Educational Development in Nigeria – The Impact of Leadership Changes
Educational Development in Nigeria – Generally speaking, leadership is the concerted action or effort of one or more persons who sit in control of the loyalty of a group of people or followers. Keith (1976 p. 81). Duncan (1978 p: 211) called it “as a process of influence” and quoted stodgily definition of leadership as the process of influencing group activities towards goal setting and goal achievements”. To order the Complete Project Material, Pay thr Sum of N3,000 to: BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122 Then send the Project Topic, Your Email Address and Full Name to 07033378184.
To order the Complete Project Material, Pay thr Sum of N3,000 to:
BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC
ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122
Then send the Project Topic, Your Email Address and Full Name to 07033378184.
These definitions goes to show some elements of display or exercise of “power” by whosoever was or were eliciting obedience from others. This power can be exercised in very many different forms including:- Sheer coercive power, which is one’s ability to physically or psychologically threaten or harm, reward/ punishment. A situation where a leader has prerogative to give or withdraw rewards that may be in form of praise, money valuable materials or information etc.
Leadership activities started way back with the creation of the first man who begot our generation, from then, social science researchers have strived to theorize on them. Lots of theories have been put forward about leadership, but for the purpose of clarity we are adopting here, three theories of leadership, which are namely:
(i) The trait theory
(ii) The situational or the contingency theory and
(iii) The path-goal theory.
The trait theory sees leaders as a person who is superior, great and respectable because he has all the physical, social and psychological ability to either reward or punish others (their subordinates) Many leaders like managers adopt this form of leadership to their own disadvantage because only personality trait dominates this leadership pattern. This form of leadership is simply traditional and holds no water in the modern sophisticated leadership requirements. Here traditional leaders are naturally appointed leaders as we know them, rule their subjects using the prevailing symbols, norms and values. Subjects believe that their leaders acquire these leadership qualities in their blood naturally and are therefore permanently leaders. This is typical example of leadership personalized.
The situational/ contingency theory stipulates that, as situation changes, a particular type of leader emerges. This situational leadership theory according to Duncan (1974) holds that “the effectiveness of a group depends on two things, the personality of the leader and the degree to which he or she receives powers (influence) from the situation.
In other words, the leader only directs, control, co-ordinate and supervise, just as the need arise i.e. according to the demands of the followers. This has some element of democracy and is politically oriented. This form of leadership is mostly politically oriented and is an improvement of the earlier theory for research purposes, though not the best.
The paths-goal theory is that most modem development in leadership conceptual research. This theory believes that a person behaves in a specific way because he understands that his action will contribute to or be useful in achieving some desired end. It is assumed in this theory, that leaders can influence the goals that followers pursue and the extent to which the goal are valued. Therefore, the leader clarifies goals, communicates expected behaviours and supports followers as well as regards goal attainment. This type of leadership considers communication a lot and values goals which the subjects value. Both the leader and the led move towards same or shared directions and goals are attained very happily. This is called “Humanized leadership or leadership with human face”. This style of leadership today, are exemplified with the modern scientific managerial leadership and many industries today are enjoying the fruit outcomes of this style of leadership.
However, it is indispensable to not that every type of leadership, a leader must be able to unite people in pursuance of a goal and leadership is a matter of degree. A leader must possess some qualities such as intelligence, common sense, self-confidence, courage and professional status. Also in any leadership where all these qualities are lacking leadership change will occur.
Anambra state is an integral part that makes up the federal republic of Nigeria. It is made up of twenty one local government councils. The full involvement of Anambra State government in the educational system with her territory can be traced from the date of her creation in 1991, by the head of state Gen. Ibrahim Babangida CFRN, MNI, GCON, commander in0Chief, federal republic of Nigeria. The creation of the state mind-boggling state school system of administration, programmes and policies as a result of difference component of two individual integral parts coming together to marry and become one state, old Anambra State. Consequent upon the carving out of Anambra from old Anambra state, the state inherited a school as a legacy. The people formally saddled and concerned with the school management, administration and control, kept mute on coming together may be, due to the prevailing nature of administration at the point of coming together.
Infact, it seemed that they had consented to the idea that education is basically and essentially a social function thus everything which in any way pertains to education must n some degree be submitted to the state influence. This is because Anambra State leaders where either speedy or slow in planning and executing educational programmes and policies due to their own party policies personal inclination and perspectives.
According to Russel (1918: 109) there are records, which show education in the world, as a social function, which are subjected to every wind of change. For instance in England, various conflicting educational policies were introduced as a result of leadership changes. However, as recorded by Ivory Moorish (1982), there conflicting educational policies raised some questions in the society, which made some personalities to question whether the schooling of children should be at the mercy of every change of government.
