The Impact of Marketing in the Development of Tourism



THE IMPACT OF MARKETING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU STATE)

Much have been said and written about the Tourism Centers in marketing services or organization. Tourism is very important in every organization even in the marketing industry and also in our traditional society.

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ANEKE (2000) in a research study on impact of marketing in the development of tourism in Enugu state. His findings were that tourism policy have long been developed by the country but the problem lies on the implementation of the polices evocated. That has been the brain behind th poor development of tourism industry in the country as a whole. It was also found out that what we call tourist centers in Enugu state are mere tourist attractions while some with potentialities are still undeveloped. It was also observed that most of the tourist organizations in Enugu state do not have marketing department in the organization of promotion of their centers were based on ordinary advertisements on Radio, TV, Newspapers etc.

Again the pricing policy of the tourist organization do not reflect the environment in which they operate hence low patronage be most people in the Enugu. In 1998, Okonkwo carried out a research on the “Tourist centers as an aid for effective marketing in Nigeria”. He found that tourism effects the economy of those areas in which it takes place. This effect may be important merely in a single place, such as a resort in a country other wise untapped for tourism in a region or even through out the entire national economy.

What the size of the area effected we can generally categorize the economic effects, these are on employment, the effective on income and on the areas of balance of payment with the outside world, and on investment and development.

According Mmadukwe (2001) remarked that the marketing as a gate way for show casing tourist attraction in Nsukka. His finding were that traditional society, many things have promoted tourism, brought people together and not only in one pace but inb several places. For example, a village festival will have friends visiting from other communities. And when those other communities stage their festival, there are mutual exchange of the next one. I have called these festival cooperatives. Traditional festivals. Therefore exposes people to do many things. One to enjoy themselves. Two to learn what they did not know before. Three, to add to their skills, finally to bind and to bring people together.

THE IMPACT OF MARKETING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN ENUGU STATE.

In identifying the impact of marketing according to Okechukwu (1990). Marketing has great influences in the social life of every consumer in terms of culture, tradition and ethics. Whether this influences is negative or positive depends on acceptability by the individual society and the hierarchy of needs for example, the dress we wear, the air conditioners in our homes, the transport we take and the food we eat are obtained in the market and are part of social life of every consumer essentially, these needs keep body and soul together  originally belonged to the culture and tradition of every human being and were shared by both the developed and developing nations of the world. Marketing is therefore a very important fact in the business world and will continue to influence the consumption through social, economic and political power

In (1997 pg. 89) Onyeke described that marketing has a great influence on the welfare of the consumers. Marketing has done a lot to improve the standard of living of people all over the world. The suppliers of comfortable goods and services have been very significant to improving the standard of living, it has also contributed to the development of consumers and industry leading to improve technology and has made people to be conscious of their environment and the world at large. Marketing has contributed to improving the health of the people through the provision of nutrition foods all over the world. Moreover it has contributed to the development of tourism industry which provides job opportunities, foreign exchange, cultural exchange and equally enhance greater awareness of the back group of divers people all over the world.

Also in identifying the impact of marketing Okeke (1997) said that marketing is nothing more less than the profitable matching of total company’s resources against market requirement and opportunities from the definition the task of marketing therefore is to satisfy, assess and realize market opportunities and potentials. In other words, a company should make what can be profitable sold because of the factor of perish-ability and it is always major preoccupation of marketing managers to generate as much demand in the troughs as market conditions permits.

INTER DEPENDENCE OF TOURISM

Most visitors combine in their travel purchase decision not one service or product but several. A vacationer chooses attractions at a destination together with the products of accommodation, transportation and other facilities such as catering. Tourist accommodation suppliers at a destination are therefore partly influenced by the marketing decisions tour operators and travel agents, attractions, transports interests and tourist board, which together or separately promote the destination and its activities and facilities. Over time there is relationship underlying the capacity of different tourism products at a destination, and a potential synergy to be achieved in their marketing decision in the different suppliers can find ways to combine their respective efforts.

Inter dependence can best be understood when a new resort is being planned. The basic capacity estimated is the number of beds needed, and the restaurant facilities and even if then are separately owned their fortunes are certainly linked.

HIGH FIXED COST SERVICES OPERATIONS

Lather the profit and loss accounts of business in the tourism industry are analyzed. It is generally the case that they reveal relatively high fixed of operating available capacity and relatively low variable cost. A fixed cost is one that has to paid for in order for a business to be open to receive customers, a variable cost is one that is incurred in relation to the number of customers received, what this means in practice may easily be understood in the case of a visitor attraction, in which the following main costs must be incurred in order to be open to receive visitors.

