Communication and Its Problems in Developing Countries

Communication and Its Problems in Developing Countries

In view of the fact that some writers, both prominent and researching students at one time or the other have written on topics relevant to this topic “communication and its problems in developing countries Nigeria as a case study. It therefore, become very imperative that in the course of this research one calls to mind the honest effort of different writers in other to set a theoretical base for our work. Below are the  review of important literature relevant to this topic.
Francis J. Bergin, author of practical communication (second edition). He started his book by giving an unsought into the origin or communication. The word is derived from later and communicate which means “ To share and also French word comments which means “common”

To order the Complete Project Material, Pay thr Sum of N3,000 to:

BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC

ACCOUNT NAME:  CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM

ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122

Then send the Project Topic, Your Email Address and Full Name to 07033378184.

 


Communication is of necessity in the area of good management. It’s the way management gets its job done and good managers are usually good communicators. Repeatedly, business disasters are attributed to failure in communication is the hallmark of good moral. Most of business manager’s time is spent in passing information and ideals upwards to senior management and aid their decision making . He provides other department manager’s with information which will help them do their jobs more effectively, is lateral communication. A business manager passes information conveys or creates attitudes. He receives and interprets facts from those working for him in the same vein he communicates with people outside his own company including customers, government departments, trade and professional institutes and the members of the general pubic.
THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS
Its quite unfortunate that there is lack of proper understanding of the principles and processes of communication. Many a good ideas has never traveled beyond the mind if its creator when we talk of communication we talk of transmission of information in its widest sense, we consider messages, facts ideals and opinions as well as expression of emotions. Some of which we indicate to others without ever realizing we are doing so. Almost every communicator generates an intermingled pattern of facts and feeling because of this, you may find yourself in an intricate of human reaction woven of emotions and sentiments as well as thought and ideas.
Words happen to be our main tool, often dulled by wrong usage and for many of us not always readily hand nevertheless. They are the only medium through which we may make ourselves be understood by others. We make use of communication process in the daily activities, like doing and working with others.
Social communication involves more than the source and receiver elements. Infact on it is the dynamic interaction of those many elements or components, that makes communication a social progress. According to Dr.. Ikechuwu E. Nwosu in his mass communication and National Development there are many types of communication .
1.    PERSONAL COMMUNICATION
This refers to the communication with one’s self e.g thing, elf examination. Sociology etc. It is the initiator of together forms of communication of other forms of communication both interpersonal and mass communication further human being is versatile and signals travel from all segment of our body to our brain e.g grumbling in the stomach may suggest that you are hungry or that we are overrated. In intra -c–mmunicaiton the individual becomes the source and the receiver.
Classification is classified thus:
Non – personal  – mass communication
Personal  – Intra personal
Inter – personal
Oter forms of intra – personal communication involves the perceptual notes we make and the rationalizations and attitudes that determine our non – hidden behaviours. Basic to all levels of communication is a deviled consciousness of self. Internal feedback serves as an internal check on one’s communication.
2)    INTER – PERSONAL COMMUNICATION
This is communication between two people. It can be face to face or take the forms of letter writing and or similar means. It is an effective means of communication because it has the advantage of immediate feedback person ability to speak to another person and be understood by his.
Further, it is the communication between people on a to one basis or in a small group.
There are certain things that hinder our communication with another person. They are different background. Different interpretation of words. Different ages feelings, moods time of the day.
Still, inspite of the difficulties, the ability to communicate with our fellow man is worth every amount of handwork.
Inter –personal commonness with inter – personal communication which is the ability to assemble  the sensations we get from our environment into comprehensive pictures of what the environment is like so as to be able t adapt to it. Again each step in the inter –personal communication supplies a feed back to the system, hence leading to more and more communication until the pictures or perception between the communicating persons is nearly the same.

FEATURES OF INTER – PERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Some propositions must be validated to name a communication. Inter- personal.

a.    Successful interpersonal communication involves mutual needs to communicate. One has to be interested in what the other communicator wants to impact on to his.
b.    Inter – personal communication is the ay by which we confirm and validate self.
c.    It institute and defines nature to the relationship between the people concerned.
d.    Communication is unavoidable and inevitable when people are conscious of one another.
e.    In interpersonal communication, both the sender and the receiver of meaning must be present.
f.    Communicators assumes roles as both sender of message and receiver in inter –personal communication.
g.    Any choice that a person makes mirrors the degree of that person’s interpersonal; communication capabilities.
h.    In this form of communication, the sender and receiver are independent ) a kind of interpersonal communication )
i.    Interpersonal communication is irreversible unrepeatable and almost always functions in a  context of change . Communication is initiated consciously or unconsciously to change the other person.
j.    Hence the interpersonal communication relies on behaviours. We must be satisfied with degree of mutual understanding. “ Experience is man’s invisibility to man”.

