Information Communication Technology and Human Development in Nigeria. The Application and Challenges
Information Communication Technology – This research work started with an introduction which describes information theory as representation of the conditions and parameters affecting the transmission and processing of information. The historical background was traced from the creation of the telegraph and telephone int1844 by the American inventor Samuel Morse between Washington DC. To order the Complete Project Material, Pay thr Sum of N3,000 to: BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122 Then send the Project Topic, Your Email Address and Full Name to 07033378184.
To order the Complete Project Material, Pay thr Sum of N3,000 to:
BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC
ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122
Then send the Project Topic, Your Email Address and Full Name to 07033378184.
Information theory is regarded as a representation of the conditions and parameters affecting the transmission and processing of information. Communication and human resource development are interwoven. The ultimate goal of communication is to bring about which is the one of the phenomenon that is permanently especially in the desire direction of the person who receives the communication (Park, 2007:532).
The roles of information communication technology (ICT) in any organization cannot be fully understood without the involvement of human resource development as both of them are central to all aspect of an organization (Onah, 2008:321).
The constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria 1999 Chapter IV Titled, fundamental rights, in section 39 three section states Right to Freedom of expression and the press sub section (1) every one shall be entitled to freedom of expression including freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart ideas and information without interference. Sub section (2) states that without prejudice to the generality of subsection (1) this section every person shall be entitled to own establish and operate and medium for the dissemination of ideas and opinions. The preponderance of the concept of communication in human resource development in management and behaviour science literature has not mitigated in various organization.
Both communication and management scholars have, recognized the importance of communication as a management process Robert (1984) our the view succinctly when he described human resource and communication as;
The social glue to use to found an organization in the first place and the glue that contrive to keep the organization tied together.
Awesome (1985) states that communication process involves all acts of commenting messages to channels which link people to language to channels which link people to language and symbols codes which are used to translate message, the means by which messages are reserve, and stored and the rules, customs and contentions which diffuse and regulate human relationship.
The interest in the concept grew directly from the creation of the telegraph and telephone, in 1844 the American inventors Samuel Morse built a telegraph line between Washington DC. And Baltimore, Mary land, He (Morse) Encountered many electrical problems. When he sent signals through buried transmission line but he encountered fever problems when the lines were suspended on poles. This attracted the attention of many distinguished physicist. In a similar manner, the invention of a telephone in 1875 by Alexander Graham Bell and its subsequent proliferation attracted further scientist notaries to the problems associated with transmitting signals over wires. Much of their work was done using Fourier analysis. In all of these cases the analysis was dedicated to solving the practical engineering problems of communication systems. The scope of this study cannot contain the details of this history.
Statement of Problem.
- The deployment of Human resources is ostentiously guided by the desire to get the best out of the staff through effective communication.
- The under-utilization or ineffective use of man power is a serious problem to human resource development.
- The long-term implications of government labour laws, in the principles of federal character and quota system makes human resource development, more often than not.
- The formation and modification of attitude of worker’s towards the introduction of information communication technology (ICT) is difficult.
Statement of Objective
- To make an inquiry of the method through which information communication technology is needed in Human Resources management.
- To use Human resources forecasting and development to control the challenges of human resource development.
- To use leadership factor to enhance information communication technology in the human resource development.
- To use tactical and administrative operational role to regulate various aspect of ICT and human resource challenges.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)
Information communication Technology (ICT) has several definition will be stated thus:
It is defined as a complex systematic process which involves, mechanized devices that can transmit, amplify, distribute, record, analyse and produce stimulus materials involved in all aspect of human and management of an organization with a feedback. (Ayotola Aremu and isreal A. Olasukanmi:1)
Significance of The Study
The study will be beneficial to human resource development administrators. This will enable them to learn about the role of information communication technology and the challenges it has on human resource development.
It will also help the human resource development administrators to learn and have the knowledge of different types of information communication technology. They will also learn its functions.
This study adopted counted analysis of the already existing literature on the subject. This involves examining what had already been written on the antecedent. This paper focused on the information communication technology (ICT) and Human resource development in Nigeria. The Application and challenges and their philosophies would wide. The use of secondary sources of data like text books, journals, magazines, daily news papers and discussion with information communication technology experts. Although it is difficult to have a full grasp of the application and challenges which human resource development on information communication technology (ICT) to address these issues, the paper shall attempt to provide answers to following questions.
