The Influence Of Job Incentives In Organizations Operation

THE INFLUENCE OF JOB INCENTIVES IN ORGANIZATIONS OPERATION (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BOTTLING COMPANY PLC NINTH MILE, ENUGU STATE)

Management involve the creation of environment for the performance of individual  working together in group towards the achievement of  common goal by utilizing the limited available resources to maximize production.

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Therefor  management   should co-ordinate the activities  of their workers in order to  achieve organization operation. Onitiri (1983) stressing the importance of productivity “the level of productivity is a central determination of standard of living : he  highlighted he necessary ingredients for the attachment and maintenance of High of living   as abundant resource accumulated productive capital etc.

However he said that without a high level of productivity  standard of living may be abysmally low even if these favorable factor are present speaking on the importance of production Galbrate  (1958) speaks for individual  consumption when he says  production for the scale  of good in no longer urgent in the whole field of public  service he funds and appealing under supply and description of imbalance  between the public and private sector of the American economy.

In supporting this view beholding (!955) says the importance of productivity lies in the ability of an enterprise to maximize its profit and  for this to happen the marginal revenue productivity of any  variable input must be equal to its marginal cost production despot the fact that the important workers in productive process  not be over emphasize due to the effect of job incentives like conducive work averment better transport facilities good accommodation moderate working hours etc. which make them more productive the effect of financial incentive or wages can not be delegated  to the background.

Some behavioral scientist have produced a number of models which seek to explain the relationship between wages or pay and work  and  also seek to explain the  role  of money as a motivation factor in enhancing working productivity. The emphasis have been placed on remuneration in terms of wages, has varied historically and there has tended  in recent years for more consideration to be given to non financial factors.

Factors that will increase worker  productivity in united  states of America (us) may differ from that of Nigeria being developed and developing countries rescuers even in Nigeria research shows that preference for incentives will differ between two workers of different education background. While the highly educated man  might prayer salary increase the labourer with little or no education will ask for advancement opportunity

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Jurgensen (1974) found out that preference for  the level of education affected incentive. According to him, opportunity for advancement become more important as the level of education increase.  This is due to the fact that a well of education  follow can easily find a  suitable job elsewhere. Other factors which should not be neglected I- this discussion are social and nationality factors.

Muker and form (1954) analyzing the Hawthorn experiment in their book. “ industrial sociology” says that there are other factor that are more important than hours wage or physical conduction of work something, which increase productivity no matter what is done about physical condition on the nationality factors, as it is in the study of Nagle it was show that  commitment which affect workers productivity and satisfaction level with industrial employment tend to be higher  among worker employed in the factories which have more foreigners in their management hierarchy, wilimort P.F (1973).

All we have been discussing so far in this chapter is all directed to the motivation (ie influence ) of worker in organization. We shall now discuss on the concept and its effect in organization operations.

 

MOTIVATION

For any organization to attend its set of objective in it operation the workers have to be effectively motivated. Motivation can be defined as any force or thing that propels or impels an individual to behave in certain ways. Or that it’s the function which the management performs to stimulate employees contribution effectively to the achievement of  organizations objectives.

 

THE THEORY OF MOTIVATION

There has not been a steady progression of the development of ideas regarding motivation. In psychology probably more than in any other field there continue to be many school of through.

The first school of though we wan to look at this study is one that has a hedonistic view. This school of through simply says that man is a pain avoiding pleasure seeking animal and that he will when forced with alternative chose the course of action that will maximize his pleasure and try to avoids a course of action that will cause him pain these concept base strongly on the absorption that man is essentially a rational animal and will be able to discern which of the alternative pattern of behavior will be most beneficial to him.

Another theory  of motivation attributes  behaviour to various instincts. The consumption is that man has basic  instincts which cause him to act in certain ways. Once he has learned to avcts in certain ways the instincts themselves may atrophy. But the habits or learned palterns of behavior continues. This instincts eventually fell into dispute which is been replace with the concept that mans behavior is seen to be based not on inherent built instincts on pattern of behavior as learned through the interaction of individual with his environment the last school of through is discussed in this study is the  one that attribute mans behavior to various motive. Or needs.

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This theory is the most widely acceptable in the society today. That the largest part of influence on man behavior is the satisfaction of intrinsic needs.

There are so many psychologist and university professors who have contributed to motivation of mains intrinsic needs. The ones mostly accepted are Abraham Maslow, fredence herzberg and David Mc Cleveland. We think it pertinent to discuss on  Abraham maslows contribution that is the  Hierarchy of needs theory; out forward by the human relation school in order to critically analyze it as it affects Nigeria situation.

Those need are arrange in their order of potency the strongest needs at the bottom as follows.

Need for Esteem

Need for self actualization

Safety need

Physiological need.

It is maslows contention that as the more potent need  as the lower level of the hierarchy are met, the satisfaction of  these needs (however temporary) gives rise to satisfaction of these needs (however temporary) gives rise  to satisfaction of higher needs.

Maslow’s theory is said to have provided answer to some questions that oft6en baffled baffled administrators and manger, that is why some workers are highly motivated by money and others are not.

Why some workers with the some position and pay different level of involvement and commitment to maslow, the answer lies in the fact that the individual occupies taking critical look at the theory one will be forced to ask valid is this theory in application to Nigeria’s cases.

Most of Nigeria workers see their jobs in term of  the revenue derived from it and their satisfaction or otherwise is determine by the size of pay derived from the job. It is obvious that man’s primary motivation for work is monetary or financial incentives that to obtain the highest quantity and maximum pzroductivi0ty,. Managers should give some special incentives to their worker.

 

IMPLICATION FOR MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT

We might ask what has all these motivation theories to do with management development or the organization operation? There are implication based  on these theories and are discussed here in.

The first implication is that level of people consists largely of releasing the potential inside them. These approaches of development rest on the assumption that every human being begins with the individual is stimulated be know.

The second aspect that related to management is that development activities that of a training nature must make series to individual in terms of relating to his pursuit of need satisfaction. This means that the manager must see the relevance of any training activities imposed upon him by the organization.

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Lastly, the implication is that of the environmental organization should work out suitable environment for it’s workers, the superior manager who is the key factors of the organization should endeavor to set a suitable policy. (the rules and regulations that he establishes) the delegate of authority8, the tolerance for mistakes and the know of communication he is willing to establish in hi area. All these should always be a changing form with the  reality of the situation at the moment in time, which he finds himself.

 

VARIABLES INFLUENCING EMPLOYER BEHAVIOUR

If a business is to function successfully and achieved its objectives and goal, there must be a valid, meaningful, and acceptable relationship between the work and the rewards received.

Employers provide employees with a side varity8 system. These compensation system which influence the employee behavior are:

 

 

JOB SECURITY

This is the first demand maid by the employee in the employer – employee exchange process. This can be related survival which is the life stile that provides ascertain amount of housing, clothing, transport. Education, health and recreational opportunities that are above substance level today and improvement on these opportunity tomorrow . other compensation system is moderate working hour, good working environment and comfortable retire ment scheme. From  the work of countries behavioral scientist, it may be inferred that four major forces  influencing human behavioral scientist, it may be inferred that four major f0orces influencing human behavior can be identified

  1. Demand for survival
  2. Development of self
  3. Concern for others

Desire for independence.

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