Impact of Education in Rural Development Process
Impact of Education in Rural Development Process – This chapter concern with reviewing what has been said or written directly or indirectly in relation to this work. The review of relevant literature therefore shall fall under the following heading.
- Conceptual Framework
- Models of rural development process
- Strategies of rural development process
- Practice of rural development
- Provision of basic infrastructure in rural development
- Rural development and education
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The term rural development at present means various things to various people William (1978), for a long time rural development and agricultural output were viewed as referring to the same situations. In recent years, it has been argued that agriculture is by no means the only possible occupation for rural dwellers and accordingly a new and broader view of rural development has emerged. Different definition of rural development within this broader framework exists in the literature.
Udo (1984), rural development is a process of not only increasing the level of per capital income in the rural sectors, but also the standard of living of the rural dweller, this definition goes on to observe that the standard of living depends on a complex of factors such as food and nutrition levels, health, education, housing, recreations, security and among others.
Rural development has also been define as the outcome of a series of quantitative change occurring among a given rural population and whose emerging effect indicate in time arise in the standard of living and favourable changes in the way of life of the people concerned.
According to Lele (1975),rural development implies improving living standard of the masses of the low income population residing in rural areas and making the process of their development self sustaining.
According to Todaro (1979) development implies the multi-dimensional process involving changes in structures, attitudes and institution as well as the acceleration of economic growth, the reduction of inequality and eradication of absolute poverty. In other words, development is now viewed as a sustainable increase in the socio-economic welfare of a population.
According to Moseley Malcolm (2003), define rural development as the general process of improving the quality of life and economic wellbeing of the people living in relatively isolated and sparsely populated areas. This means that rural development changes in global production and network and also increases the urbanization potential of changing the character of geographical locations.
The discussion presented above indicates clearly that rural development is associated with changes in social and economic structures, institutions, relationship and processes. In other words, rural development goes beyond agricultural and economic growth, it entails the creation and fair sharing of social and economic benefits resulting from this growth.
Models of Rural Development
Models are a skeletal representation of a theory, in other words model is the representation of reality in an idealized form on which theories are built. For the purpose of this study, the following models will be adopted.
- High input pay off model
- Incrementalist model
- Laissez faire model
High Input Pay Off Model
This model which was formulated by T.W.Schultz (1964), argues that in order to improve the production capacity of the rural areas, programmes of development must include a package of high yielding and profitable new inputs on which organization or institution can invest. The model further articulate that education modernization strategy must also emphasize a favourable input-output ratio, the model also emphasized that education modernization cannot proceed far unless there is investment in research to produce and disseminate input embodying new technology and in the education of rural dwellers on whom rest the task of allocating the resources for developing such investment, the model argues are associated with very high rate of return compare to investment in alternative project.
The high input pay off model has considerable relevance for educational development in the area study in the following number of ways.
- It provides a theoretical basis for a positive change in the context of educational development.
- It provides a justification for government investment in education and educational research and the training of educational scientists.
- It gives part of the explanation for the observed failure of educational management and provision for the extensive programmes to increase productivity in education.
- It provides strong support for current efforts of government to boost education system through subsidization of the purchase of textbooks, computers and instructional materials.
The incrementalist model is concerning planning remedy to immediate or pressing problems of educational system in rural development process; it is an attempt to answer issues that cannot wait for a compressive analysis by the planner. This model was designed originally by Charles (1969), he described the action of planner in an imperfect situation. Instrumentalist model looks at the real work of the planner to see how the majority of the decision is reached. It tries to adopt the decision making process to the limitations and challenges to the rural world of the decision maker. This model does not try to dear comprehensively to educational problems in rural areas; rather it deals with matters in disjointed fashion with each action being only a marginal departure from previous action or decision. Many incrementalist models are matter of trial and error. Hence, it is also called the science of modeling through. The incrementalist model is facilitated by the structure of the societies.
The discussion presented above indicates clearly that education in rural areas has pressing problems that requires comprehensive analysis rather than marginal departure. It is against this background. I suggest that both state and local government should as a mater of fact stop the trial and error to educational problems in rural areas and have remedy perfection to imperfect situation in avoidance of rural-urban migration in terms of educational system.
Laissez Faire Model
These models are described as laissez faire because they involve minimum intervention in the process of rural development, although this model places emphasis on the planning of education through large or sizeable fiscal allocation to rural areas. However, the transformation of rural education is expected to take place through large investment in education system or via introduction of subsidies to education input and provision of basic infrastructure to improve the living standard of rural dwellers, also to support the education in rural areas.
Strategies of Rural Development
This part of the research work expresses some strategies that can be used for rural development. They are:
- Community Development and Self-Help (CDSH)
- Participatory Approach to Rural Development (PARD)
- Agricultural Extension or Education Extension (AEEE)
Community Development and Self-Help
One major strategy that has been adopted in rural development is community development
Community development involves the movement of the people designed to promote better standard of living for the whole community with the active participation of community concerned.
According to Dunham (1970), community development is not concerned with anyone aspect of life such as health, education, business and agriculture. It is concerned with the total community life and needs. Ideally, it involves all the members of the community and requires their fullest participation in first making and then implementing decisions. In other words, community development entails with government authorities to improve their economic, social and cultural condition.
However, if the initiative is not forthcoming from members of the community concerned, then the government can stimulate their interest through various strategies such as enlightenment campaigns, projects and financial aids for specific projects. Okafor (1984).
