholding safety precaution. In any cast if there is adequate communication and cordial relationship between the union and the management this and other problems will be dully settled out
Blacke (1983) also argued that accident are caused due to the use of equipment with very high- rise properties. He explained further by noting that even equipment and machinery inspectors have discovered that he most basic or simplest of safety instructions through manuals we not adhered to and applied by the workers and those who do apply them tall do not to the full length to complete the requirement. It could be said to all African factory to effect them after sometime of steady application.
They either fall the regulation/ instruction are not necessary to that they are simple repetitions and therefore not as improtant as they are made to appear.
Another author Gummer (1983) explained another important reason for the occurrence of these accidents he view that people do not like changing their attitude. A good example is seen in the fact that they do not like wearing protections for the eyes and legs etc. They go on to find excuses for not doing this. It is probably because of lack of good orientation before they actually start off with the work.
Kennam (1984) however throws more light to the above as certain he say’s that these attitudes are damageable. This he said could be achieved by creating awareness about the use of safety gadgets etc. He concluded his contribution by explaining that discipline should be applied to those ignoring these provide safety measures. Some other learned men still state further that some workers could simply be careless in regards to machines and other equipment we use in the course of the job functions he says in his words the careless workers there is still put forward by employees one of the principal explanations for industrial accidents.
Due to the high consumption of alcohol o still outright negligence of those stop already laid down in the factory. He now briefly pointed the case of those stops already laid their lives in the jobs process as a result of not adhering to these simple instructions in the use or farm factors.
In his work company control for drinking habit another great man on the subject Habbes S (1982) noted that “although accident reports for the period suggest a gradual decline more vigilance and care need to be taken by the management and the work force. This is in bid to ensure that the trend of fever accidents is to continue.
Boley ( 1982) observed that supervisory skill by management staff go a long way to contribute to the reduction of accident rates in the industry he made it quite clear that the lack of a supervisory development programme will as much as possible bring rise to more skilled line of supervisor. It is in view that mentioned that trend where many employees are drafted in by management for the post of the supervisor without prior adequate perpetration for such positions further more, he enunciated the need for the organization to build in safety programmes i.e. safety gadgets measures precaution etc. into the company polices regarding protecting its workers.
Because of this same reason Gummer (1984) said “as new and more modern techniques introduces new problems to the place of work for place means more than jus avoiding acceding. Rather it also entails developing safe systems of work therefore improving standards of design of machines and equipment most often encourage the occurrence of accident in the work point for instance some of these machines do not posses enough if at all adequate instructions as regards to the mode of operation how to use in different situations while to use and even the servicing and maintenance procedure. It should be dome in way that convey seriousness of its working staff.
Emiola (1977) continues on the point of educing the occurrence of accidents by stressing that every dangerous part of the machine should be well fenced off from direct contact by workers. This will actually go a long way to stop the employee form touching or making use of such parts indiscriminately and this reduces accidents occurrence.
Ajibola (1985) says “the existing loopholes in the existing factory safety ordinances make it possible for some industrial establishment to take unnecessary longer period to rectify defected faults on the machine
The fines imposed on the companies that defaults are seen by the companies to be small and is to not enough hindrance to seriously stop all carelessness or look worn attitude towards prevention of accident.
In fact they look down on such fines with contempt to change this phenomenon a large fine should be laid out.
These different opinions by various authorities on the subject lent a solid hand to the propagation of the global safety movement. Today a lot of organizations have gone safety oriented. They now take serious the welfare of the employee at all times by taking some or all of the following measures:
- Providing fire extinguishers and placing them at strategic locations in the factory and offices of the company.
- Providing safety garments like helmets gloves boots safety wears etc. for all factory workers.
- Fencing parts of machines with very sharp points or shock able location to avoid accidental contacts.
- Writing out all precaution information on the strategic arrears of the machines and other equipment.
- WORKERS COMPENSATION
Worker compensation (formerly work man’s compensation) laws are state law that required employers to pay some indemnity to employees who incur disabilities as a result of some occupational injury or alterment.
