The Effects of Television Advertisements on the Buying Habit of Consumers

THE EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ADVERTISEMENTS ON THE BUYING HABIT OF CONSUMERS [PEAK MILK ADVERT IN PERSPECTIVE] A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU URBAN DWELLERS

In general terms, most especially Television advertising, is made in the interest of the public [people] who need to know what product is available and which of them to buy.

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Writing from the sociological point of view about the impact of advertising. Daniel Bell (1966) point out the social function of advertising is to stimulate wants to make people work harder and to earn more. He is of the view that advertising brings about chances that primarily influences the life style, manner, moral, tastes and standard of behavior. Un- influence choice requires the consumer to have full knowledge of merit and demerit of every feasible alternative.

Ducan Reckle in his titled “the economics of advertising” published in 1981 examines the effects of advertising over a wide range of product. He found that demand for underlining social and economic condition within this context, advertising could pay a significant role in influencing the demand of product.

According to David A. Daker and Geoge S. Day, before a purchase is made, a consumer usually consult or is exposed to several information contribute to decision.. during that process the consumer necessarily heavily upon some sources which are impersonal and commercial in nature. It is important that these information sources be readily accessible with adequate quality. The authors [Daniel A. Dakar and George S. Day] invariable concluded that consumers often seek out advertising in a positive searching manner, for instance, when a product is designed, the proposed buyer might not know what that product entails or the intricacies involved in the purchasing, he therefore searches for the market that has the product such as radio and television or Newspapers, the information got from these sources contributes to attitude changes and consequently to decision on whether to buy the product or not. The consumer therefore uses advertising as a source of information.

Robert J. Halloway and Robert A. Millestaedti in their book titled “consumer behavior, A contemporary research in action jointly written in 1971, furnish us with the following information about advertising “ The sales effect of advertising is greater when competing brands are physically alike. The consumer must based his selection on non-physical brand properties for the could otherwise perceive no difference between brands. Advertising may influence his perception of brands and this his choice of one over another so the advertiser seeks to create and control what has been called “the image of his brand

With regard to this quotation, we constantly undated with an extremely overflow of goods and services, most of the times, particular family of these brands. A part of a company ‘s trade makes and labels, no body can distinguish for example one particular brand of another, therefore it is only advertising that can bring consumers out of such problems.

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Victor Wademan in his book titled “money making advertising” A guide to advertising that sells” written in 1972 and published by E.K.S oxford press says “when all advertiser offers simple useful and credible information upon which his customer can in intelligently base his buying decision, we therefore introduced a whole new dimension of process oriented following the natural rules of human persuasion, it is the ulter ignorance of this very fact that makes some people remain skeptical about the ability of the to influence to advertising  to influence buying decision.

The most basic task assigned to advertising is the transmission of information. A potential buyer who is transmission of information. A potential buyer who is unaware of the existence of the product will remain a potential buyer.

The identification of the needs which the product meet is valueless unless the potential buyer is informed how the products meets these. The ability of advertising the reach most numbers of the buyers quickly through the mass media is of tremendous importance. Much media schooling and copy research is geared to ensure that the consumer has an opportunity to be made aware of the product and its attributes.

Leuitt took this issue further, examining the claims that awareness gave the salesman a “foot in order” he found that the product of a company [prior to the sales calls] were more likely to get a favorable first learning and early adoption. Much advertising is geared to produce favorable images of a product. The product appeal to the consumer is based on this image. the image created can predispose the buyer towards purchasing the goods. The long term success of most product is directly related to serving and maintaining these favorable dispositions.

In an unpublished thesis by C.A Nwokoye (1977) titled “the impact of N.T.A Enugu advertising on student of university of Nigeria Nsukka” he made some conclusions that where vital in the analysis of this study. There includes.

That television advertisements are entertaining and always interesting to watch,

  • that there is a variation in the choice of adverts objects- more people wants adverts made with real human beings that are already known that with simple cartoons.
  • The television advertisement can change buying habit of consumers especially on peak milk. An over view of this work shows that advertising has some significance’s for societies. With the development that is taking place in most societies, the chances that are advertising will have a provident role to play in the distribution of the various goods and service that are needed in the study.

