Influence of Packaging on the Consumer Purchase Behaviour ( A Study of Paterson Zochonis)

Influence of Packaging on the Consumer Purchase Behaviour ( A study of Paterson Zochonis)

   Influence of Packaging on the Consumer Purchase Behaviour – This chapter focused on the producers The researcher adopted to obtain relevant data for the study. This stage appears critical because it involves implementing the research plan or design.
However, Ozo et al (1999:83) opined that research methodology involves or series of prior decisions that are taken together and thus, provide a master plan for executing A research project.

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Research methodology on the other hand, is the specification of producers for collecting and analyzing the data necessary to help solve the problem at hand, such that the difference between the cost of obtaining various levels of accuracy and the expected value of the information associated with Each level, full and Hawkins (1980:20)

As a led in Ozo et al (1999:83) pointed out that research methodology requires the specification of producers.
These producers involve decisions on what information to generate, the data collection method, the measurement approach the way in which the data are to be analyzed Since data collection has to do with field work, that is going out to meet respondents, it requires a lot of energy And patience to ensure that success is attained Ozo etal 1999:124-125) Based on these, the chapter highlights The following
    Sources of data collection (primary and secondary).
    Population of the study.
    Determination of sample, size.
    Selection and construction of research instrument.
    Validation of Research Instrument.
    Administration of Research Instrument.
    Method of Data Analysis.
    Limitations of the study.
SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION
The ultimate aim of every research is to find solution to a problem.
And the actualization of such purpose can be obtained through sourcing reliable data. Therefore, the collection of data depends on types of data collection, which include:
Primary and secondary data collection.
3.1.1    PRIMARY SOURCE OF DATA
The questionnaire was used as Research Instrument for sourcing Data, precisely primary data. Primary Data was collected from, management And relevant staff of Pz Enugu.
Also included are the consumers and Distributors of their products, in Abakaliki and Enugu respectively. Primary data was restricted to respondents because it involves Data that are usually obtained from the field, through interview, questionnaires, surveys planned experimental observations or recording of official transactions (Ozo et al 1999:127).
3.1.2    SECONDARY SOURCE OF DATA
Secondary data were collected through intensive review into related literature in books, journals and other related materials.
Secondary data however comprises of data that are obtained second hand from published or recorded sources and used for a purpose which may be different from that of the agency that initially collected And published the data.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
A study to determine the influence of packaging on consumer purchase Behaviour was a crucial study that Required adequate research skill. It is based on the nature of the study that the population was divided into three which include, management And relevant staff of Pz Enugu, which is 42, their distributors in Enugu which is 15, and the consumer of their consumer products which is as known.
DETERMINATION OF SAMPLE SIZE
A sample size means that proportion of the population which could represent the views of the whole population by this, the researcher in order to obtain a reasonable number of the population used the following tow methods for determining the sample sizes.
SAMPLE SIZE FOR STAFF
Since the population of the management and relevant staff was know, The researcher applied Bourley’s formular according to Ozo et al (1999:222) cuted Yamane (1973:727) The formular was given as
=
where
= The required sample size
= Total population
= error margin
= Constant
Thus:
=  (0.0025)

SAMPLE SIZE FOR CONSUMERS
Since the population of consumers of the products (consumer products) of Pz is unknown, the research carried out a pilot survey of 50 persons, in Abakaliki, out of which 26 said They consumer their products while 24 said, They dent To determine The sample size, Topuans formular was adopted as stated in Ozo et al (1999:223)—- full and Hawkins (1989). The formular was given as
=
Where:
n: required sample
= value of 2-score associated with the degree of confidence selected.
P= Probability of those who say they consumer their products.
= Probability of those who do not.
e= error margin
Thus:
n= ?
= value of -95% is 1.96
=
=
Therefore:
=
=
= 383:4 Approximately
384

