Ebonyi State Environmental Protection Agency (EBSEPA)
Ebonyi State Environmental Protection Agency (EBSEPA) precisely, is a state Governmental parastatal attached to the office of the Executive Governor and charged with the responsibility of ensuring a healthy environment for sustainable human and infrastructural development in Ebonyi State. To order the Complete Project Material, Pay thr Sum of N3,000 to: BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122 Then send the Project Topic, Your Email Address and Full Name to 07033378184.
To order the Complete Project Material, Pay thr Sum of N3,000 to:
BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC
ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122
Then send the Project Topic, Your Email Address and Full Name to 07033378184.
The mandate for the establishment of Ebonyi State Environmental protection Agency was on 6th December 1996 by His Excellency, the first military administrator of Ebonyi State Commander Walter Feghabor (FSS, PSCT). The edict establishing the Agency was however signed into law on with February, 1998. This Edict was repealed and replaced with a more comprehensive one signed on 28th May, 1999.
The agency is made up of six departments which include
i.) Engineering, Ecology and natural resources conservation (EWRC)
ii.) Pollution control and waste management (PWM)
iii.) Research and development (RD)
iv.) Personnel management/Administration (PM/A).
v.) Finance and supply (FS)
vi.) Planning, research and statistics (PRS)
The agency also performs the following functions.:
a.) Flood and soil erosion control in all parts of the state. Its activities here include identification, planning, design and implementation of mitigation measures
b.) Restoration of degraded lands due to mining, quarrying or other industrial operations.
c.) Solid waste management in all parts of the state.
d.) Policy formulation, monitoring and enforcement of environmental standards and guidelines for pollution control in industries, homes, water bodies air and solid.
e.) Maintenance of waterways and a network of drainage system in the state.
f.) Environmental beautification through landscaping, planting of flowers and trees.
g.) Biodiversity conservation including the development of recreation parks.
h.) Ensuring the general well being of Ebonyi Environment.
EBSEPA was formerly situated within the premises of Ebonyi State ministry of works. The then General manager, Engr. Paul Okorie requested the military administrator to provide a new site for the agency. The request was granted and EBSEPA was relocated to 22 Afikpo Road, Abakaliki. The Agency is presently located at the Ministry of works and Transport premises, No. 2 Town Planning Road, Opposite State Prison Abakaliki.
Waste Management in Abakaliki and Environmental Implication
Waste is unavoidable/unwanted materials resulting from domestic activities or industrial operations of which there is no economic demand and which must be disposed of. It is any substance solid, liquid or gaseous that remains as a residue or is an incident by-product of the processing of a substance and for which no use can be found. Waste is also something which the owner no longer wants at a given place and time and which has no current or perceive market value.
Waste Management in Ebonyi State
In Ebonyi state the activity of waste management is a difficult one. This is due to reasons earlier pointed out which include:
Increase in population, lack of fund, manpower etc. waste management does not follow the conventional method such as sanitary landfill, incineration, composting and recycling. What is obtained in the state environmental agency charged with work Management is simply a transfer of waste from one point to another.
Waste accumulated in designated dump areas are usually carried away in open trucks and transferred to areas not being inhabited by people. Dumping continues until dry season when some of the wastes becomes dry and can burn. After burning, a caterpillar would be made to level the area before fresh soil is used for final covering.
The sites for dumping of these wastes are usually very far from where people reside. These answers that the possibility of flies and rodents transferring an infection or disease to humans are very remote. Diseases which could be readily transferred include cholera. Typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, Escherichia coli infections etc. the agency have four designated dumping sites all located very far from the city.
In the management of liquid waste, the agency is highly incapacitated because of absence of its facilities such as septic tank truck, trained personnel etc. based on these factors, liquid waste management is completely left in the hands of private sector individuals who have the facilities to manage it.
The agency currently is researching on the conversion of waste to wealth. If fund is made available to the Agency to procure waste management facilities such as paid loaders trucks, trained personnel and if backed by non-governmental organizations great improvement could be made by the agency in area of waste management. Modern technologies in work management if made available to the agency could tremendously improve the agencies waste management method.
Health and Environmental Implications
- The main risks to health from improper handling of waste arise from breeding of disease vectors (particularly flies and rodents) Improper storage and disposal of wastes provide favourable environment for the vectors.
- The Most obvious environmental damage caused by solid waste is aesthetic, the ugliness of street and the destruction of the beauty of countryside by uncontrolled dumping of wastes.
- Most serious and often unrecognized is the transfer of pollution to waste, which occurs when the leached from a refuse dump enters surface or ground water.
- Air pollution caused by uncontrolled and inefficient burning of wasters
- Hazardous wastes from industry present risks during transportation and disposal.
How Ebonyi State Environmental Protection Agency Manage their Waste
(1) Premises Inspection
In EBSEPA, this activity is designated to a unit in the pollution control and waste management department of the agency, known as the Health unit.