Consequently, educational system in Nigeria has been very much subjected to either the party in power or the regime in power as in civil or military rule respectively. There has been the introduction of unstable, epileptic, situational and faulty educational policies and programmes, which have been witnessed in Anambra state in particular.
The major cause attributed to this is the timely but rather unpopular wholly intervention of the state government in the management of school immediately after the creation by the military without allowing the technocrats and educational experts to fine-tune adaptable educational programmes that will suit the culture and the people of the sate. This paradigm has brought about new educational policies and programmes by every wind of change.
Anambra state has witnessed many leadership changes since its creation. The importance each has attached to the educational system has tremendous impact on education. This has mainly reflected in their budgeting and other social problems confronting educational system. In addition, almost all the educational policies were not fully realized particularly in Anambra state. Perhaps industrial disputes between the teachers and government took its turn, followed by the negligence of duty in the paratactic. Educational institutions were starved of funds, no major repairs in the secondary and elementary schools of the state. This was mainly so because the army is not responsible in leadership, as a result, the civil service collaborated with them to thwart and sabotage some laudable educational policies which they originated themselves.
Infact, leadership changes has brought about day and might embezzlement of public fund, mismanagement of public funds by top executive members of some ministries particularly those in state school boards as revealed by commission of enquires. Other impacts as moral laxity and lack of trust as exhibited by the public service on the educational development of Anambra state.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The geo-political entity known as Anambra State was born on 30th May 1991. Since that time, it has witnessed many leadership changes not only by the civilians but also by the military leaders.
The problem of this study focuses on the impact of those leadership changes in the educational development of Anambra State with a view of finding out if leadership changes in Anambra state have brought favourable or adverse effects on educational development of the state.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study is to ascertain the extent at which leadership changes have brought about favourable or unfavourable effect on the educational development of the State. It also seeks to find out how leadership changes have affected the educational system in the areas of control, funding, distribution of materials and general administration of schools.
(1) The study intends to help find out how the problem involved will be adequately tacked and solved.
(2) The study of this nature is important to the discourse of education because of the way people regard education.
(3) It studies the relationship between leadership changes as it involved administration, including education, as it plays a prominent role in the development of the state, the people and the world in general.
(4) The study will also find out means of enhancing such changes of leadership for the ultimate goal of better teaching and learning environment in the educational system of the state.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The situation in Anambra state, especially in the educational sector, underscores the need for the study of this nature because of the peculiar way people regard education. To a large extent it becomes imperative to study the relationship between leadership changes and its effects on education of Anambra State.
Education plays a prominent role in the development, shaping and modification of communities, society, a state, a nation and the world at large. There is hardly any family that does not spend or invents enormously for the procurement of their children or wards.
The researcher believes that this study is important as it will help to ascertain the extent of leadership changes, its impact in educational development of Anambra State and to find means of enhancing such changes of leadership for ultimate goal of better teaching and learning, funding, distribution of resource materials, co-ordination, supervision and administration of educational system in Anambra state.
(1) Does leadership changes have any impact on the educational development of Anambra State?
(2) Does leadership changes have any effect on the Administration of schools in Anambra State?
(3) Do the industrial dispute between teachers and government affect the educational development of the State?
(4) Has the leadership change in Anambra State been promoting and improving the ways of financing education in the state?
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is restricted only to the impact of leadership changes on educational development on Anambra State with emphasis on Anambra East local government Area of Anambra State?
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter comprises of the following sub-heading;
- The concept of leadership changes.
- The effect of state monopoly of education
- The impact of industrial action on primary and secondary institutions.
- The impact of leadership changes on education of Anambra state.
THE CONCEPT OF LEADERSHIP CHANGES.
According to Mrs. Lucy U.N. Izuwah, (1977) education has become a political weapon arising from state creation, it has been totally subjected to every wind of change of leadership. Every leadership that comes up, exerts very remarkable influence on the educational development of Anambra state. some of these impacts have attracted public comments, some people condemn some of these policies, while some sections of the public uphold them as favourable to the state. others outside the two groups fall on the board line without making any way or side to follow. As a result, much has not be written exactly on the impact of this subjection of education to every wind change of leadership.
However, some people have tried to treat this, on the periphery depending on the angle from which they look at it. It may therefore be emphasized that the main concern of this work is to examine the impact of different political ideologies on education, within the political groups. Dr Mrs Baluonwu Chairperson Anambra state education. Review committed (2000), Reviews that too often policies kill education; she said that the basic problem in our educational system has been attributed to too much experimentation. This is because, none of the policies on education in Anambra state has been tried to the fullest before being changed. This is a reflection of leadership change because each leader in Anambra state has not tried his or her fullest.
