The Effects of Advertising on Consumer Buying Behavior

The Effects of Advertising on Consumer Buying Behavior

The encyclopedias Britannica describes advertising as “a form of communication intended to promote the sales of product or services to influence public opinion to gain political support, to advance a particular cause, or elicit some other response desired by the advertising it goes on to say that “it is also used to awaken” enlighten and activate the public at large concerning matters that affect society generally. That above merely stated the obvious that advertising is not only the means by which the existence of goods or services is brought to the knowledge of the public, but also an avenue through which politicians could sell their image to the public ( electorate) in order to the muster popularity which eventually  one give them the desired electrons result, that is, success at the polls.

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Advertising has been differently defined by different people HOFOES(1975-26) defines advertising as sales oriented mass communication through a print or broadcast media. This is an attempt to update a former definition that sees advertising as only salesmanship in print. Taking a critical look at the catter definition and recognizing the present business setting in our contemporary society, one can see that the introduction of such communication gadgets as telephones, computers, among others things, has short or enlarged the definition. as pointed out earlier, economic activities and human behavior have changed the focus from product-oriented to consumer-oriented since in the present day selling of product is customer-oriented.

Shukla ( 1983-99). Defines advertising as a sort of machine made, mass production method of selling which supplements the voice and personality of the individual businessman it has also been defined as the  paid dissemination of information for the commodities and services, or of gaining the acceptance of ideas that may cause people to think or to act in a certain way. This definition through a good one, makes advertising sound like a propaganda. The fundamental purpose of advertising is to sell a product or services to the largest number of people at the lowest cost. Propaganda, on the other, is an organized effort to spread a particular doctrine or principle, even by means of untruths and for semester reasons or purpose to the largest number of people, regardless of cost.

Scholars like Kotler (1967-436) defines it as “non personal forms of communication conducted through paid media under clear sponsorship Starton ( 1981-412) in his own deformation, said that “advertising consist of all the activities involved in presenting to a group, a non- personal oral or visual open a sponsored, regarding a product, services or idea. From the services of definition gives above, one can see the reason why the definition by Hofsoes has been made absolute by time dynamism of activities.

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It is important that we point out the difference advertising and advertisement the cater is the message that is disseminated through media whereas the  former is making known the existence of goods, serving idea to the public. In addition, advertisement must have a sponsor who pays media housed for the age of their medium.



Trying to trace the origin of advertising is like tracing the origin of creation, since advertising is directed to man little wonder Rechie ( 1974.4) wrote in his book that since Eve first displayed her charms to Adam, advertising has been with us. Furthermore, he traced advertising to the first Newspaper of the eighteen-century, had advertising. He gave the name of the newspaper as “spectator”. as well as an example of the advert, An incomparable powder which has given great satisfaction in most of the nobility and gently in England.

In another development, somebody like NICHOLAS ( 1978.4) said that advertising was used in china of the eleventh century B.C, quote tombs of the choral dynasty in the china of the eleventh century B.C, was advertising by the  grisly contents the number of the burial chariots and the quantity of skeletons from funeral sacrifices, advertised how important the entombed ruler were unquote. Near hundred years earlier on the other side of the world, the pharaoh’s with their pyramids, had done much the same. He also stated that banner one carried on has shield and sword during the dark ages depicted where ones loyalty was. This was capable of keeping one alive or dead, since the banner went a long way to show loyalty or allegiance. This may be the reason why NICHOLAS on page 5 of the same book, said the war that was referred to as war of the roses, might reasonably be termed the battle of the trade mark for a mans life could depend literally on his wearing the right advertisement of allegiance at the right time and place.

As earlier indicated, advertising kept moving from one form to another it was in 1660, directly when Kins CHARLES assumed office that he gave his own advertisement that read in part.. Whosesoever find my dog may acquaint any at white-hall, for the dog was better known at court than those who stole him. Will they never stop robbing his majesty must he not keep a dog?

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Carry the information to most rural or interior areas, whereas the former deals with any other of the sort that abounds in our cities and towns etc.  Next is the SPECIALTY advertising?  Giving away, free, to potential customer, does these products bearing the company’s name and perhaps a brief astuortising message.

Finally, we have DIRECTORY advertising that is always inserted in most direction like that of the telephones, company diaries and so on.

In final analysis, one or a combination of the above aforementioned media can be used at a time, in order to achieve the corporate advertising goals.  For instance, the Newspaper and television may be used together; depending on the nature of the product in question, its market characteristics, the size of the advertising budget, among other constraints.


SELECTING THE MEDIA: Advertising changes their agency from time to time presumably, in the restless search for new ideas.  There are many advertisers who rarely change even a few who have never had a different agency, but may become disenchanted with their agency after a few years and them start shopping for a new one.  So in order to avoid such ugly incidents, a checklist must be provided to harp assess the value of the various media.

In selecting of advertising media, four major factors must be considered and they are according to Hofsores selection of advertising media as quoted by Baker (1977.310).  He listed them as following.

1.    The character of the medium

  1. The atmosphere of the medium
  2. The coverage of the medium
  3. The cost of the medium.

He went to further say that two other factors that should also be taken into consideration are the size of the firm and the position of the advertisement.  Let us examine each of the characteristics:




The objective and factual basis A medium may be determined largely by the following considerations.

a)       The socio – economic composition of the audience.

b)      The geographic coverage of the medium e.g. national, regional and local.

c)       Composition of the audience by age and sex grouping.

d)      The medium’s physical characteristics.

e.)     Frequency of publication.  Accede to this is the duration of interest in the medium, most daily papers are thrown away the same day, while magazines may be kept for several weeks and read by a number of people.  The frequency of public certain also has a direct effect on the booking of time or space that is the timing of the appearance of an advertisement.

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F       The power to reach special groups.  This example, the financial, times or vogue etc pre-select a particular type of audience and so are especially suited to this segment of the population.

Further, the association of a product with a medium, may give that product, favorable co rotations by transferring confidence in the publication to items advertised there in .

ATMOSPHERE OF THE MEDIUM: With respect to atmosphere, as in, the characteristics it has that one has to task at for, he (Baker) was of the opinion that it has to be acceptable as well as infusion and irrelevance to context.  He save an example with television commercials as compared to may magazines that context.  And this will become clearer when related to individual media.

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