Challenges Facing Media Organisation in the Dissemination of Information
The studies of the literature were variously selected, which includes excerpts from opinion of experts, articles that are related to the course of study.
Thus, the primary source include data collected from questionnaire which is one hundred and thirty three in number distributed to a carefully selected secondary source includes other close related materials, internet, library, books, newspaper, magazines and project written by the graduate students, news commentaries on radio, documentaries that bordered on the issue on television. To order the Complete Project Material, Pay thr Sum of N3,000 to: BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122 Then send the Project Topic, Your Email Address and Full Name to 07033378184.
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2.2. REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE
The researcher believes that it is the responsibility of the media to always report the truth and put the interest of the public at heart, when writing sensitive news reports and local programs that portray our culture to the public.
According to Tony Adibe (2007: P.4) he opined thus, “Let the fire of controversy rage but let it beget ashes of very useful debate, criticism and solution”. What this means is that, the press have the duty to reveal what is hidden if it is of public interest.
However, the duty of the government owned media is to seek out the truth, above all things, so as to present to the masses nothing but the truth. To this effect, the government broadcast media have being achieving all these in this regard. They have being unrelenting in reporting issues such as corruption, fraud, political malpractice, embezzlement of public fund, war, conflict, terrorism, and all other issues that cause damages within the society, also they have other issues that improve the growth of the society.
Since, the media have tried in their pursuit of truth; it is good to note that those in authority should endeavor to allow media operators to fulfill their roles to the members of the society. The act of using the press by the government to project government official image pose as a great challenge to this course. Even though they are government, there is need for the press to be allowed to operate freely without any interference; also the press must not dance to the tune of the government by always supporting every action and policy of the government.
Therefore, it is their sole responsibility to always adhere to the ethical code of conduct and report policies of the government that are of public interest and not become sycophants, just as it is rightly put forward by Tony Adibe, the day you (journalists) write to please one you are no longer a journalist, you are in show business. (Quoting frank Miller your).
To this effect, the concept of press freedom will be given an interpretation here, it is also a challenge facing the pressman because journalists are also expected to enjoy freedom to operate in their own capacity.
According to the then chairman of the board of NBC (National Broadcasting commission), Alhaji Abrahim Najune Musa, he said that the plurality of radio and television stations also automatically translates to more choice for viewers, especially in these days, when all you hear on national radio and television is what government officials or their wives are doing. Thus, the potential of broadcasting in Nigeria was never fully realized because of ownership control interestingly, other constraints that face the media are financial constraints that limits their performance, regular power failures from PHCN which prevent the media operators from sending reports after they have returned from the field, poverty in the land, insecurity on the part of the pressman, poor recognition of talents and professionals, Urban centeredness of development rather than rural areas development which discourage community journalism.
It is pertinent to explain more, this major challenge facing the media in dissemination of information, which is epileptic power supply. This has become a big constraint in passing information across to the target audience. Nigeria cannot boast of one month un-interrupted power supply, this affect the spread of information because when there is no power supply, the target audience will miss the programmes meant for them. Though generator could be the alternative to power supply, but the question now is how many people own generator.
In fact, this has posed a serious challenge to the media in dissemination of information. More so, poor recognition of talents and professionals in the field. This also has posed challenge in dissemination of information, when someone who is not capable of handling report has been sent to a beat, he would not know what exactly to know and he will return with no useful information, this hampers the dissemination of information because in this regard, there would not be anything or information to pass across the masses.
It is paramount to note that, those in the media should employ professionals and talents that know the onions and ethics of journalism; it will go a long way in disseminating useful information to the masses.
Urban centeredness of development rather than rural areas poses also challenge to the media when disseminating information and hampers development, the nation’s budget is mainly for the urban, just little is allocated to the rural and, the community journalist or media finds it so difficult to disseminate information in terms of rural development information in terms of rural development like electricity, social amenities that aids spread of information (e.g. good roads).
According to Sam Okechukwu Omeje (2010: p: 19) he opined that obstacle to rural oriented media are the dearth of amenities and infrastructural facilities which are essential in the production and distribution of any media programmes. The rural media cannot effectively work or disseminate information when all these are lacking in the area. It will be of great advantage to the media if the government should increase the rural areas budget, it will aid the dissemination of information and also enhance rural development. All these posed as challenges facing the media in the dissemination of information. However, despite all odds, the Nigeria television. Authority (NTA) has stood firm despite the challenges, that is why it still remain the first and the only station that disseminate information fairly to the public, NTA Enugu Network centre in the eastern region of Nigeria has been proudly named, NTA channel 8 Enugu, (2nd to none), and it has up to data transmitters. In 1982, NTA Enugu took delivery of a 10kw Thomason C S F transmitter and a brand new Rhode and Schwartz 10kw transmitter was installed for the station at Abor in November 2000. The studio was equally equipped with ultra modern digital state of the art studio facilities, as a zonal network centre, it took delivery of outside broadcast facilities made up of OB van, utility van and DSNG van with which it has effectively linked up news and programs emanating from the zone. Also, a 10kw liquid cooled R and S transmitter was brought in 2008 and installed in 2009. For this great achievement, NTA has really taken the bull by the horn in order to meet up to expectation.