Education is basically and essentially a social function and as a result, everything which in any way pertain to education, must in some degree be submitted to the state influence, says “Ivory Moorish’(1982). Borrowing Durkehenin’s idea, the author maintained that the role of the state was largely one of the outlining basic principles in education, but it seems that the state has exceeded bounds that most people ask the very important question “as whether the schooling of children should be at the mercy of every change of government” “this situation can be seen at the Ngige-obi regime where the then Governor Chris Ngige gave free education to all children and after his regime, and Governor Peter Obi taking up the mantle of leadership changed the whole policy and asked all students to pay their fees starting from the first term to the present third term.” In his observation, he failed to mention the impact these changes to the development of the society, then.
THE EFFECT OF STATE MONOPOLY OF EDUCATION
Rev. Dr. N.S.S Iwe of the college of education Owerri, reiterated that Nigeria lacks leadership in all sphere of life. Under the sphere of educational leadership Rev. Dr. N.S.S Iwe, said “in the sphere of formal educational leadership, the land has yet to witness the advent of educational administrative leaders with sound imagination in policy making magnanimity in programmes, integrity, efficiency in administration and implementation of policies and programmes.
In continuation, he outlined the serious deficiencies exhibited by our educational system and practice. These include among others things:
- Unnecessary proliferation of educational administration structures.
- An educational system and practice without adequate moral and civic instruction and socialization.
- State monopoly of education to the detriment of healthy competitive quality and discipline. He was of the view that the voluntary agencies should go back and manage the schools, which they have built. He further stated that the state monopoly of education at the primary and secondary levels to exclusion of honest and well intentioned and capable voluntary agencies has resulted to the unwise removed of competitive element in education, indiscipline and shifting, over centralization of education administration.
Writing on the problems of public education system in east central states, Mrs. Lucy U.N Izuwah wrote, “that the generality of the public rightly or wrongly believe that since the state was created the standard of education has been low. The public accused the state school system of involving them in exorbitant expenditure that the schools are inadequately staffed by many incompetent teaches, the products of the school system are semi-illiterates, morally corrupt, and opposed to manual labour.
Prof. Moghalu (2000) writing on the educational reform in Anambra state, he was almost of the same view with Mrs. Lucy U.N Izuwah but he dealt more with the problems created by over centralization of powers in the headquarters of the educational board services and its impact of the administrators in the educational service board have little knowledge about running the schools.
He went on to list several problems associated with the set-up these include:
- One way communication process show by the invasion of headquarters office by principal and teachers for one kind of thing or other at the expense of classroom work.
- Delay of action evidenced by the board attempt to set finger on every pie.
- Office disorganization and mismanagement evidenced by constant confusion,misplacement and keeping several files for one person.
The author incorporated the idea of E.S Maccia and G.S Maccia who founded that centeredness in any aspect of structure of educational organization not only affect operations in that aspect but also in other aspects of organization because it fosters a one way mode of communication.
Prof. Moghalu (2000) continued to that besides the invasion of the headquarters of educational services board by teacher and principals, the pattern of interaction affected education in several other ways. It made the administrators to depend very much on second hand information or knowledge which they are serving. He maintained that because of the fact that the administrators lack knowledge of real school situation, their insensitivity to goals of education reflected variously in their carelessness with files, unnecessary delay of transactions, and painless feature in disorganized office. As a result of this lack of knowledge, he stated that the relationship with the school is impersonal thus contending that in other words, their relationship with the school is impersonal. Hence they will be careless about constant disruption of school work, teaching, administration, guidance etc. nor would they worry that it was the students who are to suffer the most at least in long run.”
THE IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL ACTION PRIMARY AND SECONDARY INSTITUTIONS.
The issue of teacher’s industrial action on primary, secondary and tertiary institutions has been critically looked at, by many scholars in the state as one of the loopholes of the changes in leadership. In studying the effects of teacher’s industrial action on secondary schools in Anambra state, the views and opinions of other writes on the subject matter are necessary.
Since the creation of Anambra state in 1991, no year has ever passed without cases of industrial disputes occurring in our school system. In Anambra state, the issue has become unique and has by the recent development assumed an unpleasant dimension. Hence, writing on “towards resolving government teachers impasses in Anambra state” (Agbata 2001 P.5) said…this issue has been a thorn on the flesh of Anambra state government both past and present. It is no exaggeration statement that no academic year has ever ended successfully without witnessing ugly incidents of teachers work to rule actions, non-payment of teaches salaries.