Charles (1979) states “those five kinds of benefit are said under workers compensation.
- Permanent Total Disability: A weekly in come replacement payment for life when an employee lives but will never work again
- Temporary Total Disability: A weekly in come replacement for an extended period but not for life.
- Permanent Partial Disability: Lump-sum payment is according to a fixed schedule for such disabilities as the loss of an eye hand finger fovt and foe.
- Medical Benefits: Payments of hospital surgical and doctors charge cost of drugs and orthopedic or prosthic devices.
- Survivor Benefits: Weekly payment to survivor payments to spaces usually are made until remarriage payment are made to surviving Children until they reach a specified
in Michigem a Sale man was killed when a tornado destroyed a moter in which he was staying on a business trip. The survivor won benefits because the court determined that the fatality and his work were connected. In tax as iron worker saw a fellow iron worker plunge to his death when a scaffold on which both worked gave way. Although the surviving worker was unhurt and able to Suring to safety he developed an anxiety reaction and was unable to continue as an iron work the state Supreme Court awarded him compensation.
PAYMENTS FOR EMPLOYEES HEALTH AND SECURITY
Employee health and security plans are not normally required by law: they are developed because they can help to attract and retain employees. In a survey conducted in Philadelphian there hundred and three firms participated in this survey. Virtually all provided some from of hospitalized surgical majors medical and group life insurance. A substantial proportion provided dental coverage accident and dismemberment insurance long term disability cash sickness insurance and supplemental workers compensation.
HOSPITAL AND MEDICAL BENEFIT
William (1974) medical coverage plans are complex because many different kinds of coverage are available such as
- Hospitalization: coverage of the cost incurred when a person is hospitalized.
- Surgical: This may restrict to surgery performance in a hospital but sometimes it will cover surgery performed on an out patient basis.
- Other Medical Costs: People income other medical cost such as office visits to physician or artificial limbs work
- Major Medical: Major medical plans build on and supplement basic hospital and surgical plans
- EXTRA PAYMENTS AND EMPLOYEE SERVICE
This area of employee benefit covers a mind boggling array of extra payment and service practice varies but much organization off most or all of the following service
- Saving Plans:
Many organizations simple provide the employee with the opportunity to save money through deduction from his pay check. Often credit union are set up to help with this process the credit union not only receives the employees saving but also provides loans often at lower rates then would be found else where. Some organizations go further and match employees saving to some fixed formula
Organization often set up suggestion boxes and establish committees to review employee suggestions and make awards ranging from taken payments for minor suggestions to much more substantial awards for significant ones suggestion systems have two purpose to bring new idea to the attention of management and to raise employee moral on study found such plans in 29% of the 473 firms reporting approximately one half of these firms paid from 10 to 14% of the first years saving brought a bout by the suggestion.
- Tuition Aid: A tuition refund plans has two goals to bring to the organization the benefit of the employee’s increased education and to encourage employee self development. In the greater Philadelphia area almost 75% of the reporting organization indicated that they reimbursed employees for all or part of tuition cost upon satisfactory completion of a course companies most frequently reserve the right to approve or disapprove course reimbursement and normally pay only for course related to company work. Occasionally these plans reimburse employee for other costs such as books or fees
- Relocation Allowance:
Sometimes people are hired from another geographical location to another. Organizations commonly help with the cost of these moves for never hires organizations usually restrict payments to the direct cost of the move. Moving the furniture transporting the employee and the family living costs while the employees seek a new home. For employee who are transferred from one location to another the organization may pay for home selling costs cover 10 percent of the price of the home; new residence search expenses temporary living expenses carrying charge for periods of double ownership; and some decoration expenses organizations sometimes lend the employee money for purchase of a new and in many cases may take on the employee’s old home if he reins into difficulty in selling it.
- CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS
According to Norman (1982) “he said that both temperature and humidity have been shown to be directly related to accident. Frequency. In mining minor accidents progressively increase as the temperature in different areas raises from 62 degree to 85 degrees Fahrenheit.