(3)    GROUP COMMUNICATION:-
This occurs when one person communicates with two or more people who are near – by. We always witness a gospel preacher, who will normally address the congress group of people in the streets or ven in pubic crusade.
(4)    MASS COMMUNICATION :
This is communication with a mass audience or a large number of people at the same time. Such people are scattered and have different characteristics.
MASS COMMUNICATION INCLUDES:-
(5)    PHOTO COMMUNICATION (JOURNALISM)
According to sunny. E. Udeze (ED) in his essentials of photo  journalism and photography, he says photo communication is a process whereby the reporter, reports events with the camera. In a nutshell, photo journalism is photo reporting. The photo journalist uses camera to take pictures that communicates. More emphasis here is on communicative pictures
The studio photographer takes pictures for aesthetic sake and not for communicative sake, such studio photo graphs are kept in albums for entertainment and less for communication, therefore the studio photographer is not a photo journalist.
A photo journalist must have been exposed to formal training in journalism. He can both merit news stories with his pen as well as  with his camera.
Photo – graph which according to Udeze J.E is both a science and an art and both aspect are insurable lined through its astomisbing rise from a subtitled for scarce of kind to an independent art form.
Photography can both taken for: representation
Form and Expression.
Picture for expression is the pre –occupation of the communicator and that is the one we are concerned about. The focus here is on the new angle of the object to be taken by the camera, such a picture must communicate. This is to say it must say something it must express news worthiness of the object. The picture must be capable of being read and interpreted in communicative manner.
This type of picture must not be seen to be committing photographic crime  which is distorting, ratters it must communicate something about something to some people with consequences, because picture never tell lies. Such photo – communicator is under the same legal enchroahment as a new reporter. Section 25 act 20 of 1963 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigerians guarantee freedom of expression and association in Nigeria, also in section 36 of the 1974 constitution.
However, in many voices one word by macbrides. There are many forms of modern communication. Techniques. In recent ages, both the industrial and communicative resolutions have absolutely transformed man and the process of human relationship. As  the first was presented in mass production of signals and symbols. What a person said to one can be said to many.
NEWS PAPER (PRESS)
Colonialism, Christianity and nationalism were the major tends that paved the way for the press in Africa. In colonialism, the need for effective communication was seen by the colonial masters between the Africans and themselves, incidentally, one define historical situation gave rise to turn events, many of the negros who returned from America and West india were educated.
In Christianity, there was the need for the propagation for the Christian faith the gospel) and so newspaper were used to each even the interior of Africa. The nationalist however, used the newspaper to investigate the people’s mind against the foreign bids. The masses were educated through the use of newspapers produced by people like chief Nnamdi Azikiwe and Herbert Maccualay.
Hence, the crude aspect of newspaper  was introduced by emperor Julius cresar when  the established the ACTA DIURNA which is the first newspaper in the world.
In Nigeria, the first newspaer was the Iwe Liohin by Rev Henry Townsend at Abeokute in 1859. But the real press began in Nigeria with establishment of various newspaper by Nnamdi Azikiwe in 1937. Magazines, newspaper, posters thus, because channels and indeed powerful tools for political matters.