This gives an indication as to the dimension and degree of industrial actions in Anambra state, teachers involvement in industrial actions in the state in line with democratic principles. It prevails mostly in civilian regime in Anambra state. the writer is of the opinion that in democracy, the most effective way of preserving industrial right and liberties according to Russel, (1978 Pg 109) “…. Sufficiently powerful to be able to resist the organized force of government successfully when their cause is such as many man think just…..” in his organization of citizens with special interest into groups.
The assertion goes to vindicate the role of Nigeria Union of Teacher (N.U.T) this union fought for the right of its members, in most cases by staging industrial action, one will be tempted to ask why teachers who by their training and orientation during the missionary era were highly esteemed in the society should today descend to the level of engaging in frequent strike actions. Infact, most leaders agree in the assertion that “the teacher reward is in heaven” they therefore, maltreat them, without their salaries and entitlements.
Osanyintolu (1982 P.2) shared the same view when he said, “….. even strike is fashionable, teachers avoid or evade it. Teachers are the most conservative tribe of the word. Their training indisposes them to anything harsh or apparently so, to their pupils and the public they serve” it is pertinent to question why there has been a dramatic change to incessant industrial unrests since the exit of missionaries. The Nigerian union of teachers, Anambra state chapter stated “ teachers do not undertake to industrial action for the joy of it. If there are any such things N.U.T (1982.p.2) they believe that the problem of teachers strike action is always prompted by various leaders who wallowed in nauseating profligacy as they spray money in other capital projects, neglecting the welfare of the teachers. As I said earlier, education is a political weapon which arose from the state take-over of schools, it has been subjected to every wind of change of leadership.
THE IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP CHANGE ON THE EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF ANAMBRA STATE.
There have various leadership styles of most leaders of the state. we may try to accept sergierannis carvers cited:
Harold Bowles (1967: PP.71-229) while …..we do not conceive leadership so narrowly so to restrict its exercise only to specified positions within formal group, we are concerned primary with persons who are designated as administrators in a formal setting.”
Despite this idea, the problems of leadership changes in Anambra state have remained striking. This could be as a result of the inability of those authorities to recognise the difference between leadership styles and proper administrative behaviour.
There are many style of leadership as there are leaders, and as there are occasion for leadership. It cannot be imagined that any one person always adopts the same style of leadership for all occasions. Different kind of leadership style are demonstrated by some leaders to a group or organization and this include a school or society.
Grey (1961.P.47) identified six different styles of bulldozer, the policeman, the efficiency expert. In each he tried to show its distinctive feature, for example, he stated that autocratic leadership” is a one man’s show, it is swift efficient leadership. it wastes little or no time, no meeting or at meeting on arriving at decisions. If there is, a decision, don’t delay the act, if there is none, don’t raise the matter till there is”
But Haiman (1965.P.45) criticized this as a fading style “because leadership today recognize that there is no one final authority on important question that there may be many ways of doing job well, that every person is expected and experienced in his experience of other ways of life and that all people have a valuable contribution to make” leadership should be a process of influencing the activities of an organized group in its task of goal setting and goal achievement.
Zander (1953 P.48) personally, it really defines only at a high level of generality, and it does not include all social acts and influences, but it is nevertheless, an inductive rather than a restrictive definition of leadership. It does not imply domination or direction of others or any technique of influence or even specify a particular member who should be a leader. Leadership should be a force that can initiate action among people, grides activities in any given direction, maintain such activities and unify efforts towards common goal.
Among the category of leadership styles in Anambra state Grey (1978 P.60) went on to offer that the “performer style, he maintained, tell others what to do at length, describes how to do it. The group hears about the past exploits and successes in detail but never about failures.” But knowing the essence of democratic leadership, one may attempt to make some observation about the “performer style.” The leaders in Anambra state has not performed or put in any impact to the educational development of the state rather they participate in day and night embezzlement of education funds, mismanagement of public funds that are meant for the provision of schools, infrastructures and teacher’s salaries.
Since the inception of Anambra state, one rarely sees a leader who devotes much of his time in educational development of the state. Good leadership builds a nation, a state and community just as bad leadership destroys it. The assertion justifies the place of leadership in any setting, practically in the educational development of a community. The roles which leadership can play are various and can be viewed in three dimensions. Firstly, is that of encouraging or urging others, the second is that of acting as a pointer or support of a way out while, finally, it is that of implementing the decisions of policies into practical action. A leader does this with the limit of his capacity, energy and talent, with the co-operation of his followers.
