Urbanization ; A Problem to Food Production and Agricultural Development

Urbanization ; A Problem to Food Production and Agricultural Development

The word, urbanization is the total change and increase of people and infrastructures and different activities going on at given environment , owing to a motivating factors, that sustains the people coming in and going out of such environment. [Read more…]

Problems Militating Against Effective Performance of Student Teachers on Teaching Practice Exercise – Research Method



Problems Militating Against Effective Performance of Student Teachers on Teaching Practice Exercise – Research Method

Research method
This chapter explains the procedure, which the researcher intends to adopt in carrying out this research study. The chapter was treated under the following sub-headings:

           Design of the study
           Area of the study
           Population of the study
           Sample and sampling technique
           Instrument for data collection
        Validation of the instrument 
           Reliability of instrument
Administration of the instrument
           Method of data analysis
Design of the study
This is a survey research. A survey research is one in which facts and figures are obtained from systematically selected segments of a population with the purpose to ascertain the general characteristics of the population Hence, A survey research is a Design in which a group of people or items are studied by collecting and analyzing data from only a few people considered to be representative of the entire group. In survey, information about the work is gotten through textbooks, journal. Nworgu (1991).
Area of the study
This was entirely based in the heart of UGWUNAGBO LOCAL GEVERNMENT AREA IN ABA, ABIA STATE. Using students who have at least one or two teaching practice exercise from ABIA STATE UNIERSITY. There are four categories of students from four departments who are sent to the practicing schools in the area of practice, which are: Technology and vocational Education, Health and Physical, Foundations and science and computer departments.
Population of the study
           The population of this study was all the students of the faculty of education ABIA STATE UNIVERSITY, who participated in the 2002/2001 academic session teaching practice exercise. In all, they were total of 500students who participated in the teaching practice exercise (statistics from teaching practice committee Abia State University 2001).
Sample and sampling technique
           Proportionate simple random sampling technique was used to draw up the sample. This study had the sample size of 120, 50% of each of the population of the 4 departments stated were used to draw up sample. Science and computer has the sample size of 30 students, education foundation 50, physical and health 20, Technology and Vocational Education 20.
Instrument for data collection
           The questionnaire was the instrument employed for data collection. The questionnaire was divided into 3 sections. A deal with the Bio data of the student teachers, including the school of last practice. Section B, deals with the items on the problems encountered by students teachers during teaching practice period; section C deals with the strategies that could be adopted to improve the teaching practice programme.
           The questionnaire on a 4 (four) point scale of strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (D), and Strongly Disagree (SD) with normal values of 4.3.2.1 assigned to them respectively. In all, there are 22 items to be responded to. The options were weighed 4, 3, 2, and 1 respectively.
Validation of the instrument
           The instrument was face validated by two experts in the faculty of education. The experts were requested to criticize the instrument and make corrections on the language of the instrument and suitability of the items. The corrections were used to produce final draft of the questionnaire.
Reliability of instrument
           The questionnaire was distributed twice at different occasions to the population. This is to ensure stability and reliability.


Administration of the instrument
           The instrument was administered personally to the respondent by hand and was collected the same day. In all, a total of 254 copies of the questionnaire were used for data collection.
Method of data analysis
           Data collected was analysed using mean and standard deviation to determine the degree of agreement or disagreement of the respondent on the items.
           This approach was used to determine the mean cut off point as follows using the following formula.
                    X = SFX
                       N
Where: X = Mean
S= Summation of options     
           FX = Nominal value
           N = Number of items
Hence;
           X (mean) = 4 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 10   = 2.5
                                   4              4
Decision rule
           The decision rule for this study holds that any mean above 2.5 was regarded as agreed while any mean below 2.5 was regarded as disagreed.

Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data
           In this chapter, the data collected were presented and analyzed to answer the research questions. The data were analysed using mean and standard deviation.
Research Question 1 – What are the personal problems encountered by student teachers during teaching practice exercise?


