The Impact of Apprenticeship in the Examination of Manpower in Nigeria.

The Impact of Apprenticeship in the Examination of Manpower in Nigeria.

Concept of Apprenticeship

The researcher is concerned here with the review of contributions of easier writers on the research topic. By this; the researcher tends to examine various books and journals on the topic the impact of apprenticeship in the training of manpower.

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According to Ethel Verables in his book apprentice out of their time, as follow  up study of 1974 defined the word apprentice to denote “ young workers whose conditions of technical college for academic study for at least one day per week. Most of then were paid an apprentice or junior wages which was less than that paid to capable workers aged twenty- one and over. Thus, whether indentured or not most of them “served their time” for five years from sixteen to twenty-one before qualifying for adult status.

The oxford advance learners dictionary of current English 4th edition 1974, defined the word apprentice as “ a person who has agreed to work for a skilled employer  for a fixed period in return for being taught his trade or craft”

Some book defined apprenticeship as “the time not being an apprentice, serve and or one’s apprenticeship with a carpenter etc.

Nwachukwu  C. C. in his book management theory and practice (1988 page 125) defined apprentice programmes, method of training as “when extensive practice or technical knowledge is required to perform a job. The training combine on the job training with classroom lectures”. In opinion of six Ronald Nesbilt – Hawes min his book the training of youths in industry (1966 page 109) defined apprenticeship as “a period of learning say 5 years, at the end of which the apprentice qualifies as skilled craft man further stated that

          “traditionally this period of learning was under the control of a master craft man. The apprentice learnt his trade by example and imitation, of masters craft man and from what other instruction he could give. In industry today the apprentice is usually put under the care of generally or a number of skilled craft man who are generally selected  because of their ability to instructs. While  this situation is common with the trade work shop many companies find it either an apprentice training school or near the main workshop.


On the traditional apprenticeship Nigeria, Usuala Esogwa, in this book, the vocational technical education for Nigeria (1991 page 21) comments as follows:-

An apprenticeship system invest in all the crafts in Nigeria. the period of apprenticeship varied from district to district and from craft to craft.

After an apprentable period of training; the master entrusted the production of certain goods to the apprentice in order to test the level of his skill . the apprentice paid the master for his training by regular services on the master’s farm throughout the period of training apprentice become fully initiated into the gild and might if he choose; establish him in a trade or associated with his former master or another master as a journey man, he was entitled to request wages which were paid partly in commodity currency. However, it was customary for the newly qualified gild man to spend a few months in employment as a formerly man. It was also customary for journey and particularly apprentices to hire in their master’s house. The master provides were subject to the master’s control in master’s pertaining to every  day behavior as well as to the craft. The traditional crafts will be limited to certain families. They were not extensive in their mode of recruitment. Dyers and weavers, for example were trained by their fathers or by an uncle. Usual in the same books page 29further comment that in addition to the above statement, technical education sponsored by the government, the major employers of technical labour operated their own scheme to train artisans and craft man. These employers includes departments public. Operations, foreign firm and small scale Nigeria employers. The combined output of these schemes up to (1945) was nearly three hundred artisans craft man.

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There were a number of apprentice schools. The first recorded apprentice training by an expatriate company was that of John Holt in the early (1930’s by 1959).

The united African company (UAC) operated  five schools in Burutu with a total enrolment five years apprentices are accounted for 124 in six trades and various employees ‘boaster evening courses accounted for 194 trainees.


In (1958), The shell petroleum development company established a trade school at port Harcourt with places for 130 apprentices in fine trades. In (1959) The Swiss firm, union  trading company, Opened a school for thirty motor machines apprentices at Enugu. In the researcher’s opinion, the trend in the establishment of centers for man power turn out through apprenticeship schemes are on the increase. For example the Anambra motor manufacturing company run on independent apprenticeship scheme in their training center inside the establishment in Emene Enugu. This programme  had commenced since August 1 (1980). Each year according to the trainee manager Mr. Ugwu the company turned out about thirty skilled manpower through apprenticeship training in five technical trades. According to the company’s training center bulletin these five skilled technical man power training are in maintenance  filters. Automobile mechanics, industrial electricians and fitter mechanics.

This company is located in Emene Enugu though the Enugu Abakiliki express way and conspicuously before the Enugu Airport.