SERVICES OF TOURISM

Like in other industries that produce and market tangible products. The tourist industry also need and undertakes market research before the development of its products and services.

According to (Middlecton 1986:108) he defines marketing research as the systematic collection of information relation to the supply and demand for a product or a proposed product in such a way that the information may be used by the organization to formulate uniformed decision about its policies and objectives.

Therefore, the market identifying the customers and their needs and the relating the information gathered to the management. The conduct of market research is thus a matter of providing management with information the market research is especially an important for the development of the products and for the monition the performance of an existing one. Tourist centers or organization do not just develop facilities without first knowing the ability to such projects, whether they will be patronized by the customers or not.

Although some of these tourist centers exist naturally before the development of man, surveying the market to enable the tourist organization know that needs of the customers and to develop and channel it products towards those needs. The information gathered from the market enable the tourist organization know the population of an area the market segment their income level and the type of item most for instance, the location of amusement part for children in renown section of a town or the high way will reduce such a risk unless hence it will not be patronized by children for which it is built. First it will be before from children and then the question of fast moving vehicle along the following areas are worthy of mention and need be surveyed.

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BUYER/CONSUMER BEHAVIORS

Understanding the nature of buyer behavior has been a key area of research in marketing for so many years. The reason is obvious for markers to develop and implement effective marketing strategies and tactics they need to understand their consumers need and wants. What factors influence choice and how consumers behave?

There are many similarities between buyers behavior for good and for services (eg) Tourism get some important difference exists. This difference may be grouped into three categories attitude, needs and motives and purchase behavior. The personal services are the key to the consumer’s decision to patroness tourist centers on of which services.

PERSONAL SERVICES

Services market is sometimes perceived as more personal friendly and more cooperative than goods marketers. These and other distinctive personal often differentiate service markets from goods marketer and thus provide the services market with unique marketing opportunity. The personal selling consumers have forward services industries, it as important marketing but there is evidence that some services industries are closing this advantages.

Attitude for almost and product or service, a consumers attitude will directly influence his or her buying decision. Attitude seems to be especially permanent to services which tourism is one since services are intangible.

NEEDS AND MOTIVE

A need that often stands out is the consumer desire for personal attention. By appealing to the consumers desire or personal attention. The tourist agent provides form of satisfaction that the seller of a good cannot easily, attach. The desire for personal attention is often the dominate need satisfied by a service.

PURCHASE BEHAVIOR

In the areas of research, it suggests that differences between goods and services are most noticeable in the case of purchase behavior goods selection decision are normally concerned more with the question of whether to purchase, while services. Selection decision emphasis proper trimming and selection of sources. This situation suggests several distinction between purchase behavior for goods and services. In particular the degree of pre-purchase planning may differ and the buyer may be more personally involved in a service purchase. Consumers are influenced more others friends, neighbors and sales people when services are brought than goods are bought sources services are intangible, it is difficult for the service buyer to judge quality and value buyers are usually unable to inspect or try out a service prior to purchase. Therefore, it is the duty of a vile upon the advice of others when uncertainty due to limited information prevents.

This is precisely the predicament a service purchase is in when buying a service, the consumers lack of personal experience magnified the uncertainly associated with the purchase. To reduce the perceived risk the services buyer seeks information and a device from such a neighbor, friends and relatives.

Accessibility is the third component in the tourism product. It includes transportation to the destination or attraction and or the proximity of attraction to sufficiently large population to constitute a market for the attraction. However, the nearness is best interrupted in terms of time and cost taken to much the attraction, rather than in terms of physical distance.

Pricing: Pricing constitute an important of every organization marketing strategy. Price from the marketing point of view represent the value of a good or services for both the seller and the buyer. In other words, it is the amount of money a buyer pays to the seller in return for the later (seller) goods or services. Price is the amount for which product services or idea is exchange for sale regardless of its worth or value to the potential purchasers.

The tourist is extremely sensitive to both the absolute levels of prices and the changes in price. He is also susceptible of destination by marketing campaigns.

Pricing is a complex matter individual supplier of tourism services hotel groups and other not only tend to determine their prices independently of each other but also do with any eye on the reaction of their immediate competitors. Thus the final price may or may not be strictly related to the cost providing the services concerned. Since the demand can and does change over night supplier of its potentials customers to change in prices, i.e. should form a valid estimate of the price elasticity facing them.

The cost of manufacturing the tourist product is reflected in the final price and also the cost of marketing policies normally influence cost and prices for examples the decision has to be made whether and high revenue and small profit margins. Tourist and enterprises adopt it.