 TABLE 1
Personal problems encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programme/strategies that could be adopted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme
Item No
Items
X
SD
DECISION
1
Students are not properly educated on the exercise.
2.37
1.01
R
2.
Students in the school, tend to look down on the student teachers.
2.83
0.90
A
3.
The student teachers have the feeling of inferiority complex during teaching practice exercise.
2.63
0.87
A
4.
The identity of student teachers should not be disclosed to students used for the exercise.
2.66
0.93
A
           From the  TABLE 1 above, the result showed that 3 items were regarded as personal problems facing student teachers during teaching practice exercise and item explain the strategies that could be adopted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme. Also the CLUSTER reveals that one item was not accepted. Its mean is below the cut off mean 2.50. But  generally, the result (average mean) of the research B 2.62 which shows that it  B Accepted by all.
Research Question 2: What are the problems of practicing school during the teaching practice programme/strategies that could be adopted to improve the teaching practice programme for efficiency?
TABLE 2
Item No
Items
X
SD
DECISION
1.
The permanent teachers, do not co-operate well with the student teachers.
2.93
0.88
A
2.
Some schools do have enough equipment for teaching.
2.96
0.85
A
3.
Equipment should be provided to schools.
2.52
0.81
A
4.
School principals and teachers should guide the student teachers.
2.45
0.75
R
           The TABLE 2 above has four (4) items in which one (1) item was not accepted. Its mean is below the cut-off mean of 2.50. Among the 4 items, 2 items are regarded as the problems of practicing schools during the teaching practice programme. While the remaining 2 items, explains the strategies that could be adopted to improve the teaching practice programme for efficiency. Such items are 3 and 4. but generally, the result of the finding is Accepted.
Research Question 3: Supervision problems encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programmes/the strategies that could be adopted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme.
TABLE 3
Item No
Items
X
SD
DECISION
1.
The principals and teachers of the schools should supervise student teachers before the proper supervision.
270
0.91
A
2.
The student teachers find it difficult to manage the lesson period allocated to them effectively as a result of the presence of the supervisor.
2.73
0.88
A
3.
Orientation should be given to the supervisors on supervision in other to accommodate every student teachers that is placed under each supervisor.
2.88
0.94
A
4.
The supervisors should be friendly and appreciable to remove fear of failure from the student teachers.
2.83
0.94
A
           Table 3 above, equally contains 4 items which comprises of 2 (1 and 2) supervision problems and 2 (3 and 4) strategies to which such problems could be solved. Generally, the summary of the findings according to table 3 shows that the result is uncompromising or genuinely accepted. This is so because the average mean is above the normal mean (2. 50).
Research Question 4: Curriculum problems encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programme/the strategies that could be adopted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme.


TABLE 4
Item No
Items
X
SD
DECISION
1.
The function for teaching practice exercise which is 6 weeks is not enough for students proper practice
2.67
0.92
A
2.
The teaching practice exercise runs concurrently with normal lectures.
2.73
1.03
A
3.
Proper Orientation exercise is not given to the student teachers before the teaching practice exercise.
2.47
0.76
R
4.
Orientation should be organized for the student teachers before teaching practice  exercise
3.03
0.83
A
5.
The duration of teaching practice exercise should be increased and should be done during the holidays to avoid clashing with normal lectures.
2.62
0.77
A
           In table 4 above, the items are five (5) in number which consist of about 3 (1,2 and 3) Curriculum problems and 2 (4 and 5) items which explains the strategy on how the curriculum problem should be improved. Amongst the 5 items, item number 3, showed Rejected ® in the Decision made. This is so, because its mean (2.47) is below 2.50 (which is the accepted mean so far). But generally, the Decision concluded in the table above shows that the result is accepted by all.
Research Question 5: Problems encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programmes/the strategies that could be adapted to the improvement of teaching practice programme.