RADIO (BROADCASTING)
Since the emergence of electronic media, there is an evening creasing demand for spontaneity, unrebearsel interaction and exenstential focus on the parent. Radio is a means of transmitting message to diversified heterogeneous audience through broadcasting. This is one of the good after effects of colonialism in Nigerian because in 1932, the BBC started Broadcasting “ Empire service”. The out post for one of this was Lagos. The objective of this overseas services was to cement the cultural economic and political unlike between Britian and hr colonies and dominions.
The monitoring post was established in Lagos to be ears and eyes of the BBC. The monitoring post was transcribing the  transcribing the transmitted edition of the BBC programmes.
It was bring transmitted only 18 hours in a week out of this, only on hour was given to Nigeria materials the rest comes from BBC, from last  – 59,  the Nigeria broadcasting co-operation was established. A mobile transmitter was bought for 2000 pounds. Other equipment were inter bought which were unserviceable them. The BBC had better equipment’s. Radio is the easiest method of reaching the interior of Nigeria and West Africa as a whole.
TELEVISION :
There are  more changes taking place is television to day than at any point in its forty – years history. Unlike the film industry which has essentially one roles, entertainment. Television industry has a variety of roles, from primary provider of news and information to primary advertising medium for local and national merchants.
In 1887, there approximately 1200 operating television stations in the united states – 653 viffs commercial stations are supported through the selling of advertising time \, most educational stations or religions stations. Public Broadcasting station are prohibited from selling advertising time, by federal mandate.
As early as 1890 scientists experimented with mechanical methods of breaking up and Te – assembling a picture in 1923 a Russian immigrant viadimii invented the kinescope picture tube. Shorting after , he began working for RCA, where he developed an improved picture tube the kinescope with the this invention came rapid development of the essential electronic equipment necessary for television.
FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION
Information – The collection, storage, processing and dissemination of news data, picture, facts and messages, opinion and comments required order to understand and react knowledgeably to personal, national and international conditions.
Education: The transmission of knowledge so as to faster intellectual development, the formation of character and the acquisition of skills and capacities of stage of life. Entertainment: The diffusion, through signs, symbolic, sounds and images, of drama, dance, arts literature commend, sports games, e.tc. personal and collective enjoyment.
Motivation: The promotion of the immediate and ultimate aims of each of each society and the stimulation of personal choose and aspirations, the fostering or individual of community activities, general towards pursuit of agreed aims.
In an unpublished work of Nto – Okwun “ Mass communication in Nigeria”. He stated some of the problems of communication, irrespective of the age communication has attained in Nigeria. The problems are categorized into three with division.
COST COMMUNICATION PROJECTS
The need for communication is in the lips of all countries the launching of s satellite or the innumerable possibilities from programmes and project ranging between the most basic to the most sophisticated ones. Nigeria needs many improved means   and advances in communication development. This has established every out that Nigeria still remain in its level of communication structure for few years ago. The development countries where huge amount  expended are not always proof of optimum social or economic returns a although they project prestige/ value may be deemed important.
Individuals problems, poverty : Ordinary television sets, newspaper and so on are not widely distributed because the poor are unable to buy them. Thus, they are regarded as luxurious goods, but they could have been easiest way of wide spreading information. In Nigeria, only higher and average income earners can afford the coloured  television sets.
The first – Class citizens afford the highest communication facilities , not until recently that indivisuals now have sattlities on their homes, in Nigeria. The  second and third classes can only afford the transistor radio, and other communication facilities. In respect of this, the poor in the society will not gather all the message or information as others do
Lack of electricity : Some places not extended with electricity still find it difficult to install  and operate some communication gadgets, such as telephone at their disposal, others may purchase  these  minor electronic communication gadgets but those are normally abandoned due to lack of power supply.
Illiteracy: There are difficulties in encoding and decoding of ideas in Nigeria society. This problems arose because of language differences. As a result of this, there arose the need for “Edu – communication” as the possible solution to this problem” Edu – communication means communication education.
Communication may be described as sharing ideas or feelings or message with one another making our message  a common property to them.
To education according to Dr. Oreh of university of Nigeria Nsukka, is the transmission of knowledge so as to foster intellectual development, the formation of character and the acquisition of stills and capacities at all stage of life. Having defined these two terms, on can know the problems involved in language differences and ethnicity. To solve this problem of  education, man must learn the skills necessary for effective living.
Unfaithfulness of communicator :  The worst of all is were the truth is turned upside down or bidden by the disseminators of information due to intimidation or personal influences .
Much of the modern reports lost credibility, Believing in this “next of kin and “general order “ as a result of  this conscience is occupied with materialistic and worthless gains and they   will deliver their reports in a blazed manner, making the whole truth unknown, when a journalist disclose the reverse of a news story identifying truth as falsehood and falsehoods the as the truth the    reader is thus, manipulated and misled since he has been made to lose his balance of judgement.
Religion fanaticism intolerance : Due to  religions differences in the country certain publication are not  allowed to circulate to certain parts of the country. In some case, people of another religious scholarly teachings in the media are not allowed, for instance, a Christian scholar finds it difficult to  read anything  written or said by Shech Abubakar Gunmi (now late) no matter how faced it may be, because most of this Teachings are against the Christian belief. The Moslems on the other hand do not read the one written by CAN”S (Christians Association of Nigeria) president on controversial issues. As a result of these two religious factious do see themselves as two opposing eneries  that can never benefit from one another therefore, the role which communication ough to have played in the society such as education is thereby hindeid.
From the unpublished work of Mr. Nwaogbuinyama Emeka’s Mass communication laws and ethics. He identified a lot of problems of communication.
From the unpublished work of Mr. Nwaogbuinyama Emeka mass communication laws and ethics. He identified a lot of problems of communication via defamation. It is variously defined. No definition has completely covered every case. But some definition form the action.
1)    It is any publication of a statement which tends to lower a person in the estimation of right thinking members of society generally or which tends to make them shunoration that person.
2)    It is any publication that identifies and defamers a person resulting in that person’s exposure to hard contempt ridcule and causes him or her to be shuned there are two types of defamation libel and slader libel is a defamatory statement in written or any permanent forms, scuh as picture illustration, cartoons. This is  a written defamation.
Slander: Is a defamatory statement in a spoken form. It is a spoken defamation in any transient form this applies to broadcasting which is an actual working of the defamatory  statement.
Slander and libel can be recognized in the following ways:
1)    It must be a publication
2)    It must be identified (Refer to the plaintiff)
3)    It must be defamatory.
Its defense could come in many  like through justifications, fair comment privilege, unintentional defamation.
Law of sedition in Nigeria: It standard during the colonial era. It began during the administration of conkmer W.Egerton an enactment entitled the sedition offense ordinance of 1909 was enacted.
A sedition publication is one which capable of rendering the person accused liable to prosecution and conditions under various critical codes in Nigeria.
ELEMENTS OF SEDITION OFFENSE
1)    It must be published
2)    It must express sedition intent
3)    It must not fall within the offenses.
There are some defense of sedition must be truth of allegation. It should have lawful excuses.
Contempt of court : Contempt of the court can come in many forms and according to the legal system of a given country ..Any person who within the premises in which any judicial proceeding is being head or taken or within the districts of the court who show disrespect in speech or manner to or  with reference to such proceeding or any person before whom such proceeding is being had or taken has committed contempt of court or while the judicial proceeding is pending makes use of any speech or writing misrepresenting such proceeding or capable of prejudicing any person in favour  or against any part to such proceeding or calculated to lower the authority of any person before whom such proceeding is being had or taken.