Tourist organization reduces prices of induce increase in traffic though this is mostly advantageous when the price reduction induces a proportional increase in traffic on the other hand, price can be increase to reduce traffic that is de-marketing.

ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION

Advertising and promotion is another area through which marketing contributed to tourism development.

How have people know the existence of tourist attraction in certain areas how have tourism organizations promote their activities like in other industries, the tourist organizations advertise and promote their products and services.. They sell the ideas of people and also persuade them to buy their products by patronizing tourist centers or sites.

The term advertising and sales promotion refers to the method of communicating with the consumers or within his intermediary. Here they use to describe those methods of communication where by they identify of the consumer is known as when the advertising is reaching his retailer, by letter, or then hi is in touch with conference organizers or clubs secretaries or other intermediary. Advertising plays the impact of impelling the consumer towards the point of sales or in the case of tourism and other services, situations where the product is accessible. The object of advertising a product is to persuade the consumer that need the product and in particular the advertisers brand of it. The consumer as a tourist has special needs to visit unless has purchasing an expectation not a tangible product which can be inspected or small before purchase.

 

DISTRIBUTION AND PLACE

For marketing purpose, place does not just mean the location of tourist attraction or facility, but the location of all the points of sales provide prospective customers with access, to tourist products. For example place for Disney world in the USA is not only Orland florid, but also the numerous travel agent located and outside of the USA selling products that include Disney admission. As a result of marketing decisions, prospective visitors to floride can obtain that either include Disney world, world admission or make sure visits probable in terms of vacation locations and motivation. Travel agents and or course only one of the ways in which “Place” or access is created for Disney world customers or indeed for most other products in travel and tourism place for catering operators, for example would include computerized and other reservation looking systems that provide access to products for repeat or loyal customers targeted by direct mark.

MARKETING MIX

According to (Ikenna 1999:42) The complex of marketing decision that may influence sales is called marketing mix. That is it is a set of controllable marketing variables that the firm blend to produce the response it want in the target market. In short, it consists of every thing the firm will of do to influence demand for its products. It may be seen to consist of element like the product, price promotion and pace other wise called the 4ps.

  1. Product stands for the goods and services the company offers to target market
  2. Price represent the amount of money customers have to pay to obtain the product
  • Place stand for the various company activities that make the product available to the target market.
  1. Promotion represented the ability of the organization to communicate the merits of the product and persuade target customers to buy.
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Also, marketing mix may be defined as the mixture of controllable marketing variable that the firm uses to pursue the sought level of the sales in the target market. (Kottler 1984:68) The concept implies a set of variable akin to marketing manager to achieve a defined goal.

By way of illustration, the controls may be likened to those of an automobile, which to reach a chosen of destination, his four main controls. These is accelerator to control engine here is a gear shift to match the engine speed to the road speed required or to reverse direction and there is a steering wheel with which to change the direction of travel. As every driver know, movement of the controls must be synchronized and used in ways that respond to constancy changing road condition and the actions of other drivers. Progress from one point to another is for the driver a continuous manipulation of the four basic controls are the four Ps (4PS)

  1. product
  2. price
  3. promotion
  4. place
  5. PRODUCT: Product stands for the goods and services the company offers to the target market. The tourist product consists of what the tourist buys. In a wide sense, the tourist product is an amalgamated of what the tourist does not the destination and of the services he uses to use to make if possible therefore each destination has a particular products or products to offer

Environment of breezy beaches. In each destination the tourist selects on activity or activities in which he engages and the services which he uses during his stay. In this sense, the destination is analogue to a selection or articles in a shop to which buyers goes to make his purchase. The tourist producer at the destination are some time developed consciously to appeal to a particular proper or sometimes they developed without any conscious effort. The former certain features of the destination are selected and developed on the physical sense indoor entertainment facilities. Also they are developed in the mind of potentials tourist through the creation of a particular times they develop without any conscious effort. In the former, certain features of the destination are selected and developed on the physical sense indoor entertainment facilities. Also, they are developed in the mind of potential tourist through the creation of a particular times they develop without any conscious efforts. In the former, certain features of the destination are selected and developed on the physical sense indoor entertainment facilities. Also, they are developed in the minds of potential tourist through the creation of a particular gugar of the destination by promotion. The continues development of tourist product is potentials market. Tourist products are analyzed in terms of that attraction facilities and accessibility. Attractions of those elements in the tourist product, which determine the choice of tourist to visit one destination rather than other. They are the factors, which generate a flow of tourist to the location.

