Factors Affecting Student’s Choice of Agricultural Science as a Career after Secondary School


Factors Affecting Student’s Choice of Agricultural Science as a Career after Secondary School

Factors Affecting Student’s Choice of Agricultural Science as a Career after Secondary School –  The study was conducted to ascertain the factors that affect choice of career by secondary school agriculture students. Four research questions were developed in line with what the study sought to find out. Structured questionnaires was developed and face validated by 3 experts. The questionnaires was Used for collecting of data from 202 respondents. Randomly sampled from the population of 410.The data collected were analyzed using frequency count and means to answer the research questions.

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Findings from the study indicated that teaching of agriculture in secondary school involves demonstration with use of tools and equipment required in agricultural job, few modern agricultural practices are thought, returns to workers is also low and students are not often prepared for careers in agriculture. It was therefore recommended that young school levers should be given loans start enterprises, teaching in the school should involve use of tools required in actual job, workers in agriculture establishment to be given motivation through allowances, and in-service training.

Background of the Study
Career is the sequence of occupation, job or position occupied by a person during his entire life (Janick 1994). Therefore, it is an accepted fact that one should choose and prepare for  a carer ealy enough in life. Hence, Secondary school agricultural students need to be exposed to career opportunities in agriculture.
          Agriculture according to Egbe (2004) is an art, a science, a business, profession, occupation and industry for production of food and fibre for man’s use. It is very extensive in scope and has many career opportunities. Egbe (2004) listed the careers open for students of agriculture in the areas of (i) Self-reliance in production of various crops, fishery, poultry, pigery, rabitary, or distribution of farm produce. (ii) Civil service  work in Ministry of Agriculture, National Directorate of Employment, Agricultural agencies e.t.c. (iii) Research Stations (iv) Agro-allied industries like detergents, processing, supplies, textiles, feed meals e.t.c.
          The choice of any of these careers may be influenced by certain factors. Okorie (2000) said that factors that limit choice of occupation are the things that prevent individuals from entering into the occupation. He stresses further that those factors as the nature of preparation, job remunerations, returns to the  occupations, motivation and incentives, technicality involved   in the occupation and the status of the job. In a similar manner, Eze (2004) enumerated factors that limit students choice of agricultural occupations as the level of exposure to carer occupations, quality of teaching agriculture, returns to agriculture projects, availability of inputs for agricultural enterprise, and public image of agricultural occupations. In this study, factors that affect choice of agricultural career by secondary  school students refer to cause of poor retention of graduates in agric jobs.
          The causes of the low retention of the graduates on agriculture jobs is determined to improve the programme. Determination here refers to the  assessment or ascertaining the factors responsible for the low choice of agriculture careers in Ikwo L.G.A.

Statement of the Problem
It has been generally observed that the number of secondary school graduates  taking agriculture as a career is low  as majority of farmers in the study area are adult farmers. There must be some variables which are responsible for the low choice of agriculture as a carer by secondary school graduates. These variables or factors have not been determined in the study area because there is no record on the causes   of low choice of agriculture as a career. As the factors militating choice of agriculture as a career are not determined. It  is very difficult  for the teachers and stakeholders of agriculture education programme to improve the teaching of agriculture so that graduates of the course can choose it as a career. If this problem is allowed to continue, it will adversely reduce the workforce and agricultural productivity. It is therefore necessary to determine factors affecting choice of agriculture as a career by secondary school graduates for the purpose of improving agricultural programmes, food production and retention of graduates in the job

Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of the study is to determine those factors that are affecting secondary school students in choosing agricultural science as a career after their secondary education. The study sought to find:

1.     The quality of teaching agriculture science/practical in secondary school.
2.     The remuneration given to agriculture science graduate on the farm.
3.     The value attached to farm by public.
4.     The nature of returns to agricultural production.