The state capital is divided into six zones with about 36-45 field inspection officers and subunit Heads, this unit Heads, this unit and the EBSEPA court enforces the EBSEPA edict (1999.)
The inspections of premises are of three types, which include:
i. Residential premises inspection (House to House).
ii. Business premises inspection (Food and food premises)
iii. Industrial premises inspection (Quarry site, filling station premises, etc.
House to House Inspection
It is the process or activities in which environmental Health officers more from one house to another in a place, region etc. to detect man’s activity that may constitute environmental or Health nuisances which affects human and public health, ways of abating such nuisance and generation of revenue for the government.
Procedure for House to House Inspection
i. On visiting a premise, the first thing an environment Health officer does is to present his identity card and introduce himself to the owner or occupier of the premises
ii. The owner or premises occupier may direct the environmental Health Officer round the premises for inspection or he may ask the environmental Health officer to move round the premises and inspect it without assistance.
iii. The environmental Health officer will examine the general environmental sanitation of the premises, taking notice of the following:
* Evidence of broken, leaking or filled up septic tank, which constitutes serious health hazards.
Absence of waste – water soak-away pits and standard waste bins, which may harbour parasitic vectors like mosquitoes, etc and generation of offensive odors within the premises.
* Evidence of dilapidated building materials like doors, windows, sagging ceilings, leaking roof.
* Fall off walls of the building that may cause accident or death of the occupier of the premises.
* Evidence of open or unprotected dangerous wells and pits, which may serve as death traps for occupier of the premises.
* Evidence of provision of inadequate Toilet, bathroom and kitchen accommodation, which may constitutes serious environmental hazards, etc.
iv. Confirmation of detected nuisances by the environmental Health officer to the premises owner or occupier
v. Collection of the name and address of the premises owner, or occupier, depending on the nuisance detected in the premises.
vi. Filling and issuance of abatement notice by the environmental Health officer, which must contain the following.
* Name and Address of premises owner or occupier.
* Nuisances detected
* Period given to premises owner or occupier to abate the nuisance and the penalty to be paid to the agency etc.
vii. Failure of the premises owner or to occupier to the required standard of the environmental Health officer in charge, in abating the nuisance will attract EBSEPA court action etc.
Food and Food Premises Inspection
Food: The are every consumable organic or patial inorganic material which can be cerelose, fibre legumes, Nuts, feeds, etc. in either solid or liquid form that provides energy nutrient, etc which are essential for growth and supports life of man and Animals.
Food Premises: These includes areas where food processing, production and utilizations are carried – out; examples are kitchens, sitting – rooms fast-food centers, inns, Guest Houses, Hotels, factories, Bakeries etc.
Food Premises Inspection
It is a physical mechanical or Electronically observation, monitoring, evaluation and step by step investigation of premises concerned with food, at a particular place, time and environment to achieve minimum standard of hygienically stable food, safe for human and animal consumption, and the hygienic nature of such food handlers and their environment.
Things to inspect for in food premises are (1) Venilation
(3) Workers safety
(4) Product safety
(5) Waste management systems
(6) Convince Accommodation and
(7) Stores for Raw materials and finished
These is the process in which places for production are closely monitored, evaluated and observe to ensure that the step by step procedures for production do not constitute nuisance to workers of the industry or the environment.
Objectives of Premises Inspection
To detect activities that will cause health and environmental nuisance, to prevent its occurrence and where it occurred, ensuring it’s abated and compliance by premises owner or occupier.
How Ebonyi State Environmental Protection Agency Dispose Their Waste
The department have mapped and introduced activities aimed at educating and encouraging the general public on personal hygienic behaviour and practices which includes provision of standard waste bin, premises inspection, abolitions of buckets toilet system, general sanitation exercise, environmental education and awareness, etc all to achieve cooperate management of waste and the state environment.
It is good to note that EBSEPA normally carries – out streets waste collection twice a week and regular evacuation of central dump sites located in Abakaliki.
Storage at Collection or Near Point of Generation
EBSEPA have provided several central dumping sites within Abakaliki metropolises to meet- up with the increasing waste generation to serve as temporary storage site to prevent uncontrolled and indiscriminate disposal of solid waste. The major temporary sites are located at new – layout primary school field, forest reserve along water works- road, Nzekwe street, Odunkwe street, etc.
The capacity of the temporary storage site depends on waste generated per house – hold or community in the case of communal storage and proposed frequency of storage and collection.
EBSEPA is really playing a leading role despite its challenges (like inadequate machines, funds) in achieving its goals.
For more effective refuse collection, refuse characteristics and sources should be taken into consideration to determine the frequencies for collection of waste.