Attractions may be site or event attractions. Tourist facilities are those elements in the tourist product which do not normally themselves generate tourist flows, but when absence might determine the tourist, from seeking the attractions. They complement the attractions and comprise for example accommodations restaurants, picnic site etc. organization know the needs of the consumers and to develop and channel it products towards those need. The information gathered from the market enable the tourist organization know the population of an area the market segment their income level and the type of tourist facilities that will suit them most of for instance, the location of amusement part for children in Iremon section of a town or the highway, will not such park unless hence it will not be patronized by children for which it is built. First it will be before from children and then the question of fast moving vehicle along the high way.

Under the research, the following areas are worthy of mention and need be surveyed.

TOURISM POTENTIAL IN ENUGU STATE

In Enugu state, the story of tourism development is not different from other state of its counter part. It is the same story of abundance of tourist attractions but with different development and patronage. The state has tremendous tourist potentials and is blessed with beautiful sceneries, there are so many tourist attraction sites in Enugu metropolis which are other developed or in various stages of development.

The tourist attraction can be divided into four categories.

  1. Hospitality industries (Hotel)
  2. recreational/Amusement/Sitafesing
  3. industrial sites
  4. cultural facilities.
  5. HOSPITALITY INDUSTRIES (HOTEL) IN ENUGU STATE IS AS FOLLOWS
  6. Nike lake Resort hotel limited
  7. Pan Africa Hotel limited
  8. Zodiac Hotel limited
  9. Jook Hotel limited
  10. First Hotels limited
  11. Presidential Hotel Enugu.
  12. RECREATIONAL/AMUSUMENT/SITATSEING INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING

Zoological Garden

IMT Art gallery

National Museums and moment

  1. INDUTRIAL SITES INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING
    1. Nigeria rail way corporations
    2. Federal science equipment manufacturing company
    3. Project development institute
    4. Coal mining site
    5. Anasia motor manufacturing company (ANAMCO)
    6. CULTURAL FACILITIES IS AS FOLLOWS
  2. Nmanwu festival
  3. Odo masquerade festival
  4. Iriji festival
  5. Igwa- Nsi festival etc.

There are so many others that is not included here for no reason but constitute in no small measures to the up bringing of the tourist with the upgrading of the state tourist committee to a full fledged Board, the board has been charged with the following responsibilities.

  1. To provide advisory and informative service
  2. To publicize tourism
  3. To promote and undertake research in the field of tourism
  4. To assist in the development of parks, museums and historic centers, game reserves, beaches and other national beauty sports.

Having explained tourism development and having also identified its potentials in the state, one can ask him self such question as “Who make up the market?” who are we trying to satisfy? How do we reach our customers? In trying to find answer to these and other questions, we examine the impact of marketing in the development of tourism. Marketing  as impact of the management functions has numerous contributions to make in tourism development.

According to Ekripperdott (1978) he defined marketing in tourism as the systematic and coordinate of business policy by tourist undertaking whether local, national or international levels to achieve an appropriate return. The first requirement for tourism development and planning therefore is knowledge of the market and this involves researching into people and their needs and hence tourism facilities should be organized primarily to meet the needs of guest of users. It is the customer not the company that is the focus point for organizational behaviors.

In (1985) Halloway said that marketing concept connotes on investment can only be achieved by identifying anticipating and satisfying customer needs and desires. Hence the impact of marketing is seen to include the assessment of customer  demand in the first place and not merely satisfying demand as it appears. In order to maximize the economic viability of tourist centers and resorts, there must be effectively managed transportation, accommodation and catering services. They are used to promote tourism, while the transport industry enhances the accessibility to tourist centers and provides the tourist traffic with the necessary travel information for their trips. The hotel and catering industries cater for the visitors in order to create home for their way from their homes. These can be regarded as “Tourist market”

Promotional mix” Medlik (1980) expressed the quantity of services which the catering industry provided will either attract mere tourist to spend more day and nights as their destinations or forces them to depart the destinations within or as earlier planned.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF TOURISM SERVICE

          According to Victor (1989:31) says that there are at least three features that particularly relevant to tourism and travel services. These are as follows

  1. The interdependence of tourism and travel services
  2. The high fixed cost of operations.
  3. Seasonality and demand fluctuation
  4. SEASONALITY AND DEMAND FLUCTUATIONS: It is a characteristic of most leisure tourism markets that demand fluctuates greatly between seasons of the year. Resident of USA and Nigeria tend monthly to take their main holidays of the year in the summer months of June to September to march are generally cold and wet and hours of day light are short. While such climatic variations are not so relevant to many Mediterranean. Seasonal closure of much leisure tourism business is still common. On a weekly basis, city center restaurants may fluctuate from so percent occupancy on Thursday to twenty percent if they open at weekends.