TABLE 5
Item No
Items
X
SD
Decision
1.
The student teachers aim at passing the teaching practice examination even without effective teaching.
2.33
0.70
R
2.
The student teachers face the fear of failure during the exercise, especially the first timers.
2.48
0.71
R
3.
Workshop should be organized for student teachers in school on their relationship with permanent teachers.
2.83
0.75
R
4.
The student teachers should be paid to enhance dedication and efficiency.
2.05
0.81
R
5.
The teaching practice students should always engage in a group teaching exercise that is designed for them to avoid inferiority complex.
2.67
1.02
A
There are also (5 items contained in the table above. This table consists of 2 1 and 2 items which is on the opposite side, consists of the strategies in which such problem, and could be improved.
           Generally, it is very unfortunate that the rage mean of the result, according to the Decision is Rejected (R).
Research Hypothesis 1 Using The T-Test
TABLE 6
VARIABLES
No of pairs
X
SD
DF
t-value
Terif
Significance
Variable 1
120
2.36
1.01
119
-4.89
1.96
NS
Variable 6
2.95
0.85
Variable 2 
120
2.82
0.904
119
2.78
1.96
S
Variable 7
2.57
0.807
Variable 3
120
2.63
0.86
119
1.74
1.96
NS
Variable 8
2.45
0.75
Variable 4
120
2.65
0.93
119
-0.36
1.96
NS
Variable 9
2.70
0.91
Variable 5
120
2.93
0.87
119
1.68
1.96
NS
Variable 10
2.73
0.87
AVERAGE
T-test
0.15
1.96
NS


Research Hypothesis 2 Using The Chi- Square (X2).
TABLE 7
VARIABLES
DF
X2
Significance
01
3
19.66
0.0002
02
3
49.93
0.0000
03
3
59.66
0.0000
04
3
64.46
0.0000
05
3
30.53
0.0000
06
3
32.20
0.0000
07
3
50.93
0.0000
08
3
63.53
0.0000
09
3
23.40
0.0000
10
4
70.66
0.0000
11
3
30.26
0.0000
12
3
57.80
0.0000
13
3
51.40
0.0000
14
3
26.80
0.0000
15
3
70.86
0.0000
16
3
46.06
0.0000
17
3
62.86
0.0000
18
3
103.00
0.0000
19
3
68.86
0.0000
20
3
54.20
0.0000
21
3
45.46
0.0000
22
3
6.86
0.0763
Total
X2V
1089.38
0.0765
Average X Value = 1089.38     = 49.51
                                                       22
Average significance = 0.0765 = 0.0034
                                22

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
Discussion of findings
          In Table A, which deals with the personal problems encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programme/strategies that could be adopted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme organized by the faculty of Education, ABSU, during the teaching practice programme (items 1,2,3 and 4) showed that students are not properly educated on the exercise for the student teachers before the teaching practice exercise, students in the school tend to look down on the student teachers, the students teachers have the feeling of inferiority complex during teaching practice exercise, and that the identity of student teachers is not supposed to be disclosed to students used for the exercise.
          In table B, which is on the problem of practicing schools during the teaching practice programme/strategies that could be adopted to improve the teaching practice programme for efficiency (items 1, 2, 3, and 4) showed that the cooperating teachers, do not cooperate well with the student teachers, some schools do not have enough equipment for teaching, Equipment should be provided to schools. The researcher suggests that school principals and teachers should always guide the student teachers.
          In Table C, which deals with the supervision problems, encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programme/strategies that could be adopted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme (items 1,2,3 and 4) showed that the principals and teachers of the schools, should supervise student teachers before the proper supervision, the student teachers find it difficult to manage the lesson period allocated to them effectively as a result of the presence of the supervisor, orientation should be given to the supervisors on supervision in other to accommodate every student teachers that is placed under each supervisor. The researcher suggests that the supervision should be friendly and approachable to remove fear of failure from the student teachers.
          In Table D which is on the curriculum problems encountered by student’s teachers in teaching practice programme/strategies that could be adapted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme. (items 1,2, and 3) showed that the duration for the exercise not enough for proper practice. The practice, run concurrently with normal lectures in the supporting facilities of the University, proper orientation exercise is not given to the student teachers before the teaching practice exercise. Item 4 and 5 explains some strategies of which the curriculum problems could be improved. It showed that orientation should be organized for the student teachers before teaching practice exercise; the duration of teaching practice exercise should be increased and should be done during the holiday to avoid clashing with normal lectures.  This simply explains that Table D, has five(5) items.
          In cluster E, Which is the final cluster, deals on student problems encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programme/strategies that could be adopted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme? (items 1,2, and 3) showed that the student teachers do not aim at passing the teaching practice  examination even without effective teaching, the student teachers, face the fear of failure during the exercise, especially the first timers and workshop should be organized for student teachers in each school on their relationship with permanent teachers. Also in cluster E, items 4 and 5, explains the strategies for which the student problem could be improved, which showed that the student teachers should be paid to enhance dedication and efficiency, and the teaching practice students should always engage in a group teaching exercise that is designed for them to avoid inferiority complex.


