The Impact of Manpower Development and Training in Efficient Management

The Impact of Manpower Development and Training in Efficient Management

The field of manpower training and development appears to be a fertile ground for researcher as evidenced by the volume of literature available on it.  In that regard, this research will endeavour to examine some of the researcher’s that has been made on the subject.

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William James of Harvard University estimated that “employees could retain their jobs by working at a mere 20-30 percent of their potential”.  His research led him to believe that if there same employees were properly motivated, they could work at 80-90 percent of their capabilities.  Behavioural science concepts like motivation and enhanced productivity could be one of the means used to achieve such improvements through the effective and efficient use of learning resources.

Employee training tries to improve skills or add to the existing level of knowledge so that the employee is better equipped to do his present job, or to prepare him for a higher position with increased responsibilities.  However, individual growth is not an end in itself.  Organizational growth needs to be meshed with the individual’s growth.  The concern if for the organization’s viability, that it should adopt itself to a changing environment.  Employee growth and development has to be seen in the context of this change.

The effective functioning of any organisaiton requires that employees learn to perform their jobs at a satisfactory level of proficiency.  An effective organisation wishes to have amongst its ranks individuals who are qualified to accept increasing responsibilities.  So much so that organizations need to provide opportunities for the continuous development of employees not only in their present jobs but also to develop their capabilities for other jobs for which they might later be considered.

Training refers to the teaching/learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization to acquire and apply the knowledge skills, abilities and attitudes needed by that organization.

Broadly speaking, training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.

According to Cilyect (1975) “a former training programme is an effort by the employer to provide opportunities for the employee to acquire job related skills, altitudes and knowledge in his own views”.  Adekeke (1983) in his view of manpower development and training defines it as “the acquiring of skill, knowledge and know how that may enable the employee perform a given tasks in another environment”.

Edeh, A.A and Ogbu E.N. (1985) asserts that “development can be defined as the actions or process of developing or being developed”.  The oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary describes development as “a new stage or event”.  It could be a new product or attitude.  To develop means to grow or cause an entity to grow gradually, to become or make the entity larger, more advanced or more organized.

M.A.T. Okwuboh (1973) describes manpower development ad “the process the process by which an enterprises is made more effective, efficient and profitable”.

It is evident from the submission of these and other management intellectual that manpower development and training is certainly a dynamic process designed to equip employees with the necessary knowledge and skills required to enable them adopt to the ever changing environment.

The key to organization’s success depend on the ability of the manager to foresee related and respond to the dynamic changes taking place around him or his ability to interpret rightly the messages directed to him by the dynamic changes.


Areas of training can be classified into the following categories.

  1. Training in company polices and producer
  2. Training in particular skills
  3. Training in human relations
  4. Managerial and supervisory training
  5. Training in problem solving
  6. Apprentice training

Training in company policies and procedures.  This is part of the induction of a new employee.  The objective is to orient new employees with the set of rules, procedures, management, organizational structure, environment and products which the firms has or the services the firm provide for.

Orientation is a continuous process aimed at the adjustment of all employees to new and changing situations.  It aims to impact the facts of company’s rules and policy to create attitudes of confidence in the company, pride in its services, respect for company personnel, and work organization.

It also enables employees to get a first impression of the “culture” of the firm and the kind of people he will have to deal with.

Induction training consist first of going around the various services departments more especially personnel department, to understand the nature of the services provided and also to understand the individuals terms and condition of employment.  The other phase consists of spending some time in various operating departments for a complete understanding of the nature of the activities.  Such and elaborate programme may not be planned for the lower level categories of employees, such as workers but is generally planned for managerial personnel.

Training in particular skills

Training of employees for particular skill is under taken to enable the employee to be more effective on the job.  It is a here and now proposition.  Somewhat like induction training, which does not have a very significant development aspect to it?  Its aim is to guarantee a certain contribution to the job i.e machine skills.

Human relation training

This is abroad category embracing many different aspects.

Self learning and inter personnel competence can be included in this category.  It stresses a concern for individual relationship, for feeling and treating people as human beings, rather than as machines.  This category of training is oriented towards the development of the individual and consequently the organization’s efficiency in terms of better teamwork.

Problem solving training

Many in-company programmes also involve around organizational units, like divisions, or branches, which generally handle a product line.  The practice is to call together all managerial personnel in a particular division/branch from both the HQ and the field offices and discuss common problems and solutions across the table.  This not only helps solve problems, but also serves as a forum for the exchange of ideas and information, which could be utilized in other situations.


The aim of manpower development and training is to bridge the gap between employees expected performance and his actual performance when the later tends to fall below expectation.

This is necessary because according to A.A. Ayida, the quality and performance of the employees determine the success of a business, indeed they determine its survival.

D.S. Beach stated that the real purpose of development is to make a change in the employee behaviour on the job and ultimately to improve the effectiveness of the organization.