Furthermore, advertising’s ability affects mass morals, bring same pleasures and gratification through entertainment and produce changes that ultimately affect the goals and achievement of society.

Show that the possible influences that might arise from exposure to advertising messages transact the mere purchase of goods and services.

 

ADVERTISING EFFECTS ON THE PSYCOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF BUYING HABITS.

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“some people are more predisposed than others to be affected by advertising for a particular product or brand [Cox 1961] p71]

According to Cox, human mind is a black box, this means that what inter play with stimuli external to the individual determines his over responses arise from within him and is difficulty to explain if anything as, understanding of consumers buying habits must be based on inferential deductions. Cox suggested that the determinants of consumer behavior includes motivation, personality, perception, self-concepts; learning, lifestyle and attitudes.

Jones [1995 p4] defined motivation as “how behavior get started, it stopped and what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organism when this entire going on” from Jones definition, it is obvious that the primary onus of motivation is to initiate a person’s particular behavior immigrating and directing it towards the attainment of a goal. Once the goal directed behavior is achieved the motivator becomes extinct. It also implies the series of subjective feeling and dispositions individuals adopt during each of the motivational process.

It has been suggested that marketers manipulate emotional buying motives. Albert and David argue that this is so because they are highly subjective and include such, consideration as the comfort, prestige or pleasure that one expect to derive from the service or product. Emphasis is often placed on how possession of product will influence a person’s view of himself on how others will view him when emotion motives are addressed in advertisements according to Albert and David (1979). Levy (1959) also postulates “many product have emotional symbolic meanings more important to consumers that are functional/rational aspect in lieu of the understanding of the above personality has been defined as the loyalty of the attributes that makes up an individual some scholars have however come up with some other definitions. Eyserick and S.B.G (1963 p106), for example, argued “personality is that which makes one person different from other and includes all the psychological characteristics of the individual personality is used to describes the non-cognitive or non-intellectural characteristics of an Individual. It reflects in the style of his behaviour rather than the quality of his performance.

Berkman and Gilson (1978) have tired to classify people by personality types. They believe that people could be classified as extrovert, or introvert, pessimistic or optimistic, aggressive or submissive. For market segmentation this set of classification is useful. For its part perception has been described as a basic factor in studying the effects of advertising. It pertinence is due to the fact that perception affects tremendously how consumers interpret environmental clues bearing on a given product idea or service. Bernard and Steiner (1964) defined perception as “the process by which individual select, organizes and interpret information imputes to create a meaningful picture of the world”.

Drawing from the definition above, perception becomes unavoidable subject to a certain selectivity processes consumers very selectively notice, interpret and retain the several product or service offerings directed in an argument, kotler product or service offerings directed in an argument, kotler(1980) said that this depends on such factors as “the physical character of the stimuli, the relation of the stimuli to the surrounding environment and conditions within the individual. Kotler in considering “selective exposure” argues: people are more likely to notice stimuli that(not only those) whose change level is largely in relation to the normal size of the stimuli. A further psychological determinant learning “a permanent change in behavior occurring as a result of experience. (David and Albert 1979) a more comprehensive emotion of learning is given by Hammer (1974) who described “learning as a relatively permanent change in behavior potentiality which result from reinforce practice a experience”. This definition shows clearly that only reinforce practiced can produced change in behavior.

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Another determination of consumer behavior is life-style. According to William Lazer (1971) life-style. Represents a unique pattern of life style. A postulation by levy and boyd (1976) has it that it could be achieved by producing consumers with parts of a potential mosaic from which they, as they as it of their own life style can pick and chose to develop the composition that for the time looks perfect.

Finally, there are attitudes, and the sate perception; usually a person’s behavior is greatly affected by his state of mind or feelings towards a subject. Attitude are directly observed, thus it is difficult to get to a person’s underline attitudes G.W. all part (1962) defined attitudes as “learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way. G.W. all part definition portrays attitudes as not only consistent in nature but learned and thus, it also embodies the characteristics of attitudes adhered by David and Albert (1979). Attitudes have an object, direction, intensity and degree in consumer behavior literatures more diluted definition of attitudes also abound.

Attitude has uniqueness in the studies of consumers’ behavior. Its particular hallmark derives from the roles it plays for the individual in adjustment, ego-defense value expression and knowledge.

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