Significance of the Study

i.                        This explains who will benefit and  how the group will benefit. From this study , the researcher pointed out some of those that will benefit. The following are going to benefit from choosing agriculture as a career: The individual; The society; The Nation.
When an individual choose agriculture as a carer, food an other essentials of life will not be bought in the market. His demand that are scarce before will not continue.
          The society will benefit from agriculture production, because as secondary school graduates are motivated into choosing agriculture as a career after secondary school will help to  increase food and animal production which are the demand of every living being.
          The nation will also benefit from agricultural production when the young farmers are given incentive (loans) that will help them to be productive enough. As known to all that agriculture produce foreign exchange to other countries and as such generate income to the local, state, and federal government.
          The study will help to enlighten the individual, society and the public on the crucial role of agriculture in the economic development of the local, state and federal government if some of the critical problems like scarcity of land, capital, remuneration to farmers are solved.
          Therefore, a saying goes  that a budget man is an angry man, any person(s)  that did not eat will not stand firmly to speak but if the person eats food he can stand and speak. Therefore the researcher concluded that energy come from agricultural produce and so it should be given an attention at all time. Meanwhile when farmers are regarded by the public, then those youth graduating from secondary school  will be motivated into the field as a career without any biased mind.
 Research Question
1.     What  is the quality of teaching/practical of agricultural science in secondary school.
2.     What is the nature of remuneration given to agricultural science graduates
3.     To what extent is farming valued by the public.
4.     What is nature of returns to agricultural production in the study area.
Finally, the study covers only the secondary schools   in Ikwo south Local government area .   and  College of Education Ikwo where the researcher finds all those facts that affect the student to  and change the course of study  after secondary school.   
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
        The relate literature of this study will be reviewed under the following  sub-headings;
i.                   Influence of Teaching and Training facilities on choice of career.
ii.                 Job satisfaction and nature of remuneration as a factor that affect choice of career.
iii.              Values   attached to agriculture.
iv.              Returns to Agricultural Production.
v.                 Summary of literature review.
The following are some of the problems found in the literature review of the research which affect the students choice of agriculture science in secondary school in Ikwo south as a career .

Influence  of Teaching and Training Facilities on Career Choice

        The instructional  and industrial development  in the country are grossly inadequate not only that, they are few in number, but most of those installed are outdated and need replacement, which nobody has the chance to look  at the equipment, as such any student from secondary school that sees it immediately changes their  interest on the field.  When teaching and training facilities are available, then teaching and learning will increase this is accorded to Omebe  S. (2003). Also stated that institutional aid and teaching materials help the student to develop interest on the course of any kind, but basically on the field that need practical work.
          Finally if we understand thoroughly what agriculture really means, we will know that it is an art,  a science, an industry, professional career and practical farming. From the researcher’s findings if all facilities are not properly treated, students that may be willing to  go into choosing  agriculture as a career after secondary school will not move towards the occupation.

Job Satisfaction and Nature of Remuneration as a Factor that Affects Choice of Career.