He went further to enumerate certain benefits or contribution that can be achieved by the development of manpower as improved performance on present job, attitude formation that is channeling on employees towards the achievement of organizational objective.  Aid in operational problem solving when both the operational workers and the supervisors are developed, labour turnover, absenteeism and grievance rates will be minimal, job enrichment, moral building and filling of manpower need.

  1. Pitiffner, in his own contribution states that the aim of manpower training and development is to provide managers and workers with the necessary know-how to tackle the jobs which they are destined.

From these submission, it should be safety said that the major aim of manpower training and development is to provide for the present and further manpower needs for the organization in terms of improved skills in pertaining a specific job and education to increase general knowledge and understanding of the total work environment.


One of the basic responsibilities of a manager is to modify and shape the behaviour of his employees so that they can perform as member of an organisation.  A fundamental way in which behaviour can be changed is through training and development.

Training can be conducted informally through every day experience or by their job instruction method.  However training is more effective, it is organized to meet certain objectives in a formal training programme.

Basically, the techniques of developing a training programme involves identifying the training needs, selecting the best sources of action to meeting these needs and evaluating the results in doing so, we must also consider the number of employee to be trained and learning level of those to receive the training.  This makes it obvious that no single approach can apply to all training situations, nor is there one best approach or a standard training programme that applies in all cases.

However, by following a systematic pattern and recognizing the various options open to him.  The manager’s chances of selecting the best course of action to develop the training needs will be greatly enhanced.

In the world of T.C. Morgan for an organizational training and development programme to be meaningful, it should be planned and organized with both the human element and the job factors in mind and should include the assessment of training needs, the formulation of adequate training programmes and appraisal of their results.  H.T Churned added that development programmes that are in conflict with the goals of the organisation are confused and dissatisfied.

In the establishment of a sound training programme therefore, the interest of labour and management should be closed of, not identical.  The method and types of manpower development used must be consistent with the goals of the organization reflected in the organization development need.  Edwin Flippo could essentially be carried out on the job basis.  According to him on the job development methods includes:

  1. Experience, coaching, under study
  2. Position rotation
  3. Sensitivity training
  4. Stimulation
  5. Conference training
  6. Multiple management
  7. Special meeting

Reacting on which of the two methods is to be adopted.  Allan Munford believes that developing off the job can be move economical and effective.

Management scholars however, had a contrary view D.S. Beach suggested that internal courses which have the advantages of dealing directly and specifically with the company’s problem should be adopted.

On the job development method could be an idea method for training young executives.  Here managers in position of responsibility train their immediate subordinates so that the later would develop the potentialities with which to do the job when they are promoted to higher level of management.  Under this method, the trainees Learn by observation and experiences Professor P.N.O. Ejofor called this type of programme the watch the master performs.

Furthermore, this system places the primary burden upon the immediate supervisor or his selected representative.  The reason for the popularity of this type of programme includes:-

Most of the jobs in industry are of the type that can be learned in a relatively short period of time and no elaborated programme is necessary as far as subject content is concerned, on the job training also his the advantage of simplicity, because there is no division of responsibility between training department and a line supervisor.  This method of training may be assured highly economical scale, no additional personnel or facilities are required.  It also has the advantage of motivating the trainee to learn.  The economy is sometimes false, particularly if the line supervisor: –

  • Does not know how to train subordinates
  • Does not have time to train subordinates properly or
  • Does not appreciate the importance of adequate training

However, there are training methods that could be of great importance to the growth of manpower development.  These includes:-

  1. Role – play
  2. Case method
  3. Management games and
  4. In basket – exercise etc

 Role – play:         The role – play method required participants to inert roles on the basis of a written script or oral description of a particular situation.  The enactment process provides an insight and understanding of demands and situations of the assigned role, there by facilitating empathy with another’s (actual) role.  The main emphasis in management training is in facilitating a better understanding of interpersonal problems and attitude change.  If not handled well, it could degenerate into childish exercise, where instead of focusing in the problem to be understood, the situation might be over-dramatized.

Case method:      The case is an actual situation which is written for discussion purposes analysis would need problem identification, analysis of the situation and of it’s causes.  There would be severest solutions to the problem and each of these alternatives and their implications needs to be examined.  On many occasions, a manager may not have all the relevant information with him before taking a decision similarly, the case method approximates this reality and many situations decisions are taken with limited data, or what is termed decision-making under uncertainty.  The managerial response in such a situation is explored and understood and leaving consists of developing problem- solving skills.

Management games:    The games are built around the model of a business situation and trainees are divided into teams representing the management of competing companies.  They stimulate the real life process of taking operating decisions.  Decisions taken are analyzed by a computer, manually and a series of the implications of these decisions are feed back.  The game is played in several around to take the time dimension into account.

In basket – exercise:      This is a simulation training technique designed around the “incoming mail” of a manager.  A variety of situations is presented which would usually be dealt with by an executive in his working day.  His reaction and response are taken down in writing and then analysed feedback on his decisions forces him to consider not only his administrative actions but also his behavioural style.