SAMPLE SIZE FOR DISTRIBUTORS
The population of distributors of Pz in Enugu is 15 and as such was not reduced, since the number is very small. This was based on the point of view of Ozo et al (1999:88) that one of the conditions under which a researcher would study the entire population is for instance, a study of an organization whose population may be 30 may not require sampling.
SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
This study was conducted in Enugu And Abakaliki metropolis. The respondents were selected randomly, using the sample random sampling techniques. The method was chosen to give each item in the population an equal chance of being included in the sample.
SELECTION AND CONSTRUCTION OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
The choice of device that was selected for this study was the questionnaire. The questionnaire used were all simply and unambiguously structured to allow respondents fill required ensures without difficulties. The questionnaires contained both close and open ended questions.
VALIDATION OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
The questionnaire is a typical research instruments it should be designed. Therefore, in a way such that it could gather data from respondents appropriately. To actualize this, the Researcher carefully prepared the Instrument in a way to meet this purpose. On the other hand, the Instrument were validated by taken their to the supervisor of this study to read and make necessary connections before they were administered, hence ensuring the validity.
ADMINISTRATION OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
The researcher administered the Instrument personally to the respondents in Enugu and Abakaliki metropolis. The researcher also collected the Instrument after the respondents has filled them. However, the analysis of data in chapter four were strictly based on the numbers of correctly filled and returned questionnaires.
METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
The hypotheses were tested using chi-square. Simple tables, frequencies and percentages were used to analyse the data. Therefore the formular below was applied
=
Where
=chi-square value
Observed frequency
= expected frequency
Summation.
To determine whether the chi-square value computed is all or alternative, we consulted the table of   depended on the degree of freedom (d.f) the dif is (k-1).
Decisions rule: Accept Ho, if x2 computed is less or equal to the critical value, and reject Ho, if X2 computed is greater than the critical value, and reject H1, if X2 calculated is less than or equal to the critical value.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The ability of this study to achieve its purpose was first, constrained by insufficient finance this was due to the hand son aim ———- involved in traveling from time to time to Enugu together information.
Again, the researcher find it difficult to carry the research out along with other programmed activates piled up during the time of the researcher, hence creating time constraint as the during given for completion is as well very short.
Finally, the researcher did not find it all that easy to assemble information, materials and data needed for the study which were as a result of reluctancy of Respondents in given out information.

4.0     DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
Ozo etal (1999:161) opined that presentation and analysis of data are very necessary in a research process. This is because the researcher cannot benefit from the data collected without data. Every researcher must therefore, know how to analyze and interpret data in the appropriate way. They maintained that data analysis means the treatment of data in the correct way such that the researcher can read meaning out of them to enable him solve the researcher problem. Luck and Rubin (1989:142) pointed out that data analysis is the refinement and manipulation data that prefers them for application of logical inference.
Consequent upon the definitions above, one can safely say that presentation and analysis of data simply means bringing out the meaning of then to information     
4.1     DATA PRESENTATION
TABLE 4.1.1 RETURNS RATE OF QUESTIONNAIRES
Respondents
No of questionnaires administered
No of question
Percentage
Staff
38
35
92%
Distributors
15
14
93%
Consumers
384
375
98%
Total
437
424
97%
SOURCE: FIELD WORK, 2007
Table 4.1.1 shows the Return rate of questionnaires from respondents out of 38 sets of questionnaires administered to management and relevant staff of Pz, 35 sets were correctly filled and returned, showing a return rate of 92% from them.
15sets were administered to distributors while 14 were correctly filled and returned, representing a 93% return rate. 384 sets were administered to consumers, while 375 were correctly filled and returned, representing 98% of return rate from consumers. In all, 437 sets of questionnaire were administered, while 324 were correctly filled and returned, showing an aggregate return rate of 97%.
TABLE 4.1.2 SEX DISTRIBUTION OF MANAGEMENT AND RELEVANT STAFF
SEX
Response frequency
percentage
MALE
24
69%
FEMALE
11
31%
Total
38
100%
SOURCE FIELD WORK 2007
Table 4.1.2 shows sex distribution of management and relevant staff of Pz in Enugu. 24 respondents which is 69% of the respondents while 11 are female which 31% of the respondents.
TABLE 4.1.3 SEX DISTRIBUTION OF DISTRIBUTORS  
SEX
Response frequency
Percentage
MALE
13
93%
FEMALE
1
7%
TOTAL
14
100%
SOURCE: FIELD WORK 2007
Table 4.1.3 shows sex distribution of distributors of Pz in Enugu. It shows that 13 respondents are male and they constitute 93% of the respondents. While only 1 respondent is a female and it constitute 7% of the respondents.
TABLE 4.1.4: SEX DISTRIBUTION OF CONSUMER
Sex
RESPONSE FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
MALE
189
51%
FEMALE
186
49%
TOTAL
375
100%
 SOURCE: FIELD WORK, 2007
Table 4.1.4 shows the sex distribution of consumers. According to the table, 189 respondents are male and they represent 51% of the respondents. On the other hand, 186 respondents are female and they represent 49% of the respondents.
TABLE 4.1.5: RESPONSE ON WHETHER PZ HAS PACKAGING PROGRAMME
OPTIONS
RESPONSE FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
YES
35
100%
NO
TOTAL
35
100%
SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY, 2007
Table 4.1.5 shows that Pz has packaging programmes, since all the respondents said yes.
TABLE 4.1:6: RESPONSES ON WHETHER THE PROGRAMMES ARE HELPFUL
OPTIONS
RESPONSES FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
YES
35
100%
NO
TOTAL
35
100%
SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY, 2007
Table 4.1.6 shows that the packaging programmes have been helpful to Pz. This is because all the respondents said yes.
TABLE 4.1.7: RESPONSES ON WHETHER PACKAGING IS ONE OF THE COMPANY’S STRATEGY
OPTIONS
RESPONSES FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
YES
35
100%
NO
TOTAL
35
100%
SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY

