Effective Development of Human Resources in an Organization

Effective Development of Human Resources in an Organization

 Development of Human Resources  –   Stratus emphasizing developmental activities such as training sources on the job coaching, and job rotation allows employees to develop their own capabilities. In this way organization tries to stabilize employment offer substantial job security avoid layoff and retrain people with absolute skill.

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He further stated that for an organization to effectively develop its work force such an organization should reduce shift create grievance ill feeling and confusion under the pressure of event.

 Development of Human Resources  –  Communication

Drunker believed that communication has been in the center of managerial attention these least twenty year or more. In business, in public administration, in the armed services, in hospital in all major institution of modern society there has been great concern with communication.

Communication are by and large just as poor today as the were twenty or thirty years ago when we first became aware of the need for and lack of adequate communication in modern organization.

Rogore advises that people learn to listen to others with under standing real communication occur and this evaluative tendency is avoided when we listen with understanding what does that meat. It mean to see the expressed idea and attitude from the other persons point of view, to sense how it feels to him to achieve his frame of references in regard his to the thing he is talking about.

Adikwu argues that one of the most important management tools, necessary to achieve whatever objective is communication. He observes that the managers major contribution rest on his ability to communicate meaningfully between his supervisor and his subordinates.

Men therefore, as a handle of communication becomes a productivity which should be given adequate attention.

 Development of Human Resources  –  Motivation

Maslow idea that man’s motivation operates according to a hierarchy of his five important need physiological, security belong-ness, self actualization development of our awareness of the concept of growth (or self actualization) motivation in man.

According to Masslow the basic need of any person starts with self-preservations. In an economic sense, this means sustaining life through the use of food, shelter and protection from serve whether. Once these needs are met, the individual is in a position to expand his sight to include other possible needed goal. Here a hierarchy of mean has been perceived as an appropriate means of identifying some of the motivation of people as they reach successive levels of need satisfaction.

These categories of need in order of progression have been identified as physiological need (food, shelter, and clothing)

i.          Safety needs avoidance of external hazard to personnel well being.

ii.         Social needs (belongingness and affection for some one else)

iii.        Ego need (self esteem, self respect)

iv.        Self realization 9self-actualization)

Porter believes that employee’s motivation is determined by the expectancy theory which is divided into two concepts, the concept of effort reward probability and the concept of reward value. The effort reward probability is the individual subjective concept toward obtaining a given amount or positive value outcome. The effort reward probability is determined by two subsidiary probabilities. The probability that effort will result in performing and the probabilities as expectancy theory.

The concept of reward value is a reference to the individual perception of the reward or out come that may be obtained from performing effectively. The reward value stem from the perceived ability to satisfy one or more needs. Specifically the need relevant here are those suggested by Masslow which expediency theory means that there either of the concepts is non-existent motivation will not be present.

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Heineck argues that it requires skill to achieve both the employee and organisational interest so that behaviour result in achievement of employees wants and organisation objective. Motivation is therefore method of stimulating the will of work productively and co-operatively. It searches for some manipulative, techniques by which management can open up employee minds so that they will completely absorb and accept information sent down and accurate information will follow up condition are crested such that member of organisation achieve their own goal best by directing their effort to the enterprises success. The objectives of the employees are brought into the organisational schemes, within the employee’s area of acceptance.

 Development of Human Resources  –  Machine and Manpower

With services production no longer on human labours alone. There is need for machinery and equipment to aid man.

Taylor stated that although there are some resistance on the part of workers to the scientific approach the primary resistance came from management it self which require the old rules of thumb methods in faviour of scientific approaches. The role of management was emphasized standardization of method and working condition and enforced co-operation that this faster work can be assured. And the duty of enforcing this co-operation rest with the management alone.

The management must recognise the board fact that workman will not submit to this more rigid standardization and will not work extra hard, unless the receive extra pay for doing it.

However, Taylor fail because he use human being as machine. Hence his emphasis on the importance of machine in the utilization of human resources.

The traditional concept emphasizing detailed job specialization and a strong hieratical system of authority and control were likely, the most effective men’s for utilizing human resources.

Ellui, defined technology as the organisation and application of knowledge for the achievement of practical manifestation such as tools and machine but also intellectual techniques and process use in solving problem and obtaining desired out comes.

 Development of Human Resources  –  Industrial and Public Relation

Frost stated that an employee must be made award of all the facts relating to his intelligence in order to promote the organisations interest. His advices that it was better to consult with an employee that to keep him completely in the dark as to the reason for and the purpose behind the work he is doing.

Frost also states that there must be some channel of communication the man would keep his idea to himself.