The main factors, which affect frequency of collection includes:
– Character of the waste (degradable, etc)
– Climatic factors
– Communal or home storage
– Inadequate awareness for the need of waste collection
– Non co-operation by the public for house holds, the frequency of collection should preferably be daily, otherwise at leas three times weekly, for dwellings premises with gardens and buildings having outside storage space, at least twice weekly collection is adequate, provided a closed portable container is used.
Disposal and Landfill
The disposal of waste from temporary storage sites by EBSEPA is regularly and periodically depending on the capacity of generated waste
EBSEPA engages in waste evacuation from point of generation to a less residential area, sometimes the dispose generated waste into borrow- pits, abandoned mining pits, which is not a sanitarily practice instead of waste treatment.
Note: proper and careful handling of waste from point of generation to point of collection makes waste management easy and effective.
Impacts of Solid Waste Management
The world Health Organization (WHO) expert committee (1971) said that solid waste management is an important and key fact of environmental hygiene and needs to be integrated with total environmental planning.
Its storage, collection, treatments and disposal can lead to short- term risks.
On Health: In managing solid waste the process of waste collection, storage handling and final disposal poses a serious health risk (illness, even death) on the immediate public, ie. EBSEPA waste disposal assistants especially if night soil (feces) are present in the waste. The process of waste management may constitute nuisance for all that comes in contact with the waste.
The EBEPA waste disposal assistants are face with hazards like injury that may result as the evacuate the generated waste.
On Environment: Improper and uncontrolled waste management as a result of the use of unskilled, non – professional or inadequate personnel and technology may cause a great significant negative impact of waste on the environment and its resources, as it constitutes adverse and harsh impacts on the environment and the resources of the environment.
For Example: The by – products of solid waste like lead, hydrogen sulphide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs 11 and 12) which helps to destroy ozone layer, that result to global climate change.
Note: waste impact can be as a result of spillage leakage or direct and outright disposal.
Sanitation/Clean Up Day
The ministry of Health through its parastatal EBSEPA tries impacting personal cleanliness practices into the citizens by declaring last Saturday of every month as clean up exercise throughout the state.
The clean- up exercise last for 3 hours between 7 am – 10am, in which the EBSEPA staffs are divided into teams and assigned to particular area (streets) to monitor, evaluate arrest and bring offenders to EBSEPA court for prosecution.
Note: During this period cars, materials impended are properly registered, which is released immediately the offender is no longer guilty.
When an offender is found guilty the presiding prosecutor will ask offender to either pay a fine, be imprisoned for art least one month or the both depending on the nature of offence committed.
The sanitation exercise are enforce by EBSEPA, environmental state. Holders, won- governmental organizations (like boys bridge etc), Private sectors (transportation companies like Romchi, peace mass, private transport owners, etc) which provides vehicles used by EBSEPA field officers to monitor the clean – up exercise.
I conclude that the present method of solid waste management in Abakaliki municipal is not adequate. Perhaps, it is necessary for the government to device more improved techniques by which solid waste can be managed.
It is include frightful to be true, that EBSEPA, the only governmental Agency that is concerned with the management of solid waste in Abakaliki municipality make use of two hired tippers only and final disposal practiced by Ebonyi State Environmental protection Agency (EBSEPA) in Abakalikii is just open dumping and burning without any treatment, or regard for pollution.
In conclusion, it is found that in Ebonyi State, the activity of waste management is a difficult task.
The following are recommendations to help in the achievement of proper solid waste management in Abakaliki municipality:.
– Individual premises (homes, etc) should have a waste bin and a waste bin number in their houses for proper collection of solid waste and disposal on daily bases
– Government should create waste management board, to take care of solid waste management, as the will convert waste to health, and provided employment.
– Government should provide solid waste management agencies such as Ebonyi State Environmental protection agency (EBSEPA) with adequate equipment and essential resources.
– The agency in collaboration with other concerned bodies should embark on solid waste composting, recycling and proper treatment methods. It is also advisable that the use of sanitary landfills as final disposal sites should be introduced; waste sorting and separation techniques will go a long way to manage waste generated in Abakaliki.
– Students, workers and general citizens should be properly educated and workshops, seminars conducted to enhance proper disposal information and to achieve environmental management by all and for all.
– The solid waste should always be incinerated to avoid environmental pollution of any kind, which will be harmful to the inhabitants of Abakaliki etc.
– Environmental protection Agency EBSEPA Edict, (1999)
– Nwoke Julianau. “ Assessment of solid waste
Management Techniques used in Abakalki municipal by EBSEPA“ unpublished” (Hand out), 2001
– Ike pius N. “ sustainable Environment TPL 2009
– Ukpah I.O.E “the Ebonyi Environment; yesterday, today
and Tomorrow. Unpublished, 2009.
To purchase complete Project Material, Pay the sum of N3, 000 to our bank accounts below:
BANK NAME: GUARANTY TRUST BANK (GTB)
ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM
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BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC
ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122
After paying the sum of N3, 000 into any of our bank accounts, send the below details to our Phone: 07033378184
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