 

TABLE 4.1.7 SHOWS THAT PZ USE PACKAGING AS ONE OF THEIR MARKETING STRATEGY SINCE ALL RESPONSES POINTED POSITIVE.
TABLE 4.1.8 RESPONSES ON FACTORS THE COMPANY CONSIDERS MOSTLY DURING
PACKAGING DEVELOPMENT
OPTIONS
RESPONDENTS FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
Costs
35
100%
Legal aspect
Diversification
Process refinement
All of the above
None of the above
Total
35
100%
SOURCE: FIELD WORK, 2007
Table 4.1.8 shows that PZ considers costs mostly during packaging development, since the table shows a 100% response on costs
Table 4:1:9: Responses on whether company observed the stages in packaging develop for successful packaging.
OPTIONS
RESPONSES FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
Yes
15
42.8%
No
8
22.8%
Not
12
34.%
Total
35
100%
SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY
 Table 4:1:9 shows that 15 respondents were of the view that Pz observes the stages to successful packaging, they represent 42.8% of the total response those into say they don’t are 8, which is 22.8% while those who said they do, but not always are 12, representing 34.2% response rate.
Table 4.1.10: Responses on the factor they concentrate on most in piloting programme stage if they observed those stage.
OPTIONS
RESPONSES FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE
Internal resources
External resources
Timed element
All of the above
No particular one
27
100%
Total
27
100%
SOURCE: FILED SURVEY, 2007.
Table 4.1:11 shows that all the respondents opined that Pz considers all the factors during selecting the stage. This is because there were 100% response rate on this.
Table 4.1:12 Responses on the most important stage
Options
Response frequency
Percentage
Piloting the programme
Determining product needs
Selecting the tools
Selecting the packages
Design considerations
Production and handling
Auditing the package
All of the above
27
100%
Total
27
100%
  SOURCE FILED SURVEY, 2007.
The responses from table 4:1:12 shows that the respondents opined that all the stages are important to the company’s. since it is a 100% response rate on all of the above.
Table 4.1.13: Responses on why Pz include packaging as a management tool.
Options
Response frequency
Percentage
Increased use branding
Rising public sanitization
5
14:3%
Completion
26
74:3%
Increased self service outlets
4
11:4%
Increased consumer affluence
Opportunities for innovations
Total
35
100%
 SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY, 2007
Table 4:1:13 shows that 5 respondents opined that Pz included packaging as a management tool because of rising public sanitization, and they constitute 14.3% of the responses. Those who said it is competition are 26, with 74.3% response rate. 4 persons said it was because of increased self-service outlets, and they constitute 4% of the response rate.
Table 4:1:13 Response on the benefits is most favourable to the organizations packaging decisions programmes.
Options
Response frequency
percentage
Concept (what the package should d
5
14.3%
Design
7
20.0%
Testing
Changing packaging
Packaging productline
Re-use packaging
Multiple packaging
23
65.7%
Total
35
100%
SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY, 2007.
Table 4:1:13 shows that 5 respondents opined that concept is more beneficial, And they constitute 14.3%. those who said it was design are 7, with 20% response rate 23 respondents opined that it was multiple packaging, hence with larger percentage of 65.7%.   
Table 4:1:14: Responses on the problems that normally arise from packaging.
Options
Response frequency
Percentage
Disposal problem
14
100%
Expensive product
Deception
Larger to health 
Total
14
100%
  Table 4:1:15: Responses on what packaging qualities enhances product” marketing efficiency most.
Options
Response frequency
Percentage
Ability to contain a product
Protection of a product
14
100%
Aids transport and handing
Aids product acceptance
Aids product identification
Vehicle for segmentation
Total
14
100%
 SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY, 2007.
Table 4:1:15 shows that protection of a product is the packaging quality or benefit enhances marketing efficiency most this is due to 100% response rate on protection.
Table 4:1:16 responses on why packaging have become more popular.
Options
Response frequency
percentage
Preference for self-service
4
28.6%
Increased consumer affluence
Need to alleviate poverty
Competitive pressure
6
42%
Desire to improve image
4
28%
Total
14
100%
SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY, 2007
Table 4:1:17 Shows that retaining undesired movement during transit is the suitable function of package for distribution this is due to the 100% response rate on it.
Table 4:1:18 Response on whether PZ’s packaging is Durable for distribution.
Options
Response frequency
Percentage
Yes
14
100%
No
Total
14
100%
 SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY, 2007.
Table 4:1:18 shows that Pz’s packaging is durable for distribution. This is because all the respondents said yes.