Educational development may be seen as involving higher income, provision of infrastructures and increasing of the number of educational institutions protecting the interest of the teachers through payment of their salaries and allowances. These dimensions of development may be made possible by good and practicably leadership styles by the leaders of Anambra state.
The next category of leadership styles as cited by Grey (supra vide) is the efficiency expert. “This leader is characterized by his impersonal approach the rule book, the letter, machinery, protocol, administration if they are satisfied that the job is well done.” But in another situation, he stated that this style is fast fading and therefore weak because it places emphasis on the product instead of the processed work out by a person. Many leaders do not attend meeting, seminars and lectures which are designed for the upliftment of educational system of the state. This tends to bring setback in policies that are meant to bring forward the educational system. It is this kind of idea towards leadership that Grey insisted on naming “A Bulldozer style.”
This according to Grey (P.48) is a “leader who rides rough never considers the view of others. Atimes he gives lip service to the view other in the group but carryout their own practice after the meeting. Another style as cited by Grey is the “know all” he mentioned that they exposed this style as a style where the leader cannot be told anything and he accepts it, he knows everything.
Another contribution to leadership style is Selzuick (1957 P.22)” He stated that leadership is not familiar, everyday idea as readily available to common sense as to social science. We know from his arguments that what leaders do, is hardly self-evident. And it is likely that much failure of leadership in Anambra state is from inadequately understanding of it’s true nature and tasks.
Selzuick (1957 P.22) cites the premises about leadership style which is in relation to Anambra state in particular:
- Leadership is a kind of a social situation.
- Leadership is not equivalent to office holding or high authority or decision-making.
- Leadership as it relates to Anambra state has not yet been given much attention in educational development because there has not been an interaction between the leaders and the subordinators who can contribute immensely in educational policy-making.
A look at our states, especially Anambra state for the past few years show that their educational system have been falling continuously. This ugly situation is often attributed to failure of leadership. Where there is a good leadership, there is bound to be buoyant and progressing educational system. The opposite implies woes, hunger and dissatisfaction especially among the teachers. A situation where the teachers of any society, are not efficient, effective and energetic, every sector of that society therefore suffers. Most of its leaders have not been living up to expectations. They come into the system, criticize and cancel the already made policies, initiate their own which they think is the best and more favourable. As a result of these changes, they hardly achieve the already made development policies.
Consequently, educational system in Anambra state has been very much subjected to either the party in power or the regime in power as in civil or military rule respectively. This case of political instability can be seen from the creating of Anambra state in 1991 under the military regime that achieved nothing but succeeded in crippling the existing educational policies and programmes. There has been the introduction of instable, epileptic, situational and faulty educational policies which have been witnessed in Anambra state.
The major cause to this is the timely but rather unpopular wholly intervention of the state government in the management of school immediately after the creation by the military without allowing the technocrats and educational experts to fine-tune adoptable educational programmes that will suit the culture and the people of the state. This paradigm has brought about new educational policies and programmes by every wind of change.
Anambra state has witnessed many leadership changes since its creation. The importance each had attached to the educational system has tremendous impact on education. This has mainly reflected in their budgeting and other social problems confronting the educational system. In addition, almost all the educational policies were not fully realized in Anambra state. There have been continuous industrial disputes between the teachers and the government, followed by the negligence of duty by officers resulting to suspension of school programmes and activities, perhaps, the attendant changes in the school calendar. A typical example that always comes to mind is the suspension of two academic years’ school programmes and activities in Anambra state for 2001 to 2003 as a result of industrial disputes between the teachers and government over the non payment of salaries, allowance and other entitlements. Educational institutions were starved of funds, no major repairs in the secondary and elementary school of the state. This was mainly so because the army is not responsible in leadership. In addition, THE RICH elites collaborated with leaders to thwart and sabotage some laudable educational policies which are meant to improve the educational system of Anambra state. a typical example can be draw from the present Peter obi administration in Anambra state which can be seen as a conflicting educational programmes and polices as a result of leadership change. Anambra state government under Dr. Chris Ngige having known the importance of education have encouraged her citizen through free education programmes like (U B E) scheme where the governor declared free and compulsory primary and junior secondary education and also the award of bursary to students.
This programme was later terminated with the coming of Mr. Peter Obi as the new governor of Anambra state forcing the indigenes to pay heavily for the acquisition of education.
Leadership changes has brought about night and day embezzlement of public fund, educational funds, mismanagement of funds meant for educational programmes, infrastructures etc by top executive members of some ministries particularly those in state school board as revealed by commission of enquires. Other impacts as moral laxity and lack of first as exhibited by the public service on the educational development of Anambra state.