A large proportion of the benefit or impact of community activities in rural areas has been due to the role self-help groups. This implies that in those rural areas where there are no effective self-help groups, community development activities have not made much impact on the social welfare of the rural dwellers. Experience in different communities suggests that education has an important role to play in the emergence of self-help groups in many communities in rural areas. This is due to the fact that the initiative for the formation of such groups and the articulation of their self-help programmes generally comes from the education of members of any community.
In the field of education, many communities are involved in building of classrooms for primary and secondary schools. They also provide basic infrastructure such as rural roads and bridges, health care centres and other facilities.
Participatory Approach to Rural Development
It has become more and more widely held that it is futile to attempt to implement schemes of rural development without the participation of the intended beneficiaries (the rural dwellers).
Development is to be achieved with and by the people not just for the people. FAO (1978).
Advantages of participatory approach are as follow:
- More information about rural needs, problems, capabilities and experience; since effective planning requires specific information of the sort only rural people can provide.
- Maintenance of activities and services such as roads, cannels, Terrance buildings and other facilities should be more complete and effective.
- Implementation should be smoother and quicker once understanding and assent have been generated through participation, as rural dwellers usually cooperate more willingly in decision and plans in which they have participated.
Agricultural Extension or Education Extension
Education extension has been described by Fenley and Williams (1964) as bringing about improvement to education in particular and rural areas in general through carefully planned and organized programmes, bases on sound principle of teaching and learning, it is carried on thoughtfully and systematically in an atmosphere of mutual trust and respect. This suggests that extension work is concerned with teaching of rural dwellers on how to raise their standard of living considering the peculiar problem facing them.
In this respect, education extension is concerned with making available to rural dwellers the benefit from research and technology and its ultimate aim is raise their efficiency and thus achieve a higher level of living. William (1978).
Education extension has played a major role in the social adjustment of the rural areas to the changing conditions of the modern society. The management of family income, child care, food and nutrition, problem arising from poverty and available opportunities are all areas in which extension can help. Education extension is involved in a verity of rural development, effective use of natural resources and manpower utilization. All of these are concerned with raising the quality of life in the rural areas.
Practice of Rural Development
Rural development has undergone several modifications both in ideology and practice. The present rural development campaign is for all practical purposes. The campaign is expressed and conducted in the name of community development, social development, agricultural development, mass literacy, education, welfare cooperative development and villagization etc.
The origins of organized community development in Nigeria are lost in antiquity but they were effectively used during the colonial days as a preparatory policy for local government and mass literacy education (Jackson (1956) & Okafor (1984), although community development as practiced in Nigeria tend to have different meaning to different people. Its mode of operation involves to essential elements.
- The participation of the people themselves in efforts to improve their own initiative.
- The provision of technical and other services in ways which not only encourage initiative self-help and mutual assistance but which also make them more effective.
The emphasis therefore, is on the need to encourage community of people to identify their own wants and needs and to work cooperatively at satisfying them. The mass education and villagization components of rural development programmes are obviously related to the community development stance of rural development adopted in post-colonial days. For one thing, mass education has specific character as instrument of community development and in particular of local government, they are instrument for facilitating penetration of peripheral rural environments. The policy of rural development and its reorganization is clearly stated in the 1946-56 development plan of Nigeria where that:
“Many of the development schemes proposed in this ten-years plan such as water supplied roads, provision of dispensaries, etc. will assist towards the improvement of living conditions but this alone will be insufficient if steps are not taken simultaneously for the orginazation of layouts’’
Against the background of these various attempts made by the governments to penetrate the rural areas with development, it is possible to collapse these efforts into a few salient rural development policies and programmes and then examine how they have been implemented.
Provision of Basic Infrastructure
Infrastructures are the basic systems and services that are necessary for an organization to run smoothly. In other words, it is the basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise (Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary).
Educational institution cannot function effectively without the support of infrastructural institution; furthermore, infrastructural facilities are important for the improvement of the standard of living in the rural areas. Transportation is an important instrument of rural development because accessibility is a vital exchange for development. For instance, if products of the rural areas meant for external market cannot be transported from the rural areas to their various destination, such products can be left to rot in the field. This constitutes not only a loss to the national development but also to rural income and development. Therefore, one cannot stop emphasizing the importance of transportation in rural development.
Other infrastructural facilities for rural development include those dealing with water supply, housing, schools, clinics and electrification. The provision of clean drinkable water for humans is of vital importance for maintaining the health of rural
dwellers. Rural electrification and improved sanitation are also quite basic institutions in rural development process. The latter is a measure of improved living standards and the formal will arrest immigration of the youth, since the events in towns can be brought to them in rural areas, in the end, a much better health and nutrition, better social-life, and a better enlightened rural sector will emerge. La-Anyane (1975).
Rural Development and Education
There is general agreement in many countries today that the rate of agriculture and rural development is directly related to the educational standard of the rural communities. Education, both general and specialized will induce economic motivation, widen social and economic horizon and predispose to them to greater receptivity of new ideas. Idachaba (1975).
However, if education is to have it required impact in the rural development process, there is an urgent need to modify the coarse content of the various educational institutions and to intensify adult education programmes designed to improve the awareness and the skills of the rural dwellers. Thus, there is the need for the entire educational system to be geared largely and purposefully to high level manpower projections at the expense of the rural areas. Rural education has not so far given due emphasis to practical farm education. Agricultural education of any kind seems to be virtually non-existent in many secondary schools; the greatest need of education for rural development is in the area of secondary education particularly the provision of a higher grade trained technician to support the professional grade and to engage in actual teaching. Furthermore, there is a vital need for sub-educational administrative board within the rural areas.
This article was extracted from a Project Research Work Topic
“IMPACT OF EDUCATION IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROCESS”
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