Table 4:1:19 Response on whether other packaging serves promotional function.
Options
Response frequency
Percentage
Yes
14
100%
No
Total
14
100%
SOURCE: FIELD WORK, 2007.
Table 4:1:19 Shows that PZ’s packaging serves promotional function. This is because all the respondent said yes.
Table 4:1:20: Response on most essential level of packaging during distribution. 
Options
Response frequency
Percentage
Primary
Secondary
Shipping
14
100%
Total
14
100%
   SOURCE: FIELD WORK 2007.
Table 4:1:20 Shows that shipping package is most essential during distribution. This is because of the 100% response rate.
Table 4:1:21: Responses on whether packaging can be used as a suitable promotional tool for marketing consumer goods.
Options
Response frequency
percentage
Strongly Agreed
4
28.6%
Agreed
8
57.1%
Strongly disagreed
Disagreed
2
14.3%
Total
14
100%
SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY 2007.
Table 4:1:12 shows that 4 respondents strongly agreed that packaging be used as a promotional tool for marketing consumer goods and they constitute 28.6% of the response rate. 8 simply agreed, with 87.1% response rate, while 2 simply disagreed, representing 14.3% response rate.
Table 4:1:22: Responses on performance rating of the company’s packaging.   
Options
Response frequency
percentage
Favourable
10
71%
Unfavourable
4
29%
Total
14
100%
SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY, 2007
Table 4:1:22 shows that 10 respondents are of the view that Pz’s packaging are favourable, and they constitute 71% of the response rate. Those who said it is unfavourable are 4, representing 29% of the response rate.
Table 4:1:23: Responses of whether Pz needs to improve in their packaging programme.
Options
Response frequency
percentage
Yes
60
15.4%
No
128
32.9%
Not much
201
51.6%
Total
389
100%
SOURCE: FIELD WORK, 2007
Table 4:1:23 shows that 60 respondents opined that Pz need to improve in packaging, and they constitute 15.4%. on the other hand, 128 respondents said they don’t need to improve and they constitute 32.9% also. While 201 respondents opined that they need to improve a little, and this group represent 51.6% of the total responses.
Table 4:1:24: Responses on whether the consumer buy based on packaging preference.
Options
Response frequency
percentage
Yes
189
51%
No
186
49%
Total
375
100%
   SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY, 2007.
Table 4:1:24 shows that 189 respondents, representing 51% of the response rate opined that they buy based on the packaging, while 186, constituting 49% said they don’t buy based on packaging.
Table 4:1:25: Responses on whether the packages of the sampled products perform their purposes well.
Options
Response frequency
percentage
Yes
175
47%
No
Not always
200
53%
Total
357
100%
SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY, 2007.
Table 4:1:25 shows that 178 respondents representing 47% of the response rate said that the packages perform their purposes. While 200 respondents, constituting 53% opined hey do, but not all the time.
Table 4:1:26: Responses on the packaging factors you consider most while buying.
Options
Response frequency
percentage
Durability
79
21.0%
Protective
130
34.7%
Attractive
78
20.8%
Information
42
11.2%
Colour
46
12.35
Total
375
100%
  SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY, 2007.
Table 4:1:26 shows that 79 respondents (21.0%) consider durability, 130 (34.7%) consider protective 78 (20.8%) consider attractive, 42 (11.2%) consider information, while 46 (12.3% consider colour.
Table 4:1:27: Responses on Re-useable packages.
Options
Response frequency
Percentage
Yes
175
47%
No
No
200
53%
Total
375
100%
 SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY 2007.
Table 4:1:29 Shows that 175 respondents, representing 47% of the response rate opined that they preferred packages that are reusable. While 200 (53%) said they preferred it but not in all cases. 
4.2     DATA ANALYSIS
TEST OF HYPOTHESES
Hypothesis one: This was tested with reference to questionnaire if packaging is one of your company’s management tool, do your company see it as means of increased profitability?
RE-STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS
Ho: Poor product patronages does not depend on poor packaging.
H1: Poor product patronages depends on poor packaging.
OPTION
Strongly Agreed
5
8.75
Agreed
10
8.75
Disagreed
8
8.75
Strongly disagreed
12
8.75
Total
35
35
Expected frequency =
                                         =
       =
= +++
= +++
=
=3.1
Comparing the computed chi-square with the critical value, 3.1 is less 7.8.15 since (k-1) =4-1=3.
Decision Rule: Since   computed is <7.815, we accept Ho and reject H1. we therefore, concluded that poor product patronages does not depend on poor packaging.
Hypothesis Two: This was tested with reference to question 12  of the consumers’ questionnaires would you be satisfied if you purchase a well developed product that is poorly packaged.