          One of the  most crucial decision someone ever made in life is concerning the choice of an occupational  information which means having an accurate , understandable and usable facts that describe, explain and interpret  occupational career or job. According to Okorie J.U, somebody’s philosophy and the way he deals with situation and problems as they arise. The choice determines the remuneration he gets from the job and opportunities that open to him for promotion and advancement. Danette (1976) stated that job satisfaction is a  pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or experience.
          Every  member of the country regardless of his family background like to have an achievement that would enable him get a career  of maximum satisfaction that is measured in proportion as it enables the individual to have the necessities of life. Such  necessities by Nigerian standard is have good food, get married and have social elevation of his extended family and good  house also to provide for the children the right type of  education within and outside the society. Lefgurost, Denis (1990) and Ford (2002) agree that it is the degree to which job fulfils individual’s need.
          Human needs are grouped into  philosophical and psychological needs according to Kclausmeler and Goodman (1975) physical requirements are necessary  for health and proper functioning of the body. Such as water, food, shelter, psychological and standard consciousness like sensory stimulation, self esteem and pleasure.
          Financial reward that are associated with job has  some role to play in outlook of an individual, this rules his purchasing power and the amount of necessities he is able  to have. Smith (1988) revealed the findings that paid a big consideration in satisfaction which related to an individual. It is influenced by personal financial situation like expense and his own economic aspiration. The root of desiring for pay is the desire of the individual to satisfy his physical need like water, food clothing and shelter.
          According to the researcher, salary is a  symbol of achievement and a  means of obtaining other values, it is a symbol of status, to others it means security and others greater freedom of action  in all life Maslow, (1980) and Madland, (1962) it must also be known that recognition is actually a very important determinant of one’s career chioce. Apart form this, working condition also serves as a major problem that affect choice of agricultural science in secondary school education. A good working condition has to do with the temperature, humidity, ventilation, lighting and noise level.  All these factors must be moderate rather than extremely high since it causes physical discomfort and  one’s ability to concentrate on  his work. A man  has a  standard he strives to maintain, therefore teachers  and farmers should be guide generously against any obstacle that attempts to plague the realisation of his goal of life. A man’s concept of   himself has a serious implication for his satisfaction on his job.

Values of Agriculture

          Values according to Maduka, (1995) means the perspective of the public toward agriculture. In the study refers to   worth of something or goods for which it can be exchanged. Maduka sais that even though that agriculture provides food, income, employment,  raw materials for industries, and materials for shelters, it is still rated down by members of the society. This is in line with the view of Emedo (1993).
          The provision of  income as the revenue of an individual from the sale of agricultural product like groundnut, cassava, cotton, meat and egg are some of the agricultural values. Ogieva and Emedo (1998) noted that although farmers produce food exchange for money but they are not regarded in the society. Because of the public image on farmers, students of secondary schools that may have interest in agriculture as a career. They also added that provision of raw materials for industries are some of agricultural produce.
          According to Olaitan (2001), noted with dismay that farmers are the first class citizens of any country in food and animal         production; but  the public captioned agriculture as a career that are dirty in nature; Olaitan said that agriculture is the best career opportunity which every person should observe so as to live a better life on this vast earth.
          The researcher added that Nigeria export to other countries with the aid of farmers, so the student and the public should not count agriculture science as a dirty  field of study.
          Ogieva, E. (1998) has it that among some towns and villages are some-time referred to as rural areas because there are no social amenities e.g. road, hospital, electricity and pipe-borne water  e.t.c. But these days rural farming areas are usually targeted by the government as area of infrastructural development.
          Emedo, A.B.C et al (1993) noted that the recent change in population growth and demand of food and the state and the country makes it imperative for farm to be mechanised, the student of secondary school still mention that agriculture is not productive as compared to other field or career. But failed to understand that modern facilities has made agriculture as a career to be productive.
Returns to Agricultural Production
        Returns according to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current  English (1995) simply means payment or reward for something. According to the statement made by Olaitan (2001) noted that returns to agriculture is the outcome of production, what extent production has been achieved by a farmer.
          The mere mention of the word farm has set the young secondary school levers into fitter age, this is in line with the statement made by Eze (2003) in his  monograph , when he saw that agriculture was mostly associated with poor returns to production. This also found in France (1987) who said that the average Nigerian farmers are given some financial support to commensurate their effort, when farm’s inputs are greater than the outputs, farmers will not have the interest of going back to invest  where they cannot make profit. This might have been responsible for low interest of secondary school student in agriculture as a career.
          Returns to agriculture production has to  do with the level of  productivity of agriculture. This is the statement made by Mama (2006) who added that productivity is a measure  of the efficiency of the factors of  production per unit of the factor(s) employed.
          This is also in line with the statement made by Damman [1986]Noted that productivity  is the quantity of output in physical measures realised by a farmer per unit of a certain quantity of investment. This might have been responsible for low choice of secondary school students to agriculture as a career.
          According to Anyanywu (1994), where land are no more given out what the farmers need as the outcome of their production from the farm, few of them may have the  zeal to go back into another farm production. It may be said that  among the factors that limit students of secondary school students to choose agriculture as a career after their secondary education.
          This statement is seen in Akpitim (1978) who stated that when the resources employed in production such as factory, building, land, various type of propagating materials  in crop and animal production did not yield any dividend, the interest of the young farmers will be limited.  When the student of secondary school saw it, the alternative is to change from taking up agriculture as a career after secondary school.
          Agriculture  in Nigeria is now at the secondary level of the Nigeria sector but no financial reward from the farm. Such situation is even more chaotic with teaching  where regular payment of salary are generated. And due to this, any secondary school graduate that sees it will not say on the field, this is in line with the statement made by Allen (2002).
          According to Tarle (1931), Raph (1980) noted that a study carried in USA concluded that a part-time farming that has small input has higher average total income that full-time farming, this may cause a big problem because young farmers may be made to sit on the fence. This might have been responsible for low choice of agriculture as a career after secondary school.
          Therefore, Loom (1994) said that agriculture is characterised  with low income level and productivity high input to agriculture will scare secondary school students from choosing agriculture as a career after their secondary school education.
          The level of productivity of agriculture and farmer’s income will determine the interest of students from secondary school education to have agriculture as a noble profession to be chosen after their secondary school.