No wonder Agbata (2001 P.5) asserted that the issue of leadership change has been a thorn on the flesh of Anambrans. It is no exaggeration that no academic year has ended successfully without witnessing ugly incidents of teachers work to rule action as a result of this different leadership styles in Anambra state.
This chapter presents some background information of the research methodology. It will cover the following areas:
- Ø Research Design
- Ø Area of the Study
- Ø Population of the Study
- Ø Sample and sampling technique
- Ø Instruments for Data Collection
- Ø Validation of instruments method of Data collection
- Ø Method of Data Analysis
The research design used was descriptive survey, the use of descriptive survey is relevant in this research, as questionnaire will be used to gather relevant information needed for the work.
AREA OF THE STUDY
The study will be carried out in Anambra East local Government area of Anambra State to ascertain the impact of leadership changes on the educational development of the state. The local government is located in the northern part of the state, share common boundary with Adani Nsukka in Enugu state and also Kogi State in the Western part of the local government under study. The inhabitants of the area are predominantly formers, petty traders, civil servants students and most importantly because of the presence of Omanbala river where the name Anambra State was derived.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
The population of this study constitutes:
(a) The teachers in Senior Secondary Schools in Anambra East L. G. A.,
(b) The students in Senior Secondary schools in Anambra east L. G. A.,
(c) The parents of the students in Anambra East L. G. A.
SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
A sample of three secondary schools was selected as a representative of the entire population. This selection was drawn through a simple random sampling. The sample was made up of one hundred and fifty respondents, Chosen to reflect a proportionate number of students, parents and teachers.
INSTRUMENTS FOR DATE COLLECTION
The instrument used for the study was the structured questionnaire, educational report, and oral interview with student, parents and teachers of the various selected schools.
VALIDATION OF INSTRUMENTS
To ensure a (the validity) of the instruments, items were subjected to scrutiny by educational experts and necessary amendment were effected.
ADMINISTRATION OF INSTRUMENTS FOR DATA COLLECTION
The researcher administered the questionnaire in person to the respondents. This was preferred instead of the mailing procedure for three main reasons:
(a) To counter the problem of delay in distribution and collection of the questionnaires considering the level of performance of our posted system.
(b) To counter the problem of inability to fill the questionnaires properly by some of the respondents.
(c) To get in touch with the people face to face to get their candid opinion, unbiased or unprejudiced answers with the people directly affected, like the teacher, parents and students.
METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
In each of the schools, questionnaires were administered. These questionnaires were collected on the spot with the help of the teachers and co-operation of the students.
However, out of a total of 155 copies of the questionnaires distributed, 150 were well completed and returned and so used for analysis. On the other hand, a total of 5 copies were invalid.
METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
The researcher made used of data table and simple percentage in analyzing the data collected. The formular is the number of respondents divided by the chosen sample population, multiplied by one hundred over one for example, if yes respondents over a particular question is 31 and the total number of respondents is 150, it will be therefore:
31 x 100 = 20.66%
That is to say that the percentage of those that said yes on the question is 20.66%. After the percentage structure, all the percentage will be added to get a hundred percentages.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
In this chapter, attention was directed towards the interpretation and discussion of the findings of the study. The main task of the research therefore was to use the results drawn from the answers given to the questionnaire to evaluate the impact of leadership changes on educational development of Anambra state. This study is based on four research questions.
Distribution and collection of questionnaire
TYPE OF RESPONDENT
The responses to the different questions asked in the instrument used for the study have been presented below:
RESEARCH QUESTION 1
Does leadership changes have any impact on the educational development of Anambra State?
Table 4.1: Frequency and percentages of respondents
|TYPES OF RESP.||
FREQUENCY OF RESPONSES
PERCENTAGE OF RESPONSES
Table 1 above indicates an over whelming percentage of the respondents from each group accepted that leadership changes have remarkable impacts on the educational development of Anambra State. 20.66% of the students accept that leadership changes have some impact on educational development of the state. This compare with higher percentages of 28.66% and 31.33% of teachers and parents respectively who confirmed the impact of leadership changes on educational development of the state. There are also those that did not accept.
The percentages were 12.66% of the students, 4.66% of the teachers and only 2% of the percents. When combined it indicated that 80.655 of the entire respondents accept that there are some impact of leadership changes on the educational development of Anambra State while 19.3% rejected such impact.
RESEARCH QUESTION 2
Does leadership changes have any effect on the administration of schools in Anambra State?
|TYPES OF RESP.||
FREQUENCY OF RESP.
