Appraisal of the Factors Militating Against Human Resources Development and Management (A Case Study of Nsukka Local Government)
Human Resources Development- For any nation, the success of an enterprise depends largely on the effectiveness of its human resources. This is because the efficiency of an organisation whether public or private relief on how effective the human resources are managed.
Therefore, this project, Appraisal of the factors militating against human resources development and management area in Enugu state is an attempt to identify the problem affecting human resources development and management with the view to developing means for improving the effectiveness in human resources management.
The study was carried out through the use of survey research method which involves the primary and secondary data collected mainly used by questionnaires. The questionnaire was designed to elicit information regarding the subject matter. It was developed from the research questionnaire was designed to elicit information regarding the subject matter. It was complemented with interview and direct observation.
The subject were selected with the aid of simple random sampling.
In the same vain the recommendation were made on how to organise seminar for staff of the council promote the staff and is well establish the necessary procedure and practices that will proliferate human resource development and management in Nsukka local government.
(1) That seminar should be organise periodically for the staff of the council.
(2) Democratic leadership should be adopted in local government council.
(3) A criterion should be mapped out in a bid to examine the staff promotion.
(4) Workers should be motivated either through increment of salaries, promotion or allowances.
The growth of any organization depends upon the development and utilization of people in it. The efficiency of organization whether private or public depend to a large extents on how effective the human resources are utilized for an organization to achieve the desired objectives it must seek and obtain the co-operation of the people it has to work with.
The management should develop programmes and polices that will enable it to obtain its desire result from the employees.
Organization are being force to operate in an increasing competitive environment and this placed emphasis on the role of management in making the most effective use of human resources in order to meet its objective. Development and management in technology and system of communication have added to the consequential need for efficient system for the management of information
For an organisation to be effective there is an increasing range of specialized skills to help line mangers whether in business, p8blic administration or other organisations.
Human resources management is that part of the process that is concerned with the maintenance of human relationship and ensuring the physical well being of the employees so that they can give their maximum contribution to efficiency working. It is obviously closely regard to the management process as a whole and each functional manager and supervisor must apply the principles efficiently.
According to Dessler (2001:2) Human Resources management is referred to as “the policies and practices one need to carry out the people or personnel aspects of a management position, including recruiting, screening, training, rewarding and appraising these means conducting job analysis (i.e. determining the nature of each employee’s job planning labour needs and recruiting job candidates, selecting job candidates orienting and training new employees, managing wages and salaries 9i.e. ho to compensate employees), providing incentives and benefit, Appraising performance communicating (i.e. interviewing, counseling disciplining), Training and developing, building employee commitment and finally what a manager should know about.
However, there are problems militating against human Resources development and management in Nsukka Local Government area which makes the employees not to contribute their maximum human potential which are necessary to make for higher productivity, portability, growth and avoid catastrophe.
The inability of management to develop and manage human Resources has caused numbers problems among other, includes, poor recruitment methods, placement, training, motivation, industrial relations leadership, poor communication network and other environmental factors that affect human resources development and management.For efficiency and effectiveness to be achieving in an organization such s Nsukka local government area, management must be able to decide how, when and where each individual should work. Too frequent sifting of a worker may have a negative impact on his relationship with other workers.
Finally, the practical significance of the new human resources management orientation in an organisation such as Nsukka Local Government Area is that it underscores departments in public sector organisations from a preoccupation with passive or even negative roles of administering, to actively developing and pursuing policies.
Statement of Problem
Human Resource development and management is a vital process in any organisation such as Nsukka Local Government area.
Some of the prevailing socio-economic problems of the country such constant labour unrest, rising unemployment, high rate of crime poor standard of living and even inflation can be attributed to poor labour management relations in most organisations. Nsukka Local government area is not an exception as the local Government is continually faced with management problems.
It is therefore the intention of the researcher to investigate the factors responsible for poor human Resources development and management and give possible solutions to arrest this ugly situation in Nsukka Local Government area.
The extent to which Nsukka local Government management has handled the inhibiting factors affecting the utilization of human resources development is a subject of debate.
This research work is designed to produce answers to the following research questions.
(1) Can efficient and effective reduce the problem human resources development reduce to problem faced by the workers of Nsukka Local Government area?