—-This article is not complete———–This article is not complete————

This article was extracted from a Project Research Work Topic

COMMUNICATION AND ITS PROBLEMS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (NIGERIA AS A CASE STUDY}.”

To purchase complete Project Materials, Pay the sum of N5, 000 to our bank accounts below:

BANK NAME: GUARANTY TRUST BANK (GTB)

ACCOUNT NAME:  CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM

ACCOUNT NUMBER: 0044056891

OR

BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC

ACCOUNT NAME:  CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM

ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122

After paying the sum of N5, 000 into any of our bank accounts, send the below details to our email address: 07033378184 and email: articlesng@gmail.com

1.      Your Depositors Name

2.      Teller Number

3.      Amount Paid

4.      Project Topic

5.       Your Email Address

Send the above details to: 07033378184 or on/before 24hours of payment. We will send your complete project materials to your email.

For Inquiries call – 07033378184

To Get Marketing Project Research Materials, Click Here!

To Get Accounting Project Materials, Click Here!

To Get Business Administration Project Materials, Click Here!

To Get Banking and Finance Project Materials, Click Here!

Co-Operative Economics and Management Project Materials, Click Here!

Communication and Its Problems in Developing Countries

To purchase complete Project Material, Pay the sum of N3, 000 to our bank accounts below:

BANK NAME: GUARANTY TRUST BANK (GTB)

ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM

ACCOUNT NUMBER: 0044056891

OR

BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC

ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM

ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122

After paying the sum of N3, 000 into any of our bank accounts, send the below details to our Phone: 07033378184

  1. Your Depositors Name
  2. Teller Number
  3. Amount Paid
  4. Project Topic
  5. Your Email Address

Send the above details to: 07033378184 or on/before 24hours of payment. We will send your complete project materials to your email 30 Mins after payment.

Articlesng.com will only provide papers as a reference for your research. The papers ordered and produced should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. It is the aim of Articlesng.com to only provide guidance by which the paper should be pursued. We are neither encouraging any form of plagiarism nor are we advocating the use of the papers produced herein for cheating.

Comments

  1. Funke Ande says:

    In addition to what was discussed, communication is very importance in all our dealings either business wise or personally. Communication is also an essential tool in achieving productivity output and also maintaining the relationship levels.
    ANDE OLUWAFUNKE CALEB UNIVERSITY MASS COMMUNICATION 300LVL.

Speak Your Mind

*