% OF RESPONSES
Table II shows that majority of respondents agreed that leadership changes have affected the administration of schools in Anambra State. 25.33% gave an account for the students, 26.66% for the teachers and 27.33% for the parents. Similarly, 8% of the students disapproved, 6.66% of the teachers disapproved and 6% of the parents also did it. The mean percentage of the approval and disapproval of these questions were 79.33% and 20.66% respectively.
RESEARCH QUESTION 3
Do the industrial dispute between teachers and government affect the educational development of the state?
|TYPES OF RESP.||
FREQUENCY OF RESP.
% OF RESPONSES
Table III one could agree that the majority of respondents accepted that the industrial dispute between teachers and government affect the educational development of the state. The percentage of those that accepted were 23.33% of the students, 29.33% of the teachers and 30.66% for the parents.
The percentage of those that did not accept were 10% of the student, 4% of the teachers and 2.66% of the parents. When combine, it indicates that 83.33% of the entire respondents accept that the industrial dispute between teachers government affect the educational development of the state while 16.66% disagreed to it.
RESEARCH QUESTION 4
Has the leadership changes in Anambra State been promoting and improving the ways of financing education in the state?
|TYPES OF RESP.||
FREQUENCY OF RESP.
% OF RESPONSES
Table IV shows an overwhelming population of respondents disagreed that the leadership changes in Anambra State has been promoting and improving the ways of financing education in the state. The percentage of those who agreed were 14% of the students, 15.33% of the teachers and 13.33% of the parents respectively. In the same way 19.33% of the students, 18% of the teachers and 20% of the parents disagreed. The mean percentage of the respondents that agree are 42.66% while 57.33% did not agree to this question.
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, IMPLICATION OF THE FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS, LIMITATION OF THE STUDY, SUMMARY AND SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDIES
This chapter deals with the discussion of the findings, conclusion, implication of the findings, recommendations, limitation of the study, summary of the study and suggestion for further studies.
DISCUSSION OF FINDING
The study focused on the impact of leadership changes on the educational development of Anambra State.
The main task of this research had been to find out the impact of leadership changes on the educational development of Anambra State. The respondents believe that, the impact of leadership changes has some adverse effect on the educational development of the state which are grouped under the following findings:
(A) That leadership change has impact on the educational development of Anambra State. An overwhelming percentage of the respondents accepted that leadership change have remarkable impacts on the educational development of Anambra State. 20.66% of the students, 28.66% pf the teachers and 31.33% of the parents accept the fact that leadership change has remarkable impact. However, there are favourable and unfavourable impacts, some favourable impact are: increase in the number of educational institutions, bring of new favourable way of financing education, increase of educational equipment and so on. All these help to promote educational development in Anambra state. The unfavourable impacts include: lack of permanent educational policies, suspension of school work etc. all these draw back educational development in Anambra state.
(B) That leadership change have effect on the administration of schools in Anambra state. The majority of respondents agreed that leadership change have affected the administration of school sin Anambra state. 25.33% of the student, 26.66% for teachers and 27.33% of parent attested to this. This effect has also brought about lack of permanent educational policies, lack of smooth and proper educational planning. Similarly, 8%, 6.66% and 6% of the students, teachers and parents disapproved that leadership change have affected the administration of schools in Anambra state.
(C) Also, that the industrial dispute between teachers and government affect the educational development of the state. It can be stated clearly that majority of the respondents accepted that the industrial dispute between teachers and government affect the educational development of the state. 23.33% of the students, 29.33% of the teachers and 30.66% of the parents accepted respectively. The industrial dispute between teacher and government have brought about the suspension of teachers school work, less regard for teachers in the state, and inadequate opportunity for teachers to discuss their affairs. The percentages of those that did not accept were 10%, 4% and 2.66% of the students teachers and parents respectively, from the above, one would agree that there have been industrial dispute between teachers and government in Anambra State.
(D) That leadership change has in no way been promoting and improving the ways of financing education in the state. When this question was tested, an over whelming population of respondents disagreed that leadership change has been promoting and improving ways of financing education in Anambra State. The percentages of those that disagreed were 19.33% of the student, 18% of the teachers and 20% of the parents. The percentages of those that agreed were 14% of the students, 15.33% of the teachers and 13..33% of the parents respectively. This also shows that leadership changes have affected the performance of teachers in promoting education.
In the course of our discussion, we have tried to objectively analyse the impact of change of government on the educational development of Anambra State. Our analysis in a great deal have shown that the impacts could be favourable and unfavourable action has been at the level of rhetorics and therefore has not achieved any practical thing that has helped to transform the educational development of our state. The change of government appears hopeless and insensitive to the plight of the standard of education in the state to the teacher, parents and students. The impact of leadership change has been such that; too often policies killed the educational system and administration, public servants exhibit distrust and lack of moral laxity, misappropriation and embezzlement of public funds meant for financing education.