Recommendations
          In the light of the findings made, the student teachers still face a lot of problems. Therefore, the following recommendation will help to improve their present predicament.
1. Orientation should be organized for the student teachers before teaching practice exercise.
2. Workshop should be organized for subject teachers of cooperating schools, on their relationship with student teachers.
3. The student teachers should be paid to enhance dedication and efficiency.
4. The identity of student teachers should not be disclosed to co-operating students used for the exercise.
5. The teaching practice exercise could be done during the holidays to avoid it clashing with normal lectures in the University. Private lesson organized for pupil during holidays should be used.
6. Equipment should be provided to our schools by government.
7. School principals and cooperating teachers should give the students teachers access to the use of the school facilities for teaching.
8. The examiner (supervisor) should not just grade the student teachers but should visit regularly for guidance on effective teaching.
Implications of the study
          The problems encountered by students during teaching practice have some educational implications for the planners and students involved in it. The knowledge of this work will enable the student teachers to realize the importance of the programme and likely problems they might face during the period.  This knowledge makes it less difficult.
          Planners and organizers of teaching practice activity should as a matter of importance realize how to plan the stated periods for teaching practice programme for effectiveness. So that slated periods for teaching practice do not clash with normal lectures in the schools.
          Finally, the supervising lecturers will be made to realize the concerns of these student teachers.
Suggestions for further research
          These suggestions have been made for further investigation of the study.
1. An investigation into the relationship between cooperating teachers, supervisors and student teachers of the faculty of Education, Abia state University.
Conclusion
          Based on the findings of this research, the following conclusions were made;
1. From table A the result showed that 3 items were regarded as personal problems facing student teachers during teaching practice exercise among students. Among the problems include:
a. Lack of proper education on the exercise.
b. Inferiority complex.
          While the fourth (4) item is regarded as a strategy to improve the personal problem of the student teachers
2. Table B showed that 2 items were regarded as problems facing the practicing schools. The problems include:
a. Lack of cooperation between the permanent teachers with the student teachers. 
b. Lack of equipment for teaching.
          While the 3 and 4 items, were regarded as strategies that could be adopted to improve the teaching practice programme. The strategies include:
a. Equipment should be provided to schools.
b. School principals and teachers should always guide the student teachers.
3. Table C, showed that 2 items were also regarded as supervision problems encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programme/strategies.
          Also the two (2) remaining items 3 and 4 stress more on the strategies that could be adopted to improve the teaching practice programme.
4. Table D and E showed that there are 3 items each which are regarded as curriculum problems and student problems. While the remaining 2 items 4 and 5 each of Table D and E, explains the strategies that could be adopted to improve the teaching practice programme.
Problems Militating Against Effective Performance of Student Teachers on Teaching Practice Exercise – Research Method

Influence of Packaging on Consumer Purchase Behaviour


Influence of Packaging on Consumer Purchase Behaviour.

The philosophy that marketing should begin and end with the customer is otherwise called marketing concept. The prior of the marketing concept is the consumers. Professional marketers have over the years been engaged in finding ways to serve the customers better the reason for the deliberate attempts at satisfying the customer or consumer continually is obvious. The goodwill or patronage of the customer is a valuable resource to marketers.