He suggests the provision of boxes in various part of an organisation in which suggestion-slips could be put and a reward given for any accepted suggestion.

Enwirm stated that a good employer-employee relationship is a virtue which both parties must seek at all cost. It gain for employee higher productivity, cost minimization survival of the enterprise and earns for the employees self survival, job security and profit sharing. He stated that a strained relationship between employer and employee does not argue well for any establishment or industry.

It often results in either strike action or resignation.

 Development of Human Resources  –  Labour Union

Barber in his contribution wrote that the objective of a union will vary according to the need of its member but with increase in standard of living and emphasis being given to increase in productivity and efficiency more attentions likely to be given to:

(1)        Seeing a higher status for their member

(2)        Striving a higher status for their member by lager period of notice higher redundancy, pay.

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(3)        Negotiation an fringe benefits which help to remove the fear of being without money at time like sick pay and hold age person.

(4)        Encouraging more consultation and negotiation on as board basis as possible.

(5)        More recognition of 1005 membership and improved facilities for union representation and official to meet their members at their place of work. It is accepted that trade union have a constructive role to play in assisting a firm to reach higher levels of productivity and profitability a policy of active consultation and co-operation is called fro. This need to be explicitly stated to the union concerned and the ground work for changes and development which he ahead proper by prepared.

Barber in his another insight into problem of personnel management as a result of labour management relation believe that a trade union leader was once reported to have said you communicate with us you recognise our intelligence.

The more the happening, the more about what is happening, the more they are likely to understand the problem’s co-operation will only come if they also accept the suitable ones to meet situation.

In most cases, besides economic demand union member demand for a sense of belonging and if denied affects human resources development which reflected by how productivity.

 Development of Human Resources  –  Participation

Magarrah managing productivity request more democratic participation from all employees in the work of planning and using appropriate technological improvement for product and work processes.

He stated a case of general motor where the management fail to recognize the people and inform them about the changes in the organisation which let to worker grievance.

By instituting more effective communication with worker, growth in productivity and the quality of work life have been restored.

If potential resistor are draw into the actual design, and implementation of the change it may be better prepared as well as easier to effect.

This was confirmed in a classic study by French 91948) who found that resistance to change could be reduced or eliminated by having those involved to participate in design of the change.

Lawrence came to a similar condition suggesting that in order to avoid resistance manager should take into account what he called the social effect to change. For examples, change imposed from above is likely to make people fell that their knowledge and skill are being ignore.

 Development of Human Resources  –  Leadership Style

Flippo (1990) define leadership style in his book as a pattern of behaviour designed to integrate organisational and personnel interest in the pursuit of some objective. He divided leadership into three namely:

1.         The autocratic leader whom he describes as one who tells and threats his subordinates in his attempt and effort to use them achieve a set objective.

2.         The democratic leader is the one who allow his subordinates to participate in the setting objective and decision meant for their executive.

3.         And the Laissez faire leader who joins the group as a fellow participant and does what the group want to do.

Flippo point out that the introduction of such a scheme of leadership style does not require that a leader should acquire and develop a single one among the avoidable choice. Instead it should be influenced by force in the subordinates and situation.

Other discussant on leadership style, have related view and to state them would be a mere repetition of the same view.

Koorit and Bonnel (1967) define leadership as influence threat or process of influencing people so that they will strive willing toward the achievement of group goal. This simple not only willingness to work but also willingness to work but zeal and confidence.

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Rockefeller stated that he would pay more for the ability to deal with people than any other ability under the sun.

His research should that manager need three levels of experts

(1)        Understanding part behaviour

(2)        Predicting future behaviour

(3)        Directing changing and controlling behaviour in order to be effective in their ability to have impact on individual behaviour and productivity is increases so also are organisational productivity. To the mutual behalf of all concerned.

Aran advanced the view point that awareness of the interdependence of person on each other or consciousness of a collective responsibility, lead people to moderate and perhaps alternate unfiltered exercise of personal will.

Nevertheless, with holding or inhibiting of ideas and expression do feature prominently as interpersonal norms among people in organisation.

The phenomenon, no doubt militates against full utilization of human resources. Through effective and meaningful communication and participation.

The leadership function has been defined in many ways from that which leader do to long, complex paragraph including several or many element.

Fielder, life’s nearly dozen different definitions with varying connotation and degrees of emphasis on such parts. He concluded that a leader is the individual in the group given the task of direction and coordinating task relevant group activities or who in the absence of designated leader caries the primary responsibility for performing these function in the group.

Emphasis on coordinating task orientation group action try seen to indicate that leadership is synonymous with managing, typically, however management is consider to be a more broadly base function including activity other than leading.


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