 

RE-STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS
 Ho: A well developed product cannot as well give rise to a dissatisfied consumer if poorly packaged.
H1: A well developed product can as well give rise to a dissatisfied consumer if poorly packaged.
Options
Strongly Agreed
100
93.75
Agreed
185
93.75
Disagreed
50
93.75
Strongly disagreed
40
93.75
Total
375
375
   Expected frequency =
                                 
       X2= E
= +++
= +++
=
=
Comparing the computed chi-square with the critical value, 140.8 is greater than 7. 815, since (K-1) =4=1=3.
Decisions Rule: Since computed  is > 7.815, we accept H1, and reject Ho. We therefore, conclude that a well developed product can as well give rise to a dissatisfied consumer of poorly packaged.
Hypothesis Three: This was tested with reference to question 6 of the distributions’ questionnaire.
DO YOU THINK MOST OF YOUR SALES ON PZ’S CONSUMER PRODUCTS COME AS A RESULT OF THEIR PACKAGING
RE-STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS
Ho: Good packaging programme does not make a firm to win larger market share.
H1: Good packaging programme makes a firm to win larger market share.
Options
Strongly Agreed
9
3.5
Agreed
3
3.5
Strongly disagreed
1
3.5
Disagreed
1
3.5
Total
14
375
 Expected frequency  =
                                 