Summary of Literature Review

        Boys and girls at one stage of the academic  Carder or the other, go  into the world to look for a livingwork. The type of job  they may found to do  will depend on  the interest of an individual, although other variables are equally considered, the interest one has in a particular job  depend on perception of the job in terms of  what the job can perform. Where one’s initial choice of occupation fails to meet one’s expectation, it leads to frustration.          With the nature agriculture for farming student that may have the interest w ill likewise alter to change.
          Vocational agriculture science is meant to produce people who would be proficient in farming and hence help the nation to overcome the perennial food shortage. The job of producing these agriculturist rest solely on the agricultural educators. The teachers are in a great position to change the present poor image associated with farming. They are greatly needed to encourage the youth of secondary school in Ikwo South Local Government Area of Ebonyi state and the state in general to  embark on farming as a noble  profession.
          Satisfaction of job is relative to individuals on the whole factors that challenges  job, financial reward associated with the job, the condition under which the job is carried out and the self concept of the individual are intermittently linked with the ability of a job he afford.
          A job where there is shortage of manpower will no doubt overburden the few students in the field. They must put effect  to provide the socially useful and indispensable service  associated with the  occupation. Agriculture educators  in Nigeria are relatively few as compared to the service they handle. Above all, teachers are generally associated with poverty and have very poor Image to the public.
          It is also explained that where a job does not offer the privilege for one to realise his potentials to the fullness, one is dissatisfied, such breed disguise contempt and frustration since no man like frustration, he strives to  avert at all  cost, what is like to lead him to such adverse situation was not given to them then, the alteration  rate will increase in its highest rank.
PRESENTATION  AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
        This chapter deals with the presentation and  analysis of data collected and the interpretation of the result on the research question format.