On daily basis, seals on a scheduled air flight may be as percent full at 0800 hours, while seats on following flight at 1000 hours may be only 45 percent occupied these demand variations are all the more acute

PEOPLE: This is also include marketing mix element of great important in many services marketing situations from the customers point of view, people who perform production or operational role in service organizing (e.g. waiter in a hotel, bank (clerks etc.) they are visible and important components of any service organization, which market oriented service business already recognize

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE: These are few “Pure service” where physical evidence plays no part in market exchange. Thus components of the physical evidence available will influence consumers and user judgment of service marketing organization. Physical evidence includes elements like the physical environment (furnishing, color, layout, no the facilitating goods that enable the service to be provided (eg. The ears used by a car rental company) and other tangible dues like labels used by an airline.

PROCESS: The behavior of people in services organization is critical so too is to process the low services delivery; cheerful attentive and concern staff can help alleviate the customer’s problems of having to queue for services.

In summary, therefore, it is the impact of management in tourism to identify the buyer of tourist product to influence the information about product to the potential tourist while at the same time creating the atmosphere for maintenance of demand among the present’s customers with arranging reasonable price.

 

 

 

BENEFITS OF TOURISM

  1. When there is full openness and visitors are coming, an exchange of ideas will follow.
  2. Acculturation will stimulate cultural growth, cultural and attraction of more outsider will generate economic growth cultural and social development as well.
  3. Tourism increases the image through state project to outside world.
  4. It promote cordial in background.
  5. It provides job opportunities for different cases both skilled and unskilled person in tourist destinations.
  6. It provides exchange and hence makes for good balance of payment
  7. It enhances greater awareness of the back group of divers people all over the world.
  8. It also help in inter marriage all over the world.
  9. It reduces the stress of people through reaction, panic, sports etc. among these involved in the tourist to make place. This results to cultural enrichment of both parties.
  10. When tourism play its roles in the society, it will be play, it will be education, it will be economy and it will be the people rolled into one.
  11. It has a rehabilitative and nature. Tourism makes it possible for one to be free from mental, social and physical strains and stress, which result frustration.

This it does by providing divers activity of relaxation in destinations that are different from a particular environment the potential tourist is used to a change of environment once a while have much in sustaining the life span and vigor .

Bu if not skillfully managed, the injunction of largely alien population into the society may also rise to social political tension, which may vitiate these economic benefits the tourism brings.

 

THE NED FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ENIGU STATE.

The need for tourism development in Enugu state and indeed the whole federation cannot be over emphasized. This is necessary at this point in time the state is facing serious economic problems. Tourism generates revenue, the development of tourism attractions and facilities that exist in the state will to of large extent a great number of tourist whether local or international. This will automatically yield revenue to the state government for the much needed economic growth and industrialization for the much needed economic growth and industrialization. The Nike Lake Resort Hotel, presidential Hotel benefits.

Tourism generates revenue the development of the tourist attractions and facilities that exist in state will attract a large number tourist to the state. This will automatically yield revenue to the government for the much needed economic growth and industrialization.

The royal palace hotel or hotel presidential for example host seminars and other ceremonial activities which attract money to the government. For instance the table below shows tourist receipts in some African countries from 1977 in million of USA Dollar.

FIG I

Country 1974 1975 1976 1977
Kenya

Madagascar

Malawi

Burkina Faso

Morocco

Nigeria

Tunisia

Cameroon

74.20

2.10

4.40

4.40

375.50

13.00

186.00

28.00

93.20

3.50

4.70

5.70

434.00

29.00

280.00

37.00

10.72

3.23

5.00

5.80

267.00

30.00

295.00

38.00

120.00

3.25

4.80

6.00

375.00

31.00

323.00

39.00

Source: World tourism organization.

The impact tourism can make in the staff is not restricted to revenue earning and employment alone, it has also far fetching social benefits involvement in the provision of necessary infrastructure the construction of roads and systems of electricity, supply water, supply sewage disposed hospitals, education, environmental cleanliness, all which eventually being developed for tourism.

It also help the rapid development of the rural areas especially when tourism products are available mass employment migration into urban areas will be discourage in the process, health factors desired from tourism cannot be over emphasized. The body need rest relaxation and recreation in order to be become reinvigorated for another days work out put will be improved. The only sourced of providing this through tourism development. The prosperity for a countries economy depends upon the ability of the citizen to process resources and without good health, this will be impossible. Life is generally tense here a lot of hard working citizens have died prematurely due to high blood pressure and hypertension. Another to these problems is believed to be tourism.

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