An Expert System on Behaviour Analysis

An Expert System on Behaviour Analysis

Behaviour Analysis – Exceptional child is coined out from the world exceptional which means special or unique. The exceptional child world has witnessed, experienced and suffered so many oppression in the past.

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According to the history of the special children stages like classical time, middle ages and dark stage has been passed through.

Before the 19th century, there was no documentation of what happened in the early cultures of some of the oral traditional history. The first written referred to the hand capped appeared on the theurapeutic papyrus of thebes. Other early mention can be found in the holy books, like Leviticus 21:16-24 where the disabled generally were banned from priesthood and begging was the only option left for them.

In classical time, the ancient creeks and romans through the handicapped in the rivers and so they were drowned in the rivers to purify their races. Some his case were severe were left to perish out of neglected while the moderate were employed as tools for entertainment.

During the middle ages the retained people were seen with as a mixture of fear and reverence” as people could not tell exactly what to make of them.

They were therefore allowed to wonder about as beggars or as jesters. The early churches brought a change for the worst as the handicapped were seen as demon possessed, leading to introduction of exorcism, demonology and dungeon imprisonment for difficult cases.

After this stage Jean mare itard (1779) took interest in educating the exceptional children. (Blackhust 1981) After observing of a wild naked boy in the woods  of aveyon,france in 1799.he decided to do something for the boy. Itard took him home, clothed him and tried to educate him but to no avail. The difficult experienced by itard replicated for other educators of the retarded. The economic depression of the early part of the century did not help matters. This led to inadequate financing and poorly planned programmes staffed by inadequately trained teacher. The scenario was set for what culminated to a period referred to as the period of stagnation” 1920-1940.

After all these suffering five factors (Oommo 2000) gave rise to the need to identify and asses such children h a view to helping them obtain appropriate assistance. These include:

  • Advancement in medical services and researches.
  • Parents actcism
  • Passage in 1975 of public law (94-143)
  • Development of psychological test
  • Change in teacher education practices

As a result of the consequence of the five factors. There is now need to identify and categorize this exceptional child so as to know how to solve their problems educationally and otherwise. Therefore it motivated the researcher to embark on the present study.


As a result of the law passed in 1957 for the education of all handicapped children. The need for categorizing and identifying of the exceptional children was increased so many exceptional children were present with few counselors.

Hence the need of the present study developing of expert system to help in classification of the exceptional child.


  1. Awareness of the exceptional child and their need.
  2. Identification of the exceptional child.
  3. Categorizing the exceptional child using expert system.


The study will be of an importance to the school, parents, counselors and the society at large.

       The parents will know that exceptional child is not as a result of curse from the God that it can be caused by several things like accident, drugs etc. by so doing they will pay attention to their children needs.

The school will make provision for special education of this exceptional children have identify and categorized them into their types.

The counselors will now know think of using expert system so as to make things faster and accurate. It will benefit the society by making the purpose of the 1957 law to be achieved.


The study covers the exceptional children, their parent, their teachers and the guidance and counselors.


The below literature will be reviewed for the purpose of this study.

  • Expert system.
  • Exceptional child categories.
  • Treatment.

EXPERT SYSTEM: is a set of computer programs that represent the knowledge of human expert in a domain called knowledge base using pruning and inference mechanism to asses the knowledge base in such a way that the system emulate the human expert in his domain of expertise.

Pruning is the quick and efficient way of searching out among many rules, the rules that are vital and particularly associated with reaching of the immediate goal. It is categorized into three;

  1. Directly related
  2. Indirectly related
  3. Totally unrelated

Inference mechanism: it is the process of generating of new facts from the existing ones by applying already acquired knowledge to a new situation.

Domain: The area of indirect Human expert. A special or professional in a domain.

Knowledge engineer: he is the one that meets the human expert, gets the information needed from him and represents the knowledge program format, then, the knowledge engineer produces a knowledge base (Ituma 2007).

EXCEPTIONAL CHILD: are those children and adults with glaring human traits physically, socially, emotionally, intellectually mentally and skillfully from normal. These outstanding traits in them, set them apart, from others and call for special grouping according to their particular traits for individual attention treatment and services (EZe 2005).

They are categorized according to Domino (2000) and Nwogu, (1996)

  • Mental retardation.
  • Behaviour emotional disorder.
  • Learning disability.
  • Physical motor impairment
  • Auditory impairment
  • Visual impairment
  • Communication disorder
  • Gaffed and talented
  • Children with chronic illness

But for the sake of the study, we will treat four in details. The four are:

  • Mental retarded
  • Behaviour disorder
  • Learning disability
  • Physical motor impairment

Mental retarded: It is also known as mental condition in which a person has impaired in intellectual attributes and after some form of social malfunction due to a congenital condition on brain damage. It is also regarded as mental handicapped or the mental retarded child is associated with the following characteristics or behaviour.

  • Bulling, Dull appearance, poor self concept, operate in isolation, Aimless movement, inability to concentrate etc.
  • It can be caused by the following hereditary, environment, diseases, drug abuse, malnutrition, accident.

Behaviour disorder: It is the deviation which   significantly interfers with the individual like growth and development and with the lives of others. Domino (2002) says it is a child whose behaviour deuaties firm what is expected.

Kaufman and kneedler (1981) state that behaviour disorder involves children social emotional behaviour that cause adults serious concern.

A behaviour disordered child is known with the following characteristics Drunkness, bulling,  unable to concentrate, fighting, Easily angered.

Causes of behaviour disorder it can be attributed by some factors like as school, brain damage, social factor, influence of the group, the family, Biological factors.

Learning disability: It is a label to children who have sever problems in learning. It is referred to a variety of neurological problems that affected how a person organizes sensory information.

Their characteristics are poor performance, poor spoken language, finds it difficult in spelling speaking, reading, writing etc. They can’t concentrate.


Hereditary, environment deprivation,emotional problem, physical-motor impaired it refers to those with orthopedic,neurological problems.

According to Abba and Aduwo (1985) physical impairment refers to children who are crippled, deformed, expanding sensory handicap like deafness, blindness, speech defect. They are people whose physical problems prevent them from normal interaction with the environment. Leprosy, sickle cell, asthma, epilepsy, polio etc.

Causes of Physical Motor Impairment

  1. Brain injury, accident, drug abuse, malnutrition, diseases etc.


Mental retarded

  • Put them in a formal school and give them individualized instruction.
  • Use all the skills to make them picture the fact so as to internalize them.
  • Train them in certain things to help themselves.

Behaviour Emotional Disorder

  •  Counseling his excess behaviour towards positive things. They should be put in trade schools where they can learn or use their  talent.
  • Put them in regular classroom.
  • Put them in resource rooms
  • Put them in special day schools.   

Learning disability             

  • Organize medication should be considered.
  • If psychological remedial program should be in form of structure.

Five areas of studies

  1. Program structure
  2. relationship structure
  3. environmental structure

Structured teaching material motor training.

Physical motor impairment

  • Giving them motor training
  • Training that part of the body that is not functioning well

—————-not complete———–not complete————–not complete——————–

This article was extracted from a Project Research Work/Material Topic “AN EXPERT SYSTEM ON BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS”

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