Another center for apprenticeship training is the national directorate of employment (NDE). This directorate was lunched on (30th January 1987). Once of their primary objective according to the directorate current bulletin is creating more job opportunities for Nigeria youths. According to the bulletin (pages 3.4) it stated that. ‘The National open apprenticeship scheme is aimed at providing unemployed youths with basic skills that area needed in the economy. This is achieved by attaching them as apprentices to companies, ministries, Parastatals and professional craft men and women. Some of them are given admission into vocational training institutions or centers to learn a trade.

According to the bulletin, ‘all participants in  this scheme are required to register with the federal ministry of employment, labour and productivities local labor exchange prior to being accepted as trainees. This formal registration enables accurate tracking of employment trends and labour statistics which is required for realistic national planning upon completion of their apprenticeship these participants will possess the necessary skills that are considered valuable for potential employers or enables those with entrepreneurial skill go into self employment.   Approval training organizations and  individual craftsmen are paid a fee for imparting their skill to the beneficiaries of this scheme. Each participants is paid a monthly stipulated amount for his or her maintenance while in training.  Further, under this programme, the various artisans in our cities and villages are being organized in cooperative societies to facilitate the provision and other assistance from the government and the organized private sectors.

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According to the NDE magazine the job creatorvolume2 number (12 of January 1997 page 1) it states as follows:-

“In the area of training schemes, the directorate has made its greatest impact as at end of (July1997), about 5000,000 youths have benefited from the NDE training in various trades ranging from auto mechanics brick laying, panel  beating  and  metal fashion designing, photography barbing, arts and crafts, joining catering and even music close to 400.00of these trained manpower are now operating micro-enterprises in 36 states and Abuja.

A significant number of these young entrepreneurs were assisted by the NDE through the settlement (loans) scheme .  About 3200 unemployed youths are currently undergoing training under NOAS Nation wide.

From same bulletin, it was source that the N.D.E. is currently in partnership with over 500.00 trainers nation wide and continually scouting for more organization to join in the team.  Some of the trainers organization in partnership with NDE are:

SCOA (Nigeria United Auto Mechanics)

Levities technical Ltd (General maintenance skill)

Lexmay technical Ltd (General maintenance skill)

Federal ministry of works (general maintenance skill)

Nigeria Port Authority (maintenance skill)

Nigeria telecommunication limited (electrical and electronics)

UTC technical (general technical service)

Vicy tailoring(sewing and fashion design) Julius Berger.


Procedure for admission for apprenticeship scheme in ANAMCO and NDE, both ANAMCO and NDE admit applicants for apprenticeship schemes on application after a wide public actions or announcement through the electronic media and local newspaper. Applicants seeking admission in ANAMCO independents apprenticeship scheme must possess the relevant educational qualification preferably the west African school certificate with credit levels in relevant subjects which must include:





Trade test certificate in relevant subjects in addition to these, the selection interview of the training center. All applicants also must be within the school age for the NDE apprenticeship scheme all applicants must be a Nigerian citizen and must be adequately qualified on her apprentice with elementally six school leavers and West African certificate and secondary graduate scheme unlike the ANAMCO with unilateral scheme for applicants.

It is pertinent to mention that even applicants without any educational qualification has one programme or the other with the NDE National Open Apprenticeship Scheme.


According to Mr. Eze J.D a senior lecturer in his teaching titled human resources Management had this to say “if a country is highly populated, that provided people who can work in china, India, and Nigeria cannot talk of manpower shortage except of the researcher the above statement is quite true when we analyze the reduction in manpower shortages through numerous apprenticeship programme of the public and private sector of the Nigeria economy.

Manpower training and self- sufficiency. Manpower training including apprenticeship in the job training, vestibule conferences, case method and workshop among other has created labour self- sufficiency in Nigeria and Enugu metropolis  in particular. The nation badly depend on foreign labour in the production and service oriented industries has gone through this apprenticeship training of manpower.

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Mr. Eze J.D also same teaching materials contributed immensely in this regard. He has this to say ‘in the past, Nigeria lacked highly trained manpower, to the external that the policy positions in the country’s public service has to utilize expatriates. This had continued even after independence up till the mid sixties. This situation is changing daily as educational institutions at all levels are now producing various categories on manpower.

The labour is also improving as more and more women now train with their made counterparts in the country,’ same author in his unpublished material explicitly described apprentice training as ‘used to develop around craft ma (mechanics and tools makers e t c) Apprenticeship training of manpower is very  important…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

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The Impact of Apprenticeship in the Examination of Manpower in Nigeria.


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