Research Question 1

        What is the quality of teaching/practices of agriculture in secondary school?
TABLE; 1
Items
SA
A
DA
SDA
X
1
Teaching of agriculture in secondary school involves  demonstration.
3.5
2
Secondary school students are often exposed to career occupation in agriculture.
1.5
3
Teaching involved much use of tools and equipment similar to those in working places.
0.3
4
A lot of modern practices are used while teaching agriculture in secondary school.
2.75
Key: X = mean
          From the table I, it was found that 2 items had their means about 2.50, indicating that they were accepted. While the remaining two had their means as 0.5 and 1.50 which are les than the  cut-off point of 2.50. This signified that they are not accepted as key quality of teaching agriculture in secondary school.
Research Question 2
What is the nature of remuneration given to agricultural science graduate?
TABLE 2
The mean ratings of Responses of secondary school Agricultural graduates on quality of teaching/practice of agriculture in secondary school.
Table 2
The mean rating of  teacher/graduates of agriculture  science, the nature of remuneration  given to agriculture science graduates.
Items
SA
A
DA
SDA
X
5
The graduates of secondary school are heavily paid.
0.1
6
The teachers of agriculture science in secondary school are given incentives that commensurate to their effort.
1.75
7
Secondary school agriculture graduates are often give loan for farm work.
0.4
8
Farming generates a lot of income.
3.25
Key:  X    =Mean.
          According to table 2, It was also found that 3 items had their mean below 2.50 ,which shows  that they were not accepted ,while 1 item,had a mean  of 3.25 which is above the  cut-off point of 2.50 ,showing that the item  was accepted as a nature of rumineration given to agriculture science graduates from  secondary school.
Research  Question   3
To what  extent  is  farming  valued  by  the  public?
TABLE 3
The mean   rating   of  respondent   on the  extent that farming  is valued by public.
Items
SA
A
DA
SDA
X
9
Farming is attractive career for graduate of  secondary school.
2.25
10
Farming is highly rated in the area
0.4
11
Farmers are highly  regarded in all  human activities.
1.75
12
I will  not choose farm work  because  it is dirty job.
3.25
Key;  X=Mean
           The data in table 3, shows   that 1 item had its mean above 2.50, indicating that it was accepted, while the remaining 3 had their means ranging from 0.4 and 2.25 which were less than the   cut-off
point of 2.50. This implies that farming is not valued by the public.
Research question 4:
What is the nature of returns to agricultural production in the area of study ?
Table 4:
The mean ratings  of  response teachers and graduates on the nature of returns to agricultural production in the study area.
Items
SA
A
DA
SDA
X
13
The farms out put   are very high.
2.25
14
Farmers make huge among  of capital from the farm.
0.3
15
Farmers imput  are always greater than out-put.
2.52
16
The returns to agriculture is often tool small.
3.50
Key: X = mean
          From table 4, it  was found that two items had their means above 2.50 indicating that there is low returns to  agriculture. While the remaining two had their means  as 0.3 and 2.50 which are less than the cut-off point of 2.50. This shows further than farmers’ output are always less in the study area.

Major Findings of The Study

          The following were the major findings:
1.           Teaching of agriculture in secondary schools involves demonstration without the use of tools and equipment similar to those in working places.
2.           Secondary school agriculture students are not exposed to employment opportunity in agriculture.
3.           Teacher and other workers in agricultural establishment are not given enough incentives and remuneration.
4.           Graduates of agriculture lack input (loan) to set-up agricultural enterprises.
5.           Farming generate a lot of income to farmers and the state.
6.           There are low returns to agriculture enterprises.

Discussion of the Findings

    It was found from the study that the teaching of agriculture science in secondary school does not involve much use of tool and equipments similar to those in working places. This findings  is in line with the statement made by Ofoema (1999) who said that teaching aid and training materials in school as are not in line with what is supposed to be and as such limit transfer of learing. This is found in Omeber (2003)  who said that when teaching tools and equipment are not similar to those in working places transfer of learning is limited. This might have be responsible for low choice of student activists in secondary school.
     From the study, it was found that   secondary school agriculture student are not fully exposed to employment opportunity in agriculture. This might have been responsible for  low turnout of students towards choosing agriculture as a career after their agriculture.
     It was as well found out that teachers and other workers in agricultural establishment  are not given enough incentive, this is in line with the statement made by Akpitim (1978) that incentive given to farmers enters into wrong hand as such as not beneficial to farmers.
     Finally, farms generate a lot of income to the local, state and federal government and even an individual but the public rated farms and farmers low. This is in line with the statement made by Maduka (1995). Although farms provide food, income, employment, raw materials for industries but they are not valued, as such by the public.
     This  might  have been  responsible for low interest of students in choosing agriculture as a career after their secondary school education.
SUMMARY RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

This chapter deals with the summary, conclusion and recommendation.