- What is the different types of communication in Human Resource development.
- What are the Role of Communication in formal organization.
- Does appropriate Human Resource Development plan affects the utilization of Information Communication technology?.
- What are the challenges associated with effective communication in Human Resources Development.
HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
Many authors have variously defined human resource management, only four out of the numerous scholars. These experts includes Mathis and Jalkson (1997); Baney(1995); Frank (1974):105) Griffin (1997:10) and a host of other scholars too numerous to mention. The researcher will only present two definitions.
v Mathis and Jackson (1997:81) defined Human Resource as the design of formal system in an organization to ensure effective and efficient use of human talents to accomplish organizational activities directed at attracting developing and maintaining an effective workforce.
THE THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK.
The theoretical Framework will be based on the two theorem classical.
- Shannon Weavers Classical Model of Communication theory
- The Strategic Human resource Process Score Card.
- The Shannon weavers model of communication
The key step in Shannons work was his realization that in order to have there of communication signal must be treated in isolation from the meaning of messages that they transmit. His view is tin contrast with the common conception of information, in which meaning has an essential role. He (Shannon ) realized that a useful theory of information would first have to concentrate on the problems associated with sending and receiving message application of information theory in data compression this brings about Shannons concept of entropy which can be used to determine the maximum theoretical compression for a given message alphabet. This shows that if the entropy is less than the average length of an encoding compression is possible. This model further shows interrelationship among pars Ed.Tech.
The strategy Human Resource Process score card is the administration ability in acquiring, training appraising and compensating employees, and of attending to their labour relations, health safety and fairness concerts, most experts agree that there are forms basic function all manager reform, plan organization, staffing leading and controlling.
HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
This discourse will give the researcher the opportunity to embark into the role of human resources administration in national development in Nigeria. The intention is to present an argument to accentuate the position that human resources constitute the heartbeat of any country Oba (2005:57) states that the effective administration and development of these resources remain an indispensable, ingredient in engendering the development transformation of the society. It is overwhelming and glaring salience of human resources, successive regime in Nigeria (Military and civilian) Clearly neglected the cornerstones of development and progress. The force of the problem posed by neglect of human resources in development in Nigeria. In order to decompose the problem (Phraseology) stipulates that the human resources of a country shall be taken to refer simply to the people or masses of that country. The human development in Nigeria is originated from the emergence of the concept of family. It is believed that members first on the earth had a way human resource development in relation to information communication.
The role of Human Resource management in a Formal Organization.
Human Resource Management Performs two major roles
1.) The Strategic Role
2.) The operational role
1.) The Strategic Role – in this type of role that is critical for effective organizational functioning (Terpstra and Rozell 1992). Cited by (Onah, 2008:6) though was relegated previously but has grown in the last two decades. Wright and McMahan (1992) quoted by Onah (2008:6) stated that it is valuable for improving productivity.
2.) The Operational Role:- Operational activities are both lactical and administrative in nature (Mathis and Jackson, 1997) cited by (Onah, 2008:6) while griffin (1997) quoted by Onah (2008:6) sees it from the legal perspective because some have regulated various aspects of employee-employer relations.
The Different Types of Communication
Onah (2008) states that many authors agree that there are different types of classification of communication formal or official, informal or unofficial and lateral, diagonal or crosswise. He further added that formal communication can be equated with vertical while informal communication is synonymous with horizontal or lateral communication (Stoner et al (2000). Lole (1996), and Weihrich and Koonds (1993) ) cited by (Onah, 2008:325).
It is a classical hierarchical structure of an organization which follows line of authority; it is determined by upward and downward direction. The down ward from transmits policies, instructions etc. it also flows upward through the same route it flowed downward. The pattern described above is necessary to enable managers to coordinate effectively the work under their respective authorities (Onah, 2008:325).
Onah (2008:325) states that is necessary to establish communication outside formal line of authority in order to maintain organizational linkages to fill the gaps and omissions of the formal. This is more often than not done through oral or verbal and face-to-face. In our country this through rumors and gossips flowing though ethnic cliques and other sectional association. It also serves as a device for evaluating manager by thief subordinates.