     Marketing practitioners have propounded a number of theories and concepts in pursuance of the sole objective or satisfying customer need and wants At a profit. A number of empirical studies have also been conducted over the years for the same purpose has attracted our interest is on how packaging influences consumer purchase behaviour.
    In recent times packaging has become a potent marketing tool. Packaging has to do with designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product.
Kolter (1999:224) views packaging as actually that part of product planning and development which is the design of a products container or wrapper whose purpose is to protect the product physically to enhance the product’s value to the consumer and to stimulate sales through emotional appeals to consumers. Well designed package, is a sine que non or indispensable for marketing success. An as such making packaging as one of the numerous marketing tools that are seen as a powerful instrument.
A part from its protective legal and Aesthetic value it is arguable that An inferior product packaged in an attractive and Eye-catching packet stands the chance of being picked up packaging planning and decision.
Packaging Account for up to 50% of the selling price of some products, such as cosmetics, soft Drinks, sachet water And bottled water. But packaging is much desirable because it adds to the value of a product. The appreciation of packaging in affluent societies (such as in the United Siaies of America and Europe) much higher than those of poor Nations (such as Africa countries). Growing Affluence is now making consumers in Nigeria to demand improved packaging for the goods they buy.
1.1.1    BRIEF HISTORY OF PATERSON
    Zochonis (pz)   
Pz industries is a leading manufacture and distributor of a variety of product especially soaps and other personal care items including shampor, baby powder, and the like. These are marketed under pz cusson’s flagship) imperial leather brand and others including original source and care. The company also manufactures refrigerators and other white goods, including freezers and Air conditioners) detergents and cleansers, fermine hygiene products, in (2003) Pz industries formed a joint venture with ineland’s Glanbia  to supply evaporated milk and milk powder in Nigeria. The company also acquired U.K hair care brand Charles Worthington in 2005. although based in mauchester, Pz Cussons has long been controlled by the founding zochonis fairly, from —— and has carved a niche for itself by focusing an various markets in Africa, especially in Nigeria, Ghana Cameroon, and East Africa. The company’s African operations continued to represent some 26% of its annual sales. Europe, especially the United Kingdom is the group’s largest market at 43%, while the Asia Pacific region including Australia, Accounts for its African manufacturing sites, the company operates manufacturing plants in Thailand, Poland, Australia and Athens.
    However, the ownership of the company was merged by two Paunlies George Paterson, originally from England, and George Zochuis from Greece hence, paterson and Zochonis (Pz).               
1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
    The study is out to evaluate the influence of packaging on consumers purchase behaviour. However, many problems impinge on effective marketing of a company’s product. One of these problems is inappropriate packaging or completely lack of packaging a product.
    Therefore many products fail due to poor packaging while others especially consumer products produced by Pz flourish and perform very well as a result of adequate packaging. Consequent upon the non-challant of most of these producers whose products failed, they have therefore experience the following problem.
1.    Their products are not accepted by consumers more frequently like they do to those produced by PZ due to poor packaging, thereby lowering their products ability to stimulate demand.
2.    Consumer products manufactured by PZ protect contents effectively while those produced by ignorant firms leads to damages, pilferages and customer dissatisfaction.
3.    That Pz is a market leader in cosmetics and other consumer products can as well be attributed to adequate packaging. Consequently the company continue to usurp larger market share hence keeps on eliminating these firms that cannot compete effectively with them from the market due to poor packaging programmes.   
1.3    OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
    Based on the problem discoursed, it is the major objective of this study to determine the influence of packaging on consumer’s purchase behaviour with special reference to Paterson Zochonis industries. In an attempt to actualize the broad objective, the following sub-objective evolved.
1.    To determine whether poor packaging is the major cause of low demand of a product.
2.    To know whether the success of pz to great extent depends on its packaging programmes over consumer goods.
3.    To know whether increase in profit potential of Pz depends on patronages of actual and potential buyers who were influenced by packaging.
4.    To determine whether Packaging Actually Stimulate Consumer Purchase.
5.    To know whether a customer can still be satisfied over a well manufactured product with a poor packaging.
6.    And finally to know whether gaining larger forget market by Pz depends on its packaging programmes.    
1.4    STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
    The hypothesis formulated here are based on the problems and objective of the study.