 Re-Statement of the Problem

          .It has been generally observed that the number of secondary school graduates taking agriculture as a career is low. There must be some variables which are responsible for the low choice of agriculture as a career, by secondary school graduate. This variable or factor have not been determined in the study area because there is no record  on the cause of low choice  of  agriculture as a career by  secondary school graduates.

Description of Procedure Used 

The procedure that the researcher used in collecting data and information is the use of questionnaire, this was administered to graduate of secondary school in Ikwo South and College of Education Ikwo .
          The data are collected through the questionnaire, were analysed with the use of frequency counts, and mean. The mean of 2.50 and above was accepted while the mean below 2.50 was rejected.
 Principal Findings from the Study
(1)            Teaching of agriculture in secondary school involves much demonstration, but without the use of tool and equipment similar to those in the working places.
(2)            Secondary school agriculture students are not exposed to employment opportunity in agriculture.
(3)            Teachers and other workers in agricultural establishment are not  given enough incentive.
(4)            Graduates of agriculture lack input (loan) to set-up agriculture   enterprises.
(5)            Farming generate a lot of income to farmers.
(6)            Farmers are rated low by members of the public.

Conclusion of The Study

Therefore, from the conclusion of this study the researcher observed that wrong use of school farm and poor public image of agriculture are among the major factors that limit choice of agriculture as a career. Also, lack of motivation coupled with low returns to agricultural enterprise reduce students’ interest in agriculture as a career.
Finally, this study as revealed a dramatic change in the attitude of the youths toward farming. This might have been responsible for the low choice of the course of study in schools and subsequent choice of agriculture as a career.

 Implications of the Study

            The implication of this study include:
1.     That the low  return to agriculture production in the communities  scale most of secondary school agriculture graduate out  of agriculture occupation.
  1. Poor preparation of secondary school agriculture students emanating from low use of modern tools and equipment in teaching, reduces greatly interest of students in agriculture careers, hence   low  choice  of  the  course  as  a   career. It implies that teaching of agriculture   requires updating to meet the demand of time
  2. Low  retention  of secondary school graduates on the farm job emanating from poor status of the farm and community, implies that young farmers cannot be motivated to remain on the job.
Recommendations of The Study

    From the research findings, the researcher made the following recommendations that will enable the student to remain in their profession on graduation.
1.     There is urgent need for the government to step up rural integration and deployment since most of the students would not like to take up employment in rural areas, and continue to the agricultural development of the place and even the nation.
2.   There should be a need for the government of Ebonyi State to make loan  and farm input available to the practising farmer and secondary school graduates to help them manage their own farms.
3.   The government of Ebonyi state should establish agriculture clinic, college of agriculture as it were in Ikwo, so that more students will go into the study of agriculture and then choose career therein.
4.   Workers in agricultural establishment should be motivated by payment of allowances, in-service training.

Suggestions for Further Research

        Further research could be conducted in the following areas:
1.     The effect of remuneration on the desire to stay on the job.
2.   A survey to determine the proportion of secondary school students in agriculture on self-farming.
3.     A survey to determine the proportion of secondary school graduates in agriculture that would like to pursue degree in agriculture.

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This article was extracted from a Project Research Work/Material Topic “FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENT’S CHOICE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AS A CAREER AFTER SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION IN IKWO SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT”

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Factors Affecting Student’s Choice of Agricultural Science as a Career after Secondary School

 

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Comments

  1. ezeani milicindy says:

    nice job but can i get factors affecting students choice of business education as a career after secondary school

  2. Thomas peter says:

    good job.l am into research with d title,effects of demonstration teaching method on students academic performance.what do think should be my objectites?

  3. Nicholas Tusubira says:

    very commendable work.good job

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