Also in this research paper, the suggestions and recommendations of how the adverse impacts could be rectified will been given the researcher maintains that if the recommendations are adhered to, they will facilitate educational development of Anambra State.
IMPLICATION OF THE FINDINGS
From the foregoing, one could say that leadership change has affected the educational development of Anambra state. The implication of this leadership change could be favourable and unfavourable. Some favourable implications include increase in the number of educational institutions, increase in educational equipment and facilities and recruitment of qualified teachers and so on. The unfavourable implications include lack of permanent educational policies, suspension of school work, misappropriation and embezzlement of public funds by administrators in the education board, government interference in the management of schools and high tuition fees.
Secondly, leadership change has affected the administration of schools. The implication of this finding has brought about lack of smooth and proper educational planning, the introduction of newer policies which lacks permanence. Any new government in a state are supposed to uphold the policies of the old government but in this case they try to change every policies so as to suit theirs, thereby neglecting the position of the school administrators.
The industrial dispute between teachers and government affects the educational development of Anambra state. This has brought about the suspension of teachers school work, less regard for teachers in the state, and inadequate opportunity for teachers to discuss their affairs so as to attain educational development.
Lastly, leadership change has in no way been promoting and improving the ways of financing education. A typical example can be drawn from the last regime of Dr. Chris Ngige and Peter Obi. After Dr. Chris Ngige awarded free education for all, Mr. Peter Obi on ascending office withdraw the free education and asked all indigenes to pay for that free education they acquired. With these it has brought about, paying heavily to acquire education, lack of trust in out government schools.
Having agree that leadership change have an impact on educational development of Anambra state, the following recommendations are made:
- That any political leadership ascending the political throne, should not act on prejudice in the existing polices rather he ought to be rational, objective, creative, able to find out the strengths and weakness that have attributed to the promotion or failure of educational development, he can then act and suppose his action if judiciously and religiously followed, will yield fruitful results.
2. Teachers occupy enviable position in the educational development of any society despite their neglect by the society. But there in Anambra state, the mention of teachers is a profanity. They are neglected as well as forgotten in the educational planning of which they are the chief executives, treated with no passion. I recommend that government should change it’s attitude towards teachers. They should be treated as other civil servants even more tenderly. They should be wholly integrated into the educational planning of the state, since they knows its strengths and weakness.
3.Government should see the government should hot accept teachers as their workers and that any public comments not in favour of teachers or any criticism that are not constructive and objective. Government should employ effective means of refuting all these and minimizing them rather than accepting them to be all true. Also, government should employ effective means of paying the salary of teachers, grant them loan, incentives.
4. Teachers on their part should have unity of purpose, employ effective means of projecting their common front (N U T) in the government. Teachers should put more seriousness in their job and be punctual to school.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Research is a rigorous exercise often toasted with problems and difficulties. This research is not an exception.
Firstly, this research is a pioneer project in the sense that no material exists for exploration. I relied on questionnaire and interviews, but uncooperative attitudes, ignorance, time lag between the distribution of questionnaire and their return, and above all, suspicions of the people that the purpose of my study is political rather than a mere educational project.
Secondly, fund was a problem. No special grant was made available for this project. Questionnaires were to be printed, transportation utilized and above all, acids must be paid for all services rendered. The limitation in resources restricted my ability to explore wider.
Despite these limitations, the work went well. Whatever this research fails to do, the field is wide open for other researchers to continue where I stopped.
In summary, we were able to establish the fact that change of government has remarkable impacts on the educational development of Anambra state. Also that change of government is one based on the fact that it could be favourable or unfavourable. We have identified some of the adverse or unfavourable impact such as the introduction of too often policies neglect of teachers, over centralization of educational administration leading to staff mismanagement, misappropriation and embezzlement of public funds by administrators, industrial disputes between teachers and government, government interference in the management of schools, no better way of financing education in the state. All these hinder the effective administration of schools and are brought about change of government.
The various ways of alleviating this problem are such that; political leaders should not act on prejudice in existing policies rather ought to be ration, objective and creative. Government should change it’s attitude towards teachers; government should see teachers as their workers and that any public comment not in favour of teachers should be criticized and lastly teachers should have unity in purpose, employ effective means of projecting and protecting their common front (NUT). The researcher maintained that if the recommended solution are adopted, it will go a long way to facilitate educational development.
SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDIES
The researcher advised that due to the limitation of the study, further studies should be carried out since this problem is endemic in our society and further recommendations should be made to help alleviate this problem.
This research was carried out in Anambra east Local Government of Anambra state.
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