An effective management and career development programme must meet the needs of the organisation.  Thus, it is essential for the management to determine its needs and convents them into objectives in order to guide the formulation of a programme.  It entails identifying the areas sections and departments within an organisation where actual performance falls below expected results, with a view to determining the appropriate people to develop in order to fill the short fall in expected standards.

According to Kitth Parus, to determine development needs, requires two analyses.  First is the organizational analysis.  This has to do with a systematic effort to understand exactly where training effort needs to be emphasized in an organization where the whole organization is a wiped with a view to determining the expectation.

Second, is operational analysis, here some reasons are found why performances in certain departments are poor.  This problem may be as a result of lack of skilled manpower, hence the need for a manpower development and training is to provide employees in the department concerned with skills required for the effective and efficient accomplishment of their tasks.  This involves analyzing the individual and finding out.  What he has as well as what he is supposed to keep.

Determination of development needs should be channeled towards identifying where productivity is low, as pointed out by D.S. Beach when he said that skill development could correct low output of employee.

According to T. Bar fill, it is necessary to find out what people are supposed to be doing in the near future and what they are supposed to be doing now.  This will enable the organisation compare the skills the employee posses now and the skill they are expected to have for the discharge of their present and future duties.  Allan Munford said that the analysis of development need at all level involves two stages.

First is definition of the job to be done and the result required.  Second is the identification of the skills, knowledge or attitudes necessary of perform the job effectively.

In essence, Munford recognizes the relevance of job analysis to the determination of development programme and needs, perhaps the most basic data in any manpower programme is knowledge about existing jobs in the organisation.

Job analysis includes these elements

Job description

Job specification

Job description will generally describe the work performed, the responsibilities involved, the skill or training required, conditions under which the job is done, relationship with other jobs and personal requirements on the job.

Job specification emphasizes the experience, education and skills the incumbent must bring to the job.


Some manpower developments do fall due to inadequate definition of the steps in designing such programmes.  Hence, this research presents below some steps considered necessary in designing a manpower development programmes.  They includes:-

  1. Analysis of organization needs

Here adequate job analysis is done.  There is a need for information that is more accurate and quantifiable upon which test, performance valuations and other decision making tools can be validated.  The need is met through an adequate and effective job analysis.

  1. Appraisal of present manpower performances

This helps in identifying the areas that need development most.

  1. Planning of individual development programme

Individual development needs are identified.  The guiding factor that this planning is the result of the individual performance appraisal, which necessarily indicates straight and weakness.  Since each individual has a unique physical, intellectual and emotional characteristic and abilities, a development plan must consider this fact.

  1. Programme evaluation

In evaluating the manpower development programme, some issues arises

  • Whether the money being spent on development.
  • Whether improvement could be made in development procedures for a greater return on the money invested in development
  • Whether investing in the programme yields more than proportionate return that would have been the case if the money is invested in some other activity.

Often personnel problem are classified into watertight categories for example, we have a shortage of people qualified to be sales managers.  This is a recruitment problem or too many engineers are requesting transfer out of the power division.  This is a transfer problem (many of our best craft men are glutting, this is turnover problem).

In fact, each of the above categorilization may be in current.  What appears to be purely recruitment problem may indeed involve training and development.

In the preparation and implementation of programmes to develop employees for an organisation, such programmes are often finely founds in terms of context while the methods and theories are to be put into practice is given little attention.

According to J.R. Thomas, this neglect of the context in which the programme is to be carried out for instance, social, economic environmental and cultural factor is a major source of the problems in manpower development.

According to A.A. Ayids, the four major problems includes:-

  1. The reluctance to release staff, particularly good staff for any extended period for training and development.
  2. The competitive demand for training manpower in which some companies are deprived of their trained personnel.
  3. Lack of adequate resources allocation to develop programmes and also lack of co-ordination.
  4. The explosion of economic activity, which has given rise to excessive expansion of institutions and creation of new ones both in government and in private sector.

Jack Taylor also pointed out some problems that are encountered in manpower development:- the include:

  1. Lack of provision for practical application of the knowledge acquired.
  2. Over concern with personality
  3. Lack of training of the trainer, which bathes the programme ineffective, no one gives what he has not.

The Nigeria manpower development in efficient management of parastatals programmes through orthodose training is directly based on the assumptions and generalization that there is a basic shortage of skilled and executive manpower.

According to Professor P. Ejiofor, shortage of manpower could be eliminated by the prescription of multiplying training and development institution like Industrial Training Fund (ITF).  The Administration Staff College of Nigeria (ASCON).  The center for management development (CMO) and National Institute of Policy and Strategic Study (NIPSS).

As a result of our experience and increased knowledge of the facts acquired during the 1960’s the conviction has emerged that more attention needs to be paid to the human factors in the theory of economic development is identified with the growth of per capital or National Income (N.I).  This growth is explained as the combined result of the rate of saving and the resultant physical capital accumulation on the one hand and the capital out put ration on the other.

J.O. Udoji said that manpower development is the most critical problem facing Nigeria in the present decade.  He contented that it depends to a large extent the credibility, effectiveness and stability of the government.

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