Hypothesis One
Ho: Poor product patronages depend on poor packaging.
H1: poor products patronages depend on poor packaging.
Hypothesis Two
Ho: A well developed product cannot as well give rise to a dissatisfied consumer if poorly package.
H1: A well developed product can as well give rise to a dissatisfied consumers, if poorly packaged.
Hypothesis Three
Ho: Good packaging programme does not make a firm to win larger market share.
H1: Good packaging programme makes a firm to win larger market share.
Hypothesis Four
Ho: Immediate purchase decision on consumer goods is not triggered by attractive packaging.
H1: Immediate purchase decision on consumer goods is triggered by attractive packaging. 

1.5    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
    This study is not a mere academic exercise it will be of great benefit to the following;
Firstly, the management of Paterson Zochonis Pz Company Plc will benefit immensely from this study.
This because it will uncover some of the requirements for efficient and effective packaging which will enable the Company to attract consumers to purchase its products at a profit.
Secondly, the study will be of great benefit to industries and the Nigerian economy. This stems from the fact that good packaging helps companies to gain advantage over competitors.
Thirdly, the study will be of immense benefit to customers of Pz product as adequate measures that will be recommended, will go a long way to boost the satisfaction and value delivery ability of Paterson Zochoris above all the study will not only be of benefit to the researcher but also the readers, as adequate knowledge and understanding will be gained from the information contained in the study.
1.6    SCOPE OF THE STUDY
    This study is limited to the Paterson Zochonis (Pz) PLC operation within the Enugu metropolis of Enugu state of Nigeria.
The scope on the influence of packaging on consumer purchasing behaviour. 
1.7    DEFINITION OF TERMS
    The following terminologies are hereby operationally defined as they are used in this study for a better reading, and general comprehension of this research report.
Packaging: This is the process of putting a generic product into a wrapper or container with a view to making it more attractive better protected and easily portable.
(Onah and Thomas 2004:274)
Product: product is anything that can be offered to a market for attention acquisition or consumption.
    It indicates physical object (eg cars) services clecturing entertainment) personalities places organisation and ideas (Umeh and Ude Umanta 2002:79)
Industry: Industry according to oxford dictionary (1996:411) is the whole firms dealing in the same kind of product.
Consumer: Is the end riser of a given product or service (Esu 2003:46)
Promotion: All persuasive communication efforts claimed at generating sales or building a favourable attitude for an organizations product or service and the organization itself (kotler 1998:368).
Communication tools: This consist of six promotional influence favourable responses and stimulate profitable sales in the market place (Ebue 2000:9).
Target market: This is the most viable and attractive segment of the market who the marketer wants to offer satisfaction to, through his or her product. In nutshell, it is the segment of market which a marketer intends to serve through product offerings (Olakunori 2003:171).
Influence of Packaging on Consumer Purchase Behaviour

Parental Influence on Career Choice of Secondary School Students

 Parental Influence on Career Choice of Secondary School Students

Background of the Study
An individuals membership of a particular social class has important implications for his life style. At the beginning of young adulthood, according to Elton (1967), the individual must make a choice of an occupation, which will to a large extent determine the direction of the rest of his life. The choice of Career appropriate to, and in consonance with one’s interest and aptitude is of paramount importance for the realization of the personal aspirations of the youth who constitute a large segment of the labour force needed by the national economy.