In mining sites having the highest temperature the minor accident frequency was over three times that of areas having the lowest temperature. Major accidents showed little relation to temperature however for machine work the optimum temperature for the English worker was found to be 67.5 degrees. An increase percent in accidents was obtained by a drop in temperature to 52 degrees or a rise of 75 degrees.
It is probable that optimum temperature many with the way the worker dresses and the temperature to which the worker is accustomed at home. Recently the federal government established laws affecting thermostat setting in many business. The long term effect of these regulations accidents and performance is still unknown.
SAFETY CAMPAIGNS AND POSTER
The use of posters and slogans is often effective in raising support for safety. As in all advertising the appeal should be simple reasonable and constructive. Emotional appeals may have temporary value but if they arouse fear they may do more harm than good. A frightened worker is not a safe worker. Although a gruesome picture invariable attracts attention it seldom creates a desirable effect .
Perhaps the most important requirement for an effective poster is that it contains a positive message. Advertising a remedy for cold feet has more appeal when description is headlined “warm feet” then “ cold feet” but are not attracted by a discussion of cold feet. A poster that says “don’t have accident” neither describes what you do want to have not ells you how not to have the accidents
The following statements illustrate helpful information that could appear on posters placed in appropriate locations.
- Pedestrians cross here
- Wear hard hats here
- Smoking permitted in the next ash
- Gasoline fumes in this area
Specific forms of behaviour conducive safety can be advertised in appropriate department and serve a constructive purpose. The important thing is to approach safety in a positive educational way rather than in a negative moralistic way.
- DESCRIPTION OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
The research instrument extended from textbook written by professional on the fields of industrial accidents and how they could be effectively handled or avoided entirely. Journal were used other related materials. Making use of the research questions the researcher went a head to analyze the information drafted from primary as well as secondary data.
The instruments further include simple rations and percentage table of explaining further information and the use of questionnaire.
Now the questionnaire formulated is a clear format this enabling the respondent to provide objective information that is relevant to the research work and also go a head to provide answer to the questions with ease.
Furthermore the answer were in some cases laid out to aid the respondent in ticking any of the following (strongly agreed uncertain disagree and strongly disagree) for some other suggest a list of variables were give. While still for others the true or false no or yes system was applied.
SUMMARY OF RESEARCH FINDINGS
After undergoing the various research work involved with the selected workers the supervisors the technicians and other working staff of premier breweries PLC Onitsha on the topic management of employee welfare with emphasis on industrial accidents and safety, we have discovered quite number of important act which the researcher has drafted out in the following lines.
- Male workers out number the female workers with a wide margin and this are simply due to the fact that men are more technically oriented than the female gender.
- Also looking at the response in the age distribution we see that those more involved in the brewery industry are between the age of 32 and 38 years
- Further information often from the questionnaire exposes the fact that quire a handful or worker are semi-illiterate while a more significant group are mostly school certificate holders and some HND/BSC holders. Stressing of the length of service majority of the worker have spent less than 10 years in the industry while a much smaller percentage of workers have put in some 15 years in service.
- Majority of the workers refund to be married.
- On the issue of salary to the workers it was found that most worker earn above N 300.00 monthly. Also from information obtained from response to interview and hypothesis testing it was discovered that the following could result in industrial accident.
- When management fails to provide safety wears gadgets there is increase in industrial accidents.
- Workers on their own part fail to make use of provided safety gadgets and wears and carry out safety measure industrial accidents increase.
- Effective training and development of workers will minimize accident
- The proper use of protective equipment helps in reducing industrial accidents.
- The use of obsolete machine contribute to industrial accidents unless when they are not properly serviced.
This article was extracted from a Project Research Work Topic
“MANAGEMENT OF EMPLOYEE WELFARE WITH EMPHASIS ON INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS AND SAFETY(A CASE STUDY OF PREMIER BREWERIES PLC ONITSHA)”
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