That notwithstanding, there are myriad of problems facing them in their operation. There are high cost of production, Lethargy on the sponsor, obstacles facing the industry; in support of this opinion, Tony Adibe quoted Dr Robert Dardenne of the journalism and media studies, university of south Florida St. Petersburg U.SA thus he said, “A healthy journalism and healthy government give people what they need to make decisions that lead to better journalism better government, and better lives.
Addressing the issue of insufficient funding which is always like as excuse for the near total absence of quality locally produced programs, Dr Tom Ana of NBC called on the media to establish a pool from where they can source programs. He said, if you have money to single handedly produce, a program do it once you want to reach a particular Target audience, but if you don’t, join forces with other stations to get what you want” this suggested opinion he believes will help the media a lot to avert the challenges.
Interestingly another factor to be considered as one of the challenges facing the media is that of environmental factor. Thus, in a public lecture presented by Mr. Tony Adibe, former Assistant Editor, Saturday champion and Daily trust correspondent in Enugu state which he submitted on the occasion of the One-Day workshop organized by print student Group (PSG) of mass communication department, IMT, Enugu, on Thursday, May 12,2011. At the Nigeria union of journalist (NUJ) press centre, Enugu, he opined “Don’t forget that you, the reporter is operating in an environment earlier described as full of all sorts of ugly and wicked creatures that are not the best of the reporter’s friend”.
In order to agree with this point of view, it can be submitted that NTA has seen such friends in their daily reportage of events. For instance, on Thursday may 11, 2011 at INEC Headquarters at independence Layout, Enugu, it was recorded that some journalist were officially invited to cover the handing over of “certificate of Winning” to the governor-elect, Br. Sullivan Chime and other elected officials in Enugu state at the past general election 2011, some violet drama occurred, some members of the state security service (SSS) descended heavily on one of the reporters of Daily independent Newspaper, in Enugu, Mr. Emmanuel Nzomiwu, they beat him up and in the process inflicted some injuries on him. This caused a heated argument between the security men and other reporters, this eventually led to the reporters being rough handled, in this case, we can attribute this as one of the major challenges facing the media because most a times, the environment and the people are unfriendly to the press.
In addition, the welfare of journalists, when taken care of, goes a long way in depleting the cog in the well of “sycophancy journalism”. Perhaps those who fan the embers of witch hunting in journalism in order to earn a dime or two will look the other way (Tony Adibe, 2007: P. 68). This is a fact and a big challenge facing journalists in the gathering and reporting of information.
Despite, all these, NTA and other media organization are still surviving and marching forward this goes with the Igbo saying which simply means “you do not say you won’t go to war because people are being killed. You cannot say because some soldiers were killed during war, and therefore, nobody should go or join the nation’s army. Just as it is stipulated in section 22 of the 1999 constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria actually entrusted upon the reporters that responsibility. The constitution states inter- alia. “The press shall not at all time be free to uphold the fundamental objectives contained in this chapter and uphold the responsibility and accountability of government to the people “. These kinds of constitutional provision sometimes make people see the press as the fourth Estate of the realm. But the issue is that, whether reporters are being killed or not, whether they are being harassed, the struggle must continue for if the struggle stops, some society will be stopped.
During Biafra-Nigeria war, then leader of Biafra, General Chukwuemeka Ojukwu usually conclude his speeches with the statement: the struggle continues.
To this effect, the zonal Director of NTA Enugu, Network centre, Mr. Philip Uwa-ezuoke Oforegbu gave a thumb up for all staffers to continue to do good work in terms of giving up to date news documentaries and good quality of local programs because he beloved that consciously or unconsciously NTA will measure up with CNN standard in set, style and concept, and viewers will continue to see NTA as the best station in town.
2.3 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE
Though, the scope or knowledge of this literature being reviewed is in exhaustible, but to this extent, that has been reviewed, it has enabled the researcher in understanding information to the members of the society. Thus, the findings of this literature review implicate that.
- The first responsibility of the press especially the broadcast media is to uphold the truth at all times because the public have the right to be informed and get facts about the truth on the activities of events within and around them.
- Government and NBC should allow the media stations the free hand to operate in an environment devoid of control measures, harassment and censorship which is detrimental to the growth of the nation.
- That stations who cannot get big amount of money to operate or produce programs can join with others so that the industry can move.
- That the media should try harder so as to compete very well with CNN.
This article was extracted from a Project Research Work/Material Topic
“CHALLENGES FACING MEDIA ORGANISATION IN DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA TELEVISION AUTHORITY (NTA) ”
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