=       
= +++
= +++
=
=12.27
Comparing the computed chi-square with the criticalvalue 12.27> is greater than 7.815, since (k-1) =4=1=3.
Decision Rule: Since computed is >7.815, we accept H1 and reject Ho. We therefore, conclude that good packaging programme makes a firm to win larger market share.
Hypothesis Four: This was tested with reference to question 11 of the consumers’ questionnaire.
 HAVE YOU BEEN STIMULATED TO PURCHASE ANY OF THE SAMPLED PRODUCTS BECAUSE OF ITS PACKAGING?  
RE-STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
Ho: Immediate purchase decision on consumer goods is not triggered by attractive packaging.
H1: Immediate purchase decision on consumer goods is triggered by attractive packaging.
Options
Often
175
125
Rarely
15
125
Not at all
49
125
Total
375
375
  
Expected frequency =
                                 
=
= ++
= ++
Comparing the computed chi-square with critical value 71.6 >5.911, since (k-1)=3=1=2
Decision Rule: Since computed is greater than the critical value, we accept H1, and reject Ho. We therefore, conclude that immediate purchase, decision on consumer goods is triggered by attractive packaging.
5.0      SUMMARY OF FINDINGS  CONCLUSION and RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter focused on how the researcher has achieved the purpose of the study through intensive review, research methodology presentation and interpretation of data which gave rise to the findings through recommendations were made and conclusions drawn.
5.1     SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
In line with the purpose of this study the following were found.
That the packaging decisions of PZ have been helped as a promotional strategy, the company considers special features of products target market. Buying habits of customers (active and potential retail considerations and use factors during selecting the target market stage of stages to successful product’s packaging. On the other hand, no particular is concentrated on during piloting programme stage Pz included packaging management tool because of competitive pressure.
The researcher also found out that the company packaging has become popular it aids transportation and product handling. This is because it is most cases retrains undesired movement during transit. Therefore, the company’s packaging is durable since they are transported in shipping packages.
More so, their packaging perform promotional function, hence encourages marketing efficiency.
Apart for these, the researcher also discovered that packaging performance rating is favourable through needs A very little, improvement to meet the needs of unsatisfied market. For instance some of the cardboard packages don’t always perform effectively.
Not with standing, these numerous advantages of packaging, the researcher discovered one outstanding disadvantages of packaging to be disposed problem, hence causing environmental pollution.
Protection has been discovered as the major reason why consumers buy packaged products.
Further more, it has been found that poor product patronages does not depend on poor packaging. Therefore, there may be other factors that could lead to poor products patronages like uncoordinated marketing mix marketing strategy and ignorance of promotional tools in products marketing.
Again, a well developed product can as well give rise to an unfavourable cognitive dissonance as a result of poor packaging. For instance, a child who bought a socket packaged chocolate from the ground as a result of pilferages on the package of the chocolate.
The researcher also found out that food packaging programmes makes firm to usurp larger market share since most immediate purchases are triggered off by attractive packaging.          
5.2      CONCLUSION
Based on the findings, the researcher concluded that poor products patronages do not occur as a result of poorly packaged products, or inappropriate decisions on packaging. Nevertheless, adequate packaging is still important since a consumer would not be satisfied to experience poor performance of package of a well developed goods.
Again, that a firm who knows her onion on packaging has set a step to success. Besides, packaging is one of the promotional tools capable for stimulating immediate purchase from active and potential buyers,
Finally, a part from these benefits, the most demerit aspect of packaging is environment pollution.   
5.3     RECOMMENDATION
To solve the research problem that propelled the researcher to write, the following are recommended.
1.          That firms PZ should not only rely on packaging as their marketing strategy, they should also ensure they co-ordinate marketing mix other promotional tools like adverting, sales promotion, public relations publicity and personal selling to achieve efficiency.
2.          The should ensure that their cardboard packages should all be enhanced with water resistance materials for example imperial leather soap and Lux soap packages are water resistance, except when soaked in water for a while
3.          The should ensure that all batches of their packages are the same situations where some batch of packages produced are not competent should be avoided. Therefore uniform package production of all batches should be their watch word.
4.          Given the increased competitive marketing environment, innovations should be made on packages in order to satisfy consumers more better and keep the company ahead of its competitors.  

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