(2) Do wrong applications of industrial relation reduce employee productivity in Nsukka Local government?
(3) Can Leadership style determine the climate necessary for high productivity of employee in Nsukka local government?
(4) Can the poor productivity of Nsukka Local Government be attributed to their attitude towards technological innovation?
Purpose of the Study
The broad objective of this research work is to ascertain the problems militating against human Resources development and management in Nsukka Local Government Area.
The specific objectives are now as follow:
(1) To ascertain whether effective and efficient system of human resources development and management will reduce the problem faced by Nsukka Local Government.
(2) To examine the effect of leadership style in human resources development and management in Nsukka local government.
(3) To find out if poor productivity of Nsukka Local Government can be attributed to their attitudes towards technological innovation.
Significance of the Study
The significance of this research is for its out come to throw more light on the problems that hinders human resources development and management and also brings or give solutions to those problems militating against human resources development in Nsukka local government.
The research will also be beneficial to the employees and management of Nsukka local government area who are the target group as it will produce ways for effective management of human resources in the local government. The research will also help students who may be investigating on the similar topic and policies makers both in private and public organizations.
The following hypotheses are drawn to guide my investigation or research work.
(1) Effective and efficient system of human resources development reduces the problem of human resources management face by Nsukka local government.
(2) That wrong application of industrial relation in Nsukka Local Government does not encourage employee productivity.
(3) That bad leadership style hinders human’s resource management in Nsukka Local Government.
(4) Poor productivity of Nsukka Local Government is as a result of their attitude towards technological innovations.
Scope and Limitation of The Study
The scope of this study will cover the Nsukka Local Government Area, knowing quite well that any attempts to investigate into the problem of human resources development and management in the entire organisation will investigate the problems militating against human resources development and management and after which generalized to other organisation.
A study like this cannot be without limitations inherent in it. Some of the limitation to this study includes, financial problems faced by the researcher, in the area of date collection the researcher find it so difficult in administering the questionnaires as most workers were afraid to even collect it more or less filling it.
It is necessary that operational and lucid definition be given to some of the concepts that will be used repeatedly in this research. It is envisaged that the following concept will receive attention in the entire work.
Human Resources: This refers to the totality of human element involved in production and other activities geared towards achieving the goals of an organisation. It includes the special skill and strength of the work force. It can also be referred to as the manpower of an organisation.
Development: It generally refers to an increase in the standard of a particular sphere of life. Human resources development in the increase in the productivity potential of the workforce of an organisation for goal maximization and cost minimization.
Management: This is a process of planning, organising, directing and controlling organisation resources so as to achieve the stated goals of the organisation.
Training: Giving teaching and practice to workers in order to bring the desired standard of behavior in them.
Motivational Factor: It is a term used to qualify the satisfaction which an employees derived from the job he does.
Productivity: A measurement of the efficiency of production reduction to the output.
The analytical tool for this research will be based on the decision making approach. The decision making theories was postulated by Daniel Boroul in 1938. This theory has been undergoing series of modification since its formulation it was in 1960 that some writers such as William Riker, James Robinson and Herbert Simon enriched the decision making approach have two fundamental purpose. One is the identification of crucial structures in the political and administrative realm where changes take place, where decisions are made and where action are initiated and carried out.
While the other is the systematic analysis of the decision making behaviour which lead to action.
The concept of decision making as a theory is a guide to policy making. A goal policy is a product of rational decision-making. Human resources development and management is an aspect of public Administration, which intend to any organization and thereby averting negative performance.
To achieve good human resources development and management, rational decision-making is of it most importance in any organization. It s only when decision makers are rational that good policies result shall be envisaged thereby encouraging good human resources development and management.
This theory is it concern this study will help the research to ascertain how decision are made in Nsukka Local Government and how such conscious action has help to encourage human resources development and management.
The decision-making approach is important to this study as no organization can strive well in our contemporary societies without rational decision-making. Nsukka Local Government like other organization make decision, which guide the development and management of human resources.
This they decision making approach is also relevant to this study as good decision making portrays good policy action hence human resources development and management in Nsukka Local Government where as half hazard decision-making gives birth to pre-mature and ill fated policy output thereby retracing the growth of human resources development and management.