It is a form of informal communication, but the difference is that while informal goes on and circulates in one organization. The lateral cuts across other organizations. It is in greater use and substantially encouraged in organization which encourages a high degree of delegation and team work. (Cole, 1996) cited by (Onah, 2008:326).
This has the following features oral, face to face, verbal and non-verbal symbol using body language facial expressions/gestures intonations which will help to convey the meaning of a message. Communication also, entails sharing meaning which presupposes that people must agree on the definition of the terms they employ Onah (2008:327) noted that some decisions reached in private is anchored on effective communications.
Human Resources Development Plan
Okoli Cited by Onah (2007:47) state that manpower planning is concerned with the acquisition and retention of the right mix of right number of workers at the right time. He added that it is mediated and enhanced by strategic objectives of the organization. He posited that usually the personnel department provides information about human resources to top management such information include:
- The implication of doubling the size of the organization in the next five years through promotion, for example,
- The cost involved in funding and hiring of labour force with rare skills or higher but relevant qualifications.
- The long term implication of government labour laws for example the federal character principle and quota systems .
Forecasting and Manpower Requirement.
This has some sterm move variables which impact negatively on the manpower requirement of an organization. It is imperative to forecast manpower so as not to be caught napping as it was. It represents an estimate of the future. It doesn’t require to follow a logical chain of the organization action rather some models or techniques that jump from past data to the future.
HUMAN RESOURCES AND PROCEDURES
Qualified people are vital component of any information system. Technical personnel include development and operational managers, system analyst and designers computer operators. In addition worker’s in an organization must be trained to utilize the capabilities of information systems. Hundreds of millions of people around the world are learning about information systems as they use web. (Encyclopaedia pp, 626). Information systems support operations, knowledgement work, and management in organizations.
There are several challenges associated with (ICT) and human resource developments as has been empirically tested by several scholars (Onah, 2008:322) some of these challenges will be listed and elaborated.
1.) Poor Planning.
2.) Ineffective Communication
3.) Unclarified Assumptions
4.) Selective Perception
5.) Semantic distortion
6.) Lack of trust
- Poor Planning: this has been identified as a major barrier to effective communication in an organization poor planning is a major cause of uncertainty about the direction of the organization (Weihrich and Koontz, 1993) cited by (Onah, 2008:332).
- Inneffective Communication Onah (2008:332) stated that it is also explicable in the light of vague performance, standards, which could leave managers uncertain of management expectation.
- Unclarified Assumption – He states that aspects of a message are overlooked and not expressly stated will underlie it may result in confusion and loss of good will.
- Selective perception. This according to Onah explained that as a barrier to effective communication when receivers (selectively) see and hear based on their needs, motivation and backgrounds
- Semantic Distortion: Ambiguity words are capable of creating distortion.
- Lack of Trust; Distrust and Misunderstanding pervades a relationship or occur among people, lack of trust reinforces the “halo effect or two valued thinking principle in communication.
- Human Resource development Managers should in their bid to foster the achievement of organization, objectives select the appropriate communication channel in and organization which should be easily understood by the subordinates.
- There should be a reliable feedback system of communication.
- Staff should be made to understand the relevance. Communication to human resource development managers.
- Communication should be used to enhance performance in the organization (Onah, 2008:332-334)
This research work started with the introduction of information theory which is regarded as a representation of the condition and parameters affecting the transmission and processing of information. The historical background was traced to the 19th century. The definition of terms of information communication technology and human resource development. It was also observed in the discuss that they over two roles of human resource management in a formal organization. Three types of communication were identified, the last segment of human resources and procedure illustrating with the structure of organizational information system.
To purchase complete Project Material, Pay the sum of N3, 000 to our bank accounts below:
BANK NAME: GUARANTY TRUST BANK (GTB)
ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 0044056891
BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC
ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122
After paying the sum of N3, 000 into any of our bank accounts, send the below details to our Phone: 07033378184
- Your Depositors Name
- Teller Number
- Amount Paid
- Project Topic
- Your Email Address
Send the above details to: 07033378184 or on/before 24hours of payment. We will send your complete project materials to your email 30 Mins after payment.
Articlesng.com will only provide papers as a reference for your research. The papers ordered and produced should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. It is the aim of Articlesng.com to only provide guidance by which the paper should be pursued. We are neither encouraging any form of plagiarism nor are we advocating the use of the papers produced herein for cheating.