Review of Related Literature
By now it is apparent that human resources development and management involve a good leader, a healthy work environment, and a good job to produce a motivated employee. A result or tended approach to employee relation require management skill in identifying problem, setting priorities, and developing and evaluating alternative as well as the ability to communicate initiate action, implement it, measure it control is and change its course as necessary.
The root of most management problem lies in the organization misuse of its human resources. In most case, this is not deliberate but it is a problem of attention resulting from a lack of knowledge of how to identify the real cause of those problem.
These problems cannot be resolved by taking stringent punitive measure by adding inspector by threats or by spending more money. The human resources executive is well aware that the real cases are poor human relation practices at all level of management.
An effective human relation does not happen by chance. It is the result of careful management planning implementation and follow-up professional training is a pre requisite.
The problems affecting human resources many as visualized by researcher like Rensis and Flippo Edwin. Although, some of them had uniform title like the one in this project, their discussion on related issues have been sorted out and those relevant to their research proposal have been selected and grouped according to the research questions on which the research is founded.
Training/Education of Employee
Flippo believed that no one is perfect fit at the time of hiring and that no organization has no choice of whether to develop employees or not rather the only choice is that of method. He divided training into three.
Which he described as training aimed at developing skill of operative workers.
This he refers to as training by educational programme meant for executive to develop ability to manage.
This is designated to the development of organizational units as entities in order to permit the acquired skill to be practiced.
Ogundele Stated that the success of an enterprise depend on the effectiveness of its human resources the skill and enthusing of the employee. He observes that a set objective will not be achieved if then are no competent employee to affect such objective. He argues that human development and management could be affected by the employees concerned through trail and error but better by scheme or programme. He maintained that the question should not be whether or not train but the type of training to be employed.
The professor in this contribution also highlight the use of Job analysis and job appraised for the determination of those Eo train and the type of training that would be employed. He concluded that human resources are rather scarce production factors which must be intelligently handled.
Heckman indicated training and educating manager who are responsible for teaching others, in terms of increased self awareness and understanding of their own behaviour as well as that of other leading to the growth and productivity of organization.
Nwachukwu the then minister of labour and productivity stated given good employers employee relation, there will hardly be a strike or industrial dispute.
The minister in his contribution also quoted that an employer just like a fall scales owner of a business claims to be protecting his establishment from what they management, normally regard as undue demands by employees even when the demand borne on very crucial matters.
It is no doubt that the mind of the reader is supposed to be providing over, by now, on the likely going from the universal education toward better industrial relation or harmony and development of the economy.
Poor Recruitment and Selection Interview
Beach stated that some organization announce to their own employee that they wish to hire additional people possessing the relevant type of skill. The employees will then pass the information to their friends and relative who is job seeker.
The system of communication is good but the another should not lose sight of case where unqualified person are recruited for a particular job because of the paternalistic attitude of the recruitment officer towards employee may undermine the good work of other related to his thus bringing about low productivity and unfavourable atmosphere at the work place.
The organization should adhere to its recruitment policies; jobs should be given to people who are fit for them. This is they the essence of job specification, description and design. In effort the problem of recruiting from within or outside could be based on company policy cost factors, skill and knowledge needed. Job satisfaction (especially for those within and traini8ng programme.
In his contribution to employment interview. Fraser stated that interviewer should ask themselves such question as do we know what we are looking for. What does a particular job involved? What are the working conditions? What are the duties and responsibilities? The cause or failure and rewards of success? Fraser observed tat unless these question are objectively answered, the right candidates might not be engaged?
Roger places ineffective selection interview on communication by reiterating that real communication occur where evaluative tendency is avoided and when the interviewers listen with understanding to the expressed idea and attitude of the other person’s point of view.
Glueck define recruitment as that set of activities enterprises users to attract job candidate who have the ability and attitude need to help the enterprise achieves its objective.
Employment planning determines the number of employees needed, and all subsequent activities (such as selection, orientation, development, compensation cannot be effective unless good employees have been recruited.
Glueck went ahead to examined how the recruitment process is affected by various factors in the environment. The recruiting process begins with an attempt to find employees with the abilities and attitude desired by the enterprise and to match them with the tasks to be performed whether potential employees will respond to the recruiting effort depends on the attitude they have developed towards those takes and the enterprise, on the basic of their past social and working experience. Their perception of the task will also be affected by the work climate in the enterprise.
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