The modern society is a complex one and people have to choose from a lot of occupations available in the country. The need to make good choice of career becomes paramount if one is to find happiness and harmony, but at times instead of people choosing occupations suitable to their intellectual abilities you see them rushing to occupations which they cannot cope with and this most of the time lead them to a confused end.
The issue of parents persuading their children to read courses like Medicine, Law and Engineering etc due to the social importance attached to them as if it has become the order of the day. Consequently, the by-product of such ill-advised choice of career is that in Nigeria today there are numerous cases of maladjusted legal or medical practitioners who may have excelled in other sphere of human endeavour. For instance, where I live in Owerri (Imo state) there is a traditional ruler who insisted that his son must read Law in order to become a Barrister so that whenever he has a case with the neighbouring communities that his son will help him to win such cases. Unfortunately, his son was not good in English Language and other related subjects. The boy took JAMB severally but he could not make a creditable result. On seeing that his son could not make a good result, his father resorted to some dubious means in order that his son will make it; the boy later succeeded. The boy gained admission into the University of Nigeria Enugu Campus (UNEC) to read Law, but he could not cope with the courses that they offered in the law Department. Consequently the boy became frustrated and finally dropped out of school. Today the boy is roaming the streets of Owerri aimlessly committing one atrocity or the other.
A right choice of career by a youth tends to result in a happy, progressive and fulfilled life, conversely a wrong choice of career may destroy the future progress of an individual, thus leading to unforgetable frustrations and woes. To make choice of career is not an easy process.
Avent (1969) says that the next to the choice of marriage partner is the choice of career and this is the most important decision most people have to make in life. In view of the above the researcher decided to investigate parental influence on career choice of secondary school students.
Statement of the Problem
At the beginning of early adulthood, many young people know exactly what they want to do when they leave school and they are motivated and enthusiastic, several others find themselves drifting into unsuitable or “dead end” jobs where they may be frustrated and unhappy.
Sometimes they enter the job world with completely pseudo aspiration and expectations so that they rapidly become disillusioned and depressed. Usually, vocational maladjustment may occur if the individual chooses an inappropriate occupation because of his inadequacy to understand himself, or because his occupational stereotypes are in error.
Moreover, some rich parents want their children to go into high rated professions such as medicine and Law without considering if the child’s interest is there! This sometimes leads the child to a confused end. Even when such child excel in that course through some dubious means by his parents, the child ends up acquiring a certificate without knowledge, and consequently the child may become dejected in life.
Observation tends to suggest that there are much parental influence on career choice of secondary school students in Ezza North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The problem of the present study is to investigate the effect of parents on the students in terms of their career choice.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to Investigate the influence of parents on students in terms of their career choice.
The specific purposes are:
(i)    To investigate whether the career choice of students are influenced by educational background of their parents.
(ii)    To investigate whether student’s choice of carrier are influenced by the socio-economic status of their parents.
(iii)    To determine the extent to which the student’s choice of career are influenced by the occupational preferences of their parents.
(iv)    To investigate whether the career choice of students are influenced by the cultural background of their parents.
Scope of the Study
This study is limited to the study of parental influence of carrier choice of students in Ezza North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State in 2005/2006 academic sessions. Such influence beyond the area of study. (Ezza North Local Government Area is beyond the scope of the study)
Significance of the Study
This study will be of significance to the large society which education is meant to serve. The following are the beneficiaries of this study.
Students: students will benefit from the study in the following ways, if for the findings of the study it is established that parents pressure their wards into certain carrier for the which the wards have no requisite success indices (attitude, interest, ability etc) thereby programming them to fail. The result of this study may lead to the appropriate for (PTA, etc) to correct this anonymously thereby allowing students to choose carrier of there choice that may lead to their success in such carriers and become useful individuals to themselves and the society.
School principal and teachers: It is expected that the result of this study will help the principal and teachers to embark on vocational guidance and counseling programme in other to prepare her students for entry into the world of work, transition from school to work or into the wider society.
Parents: It is hoped that this study will help the parents to always guide their children towards choosing career congruent to their intellectual abilities.
The general public: it is also expected that the result of this study will help to create public awareness that vocational maladjustment and job dissatisfaction occurs, if children do not choose and appropriate occupation either because of pressure on children, traditions, economic resources parental contacts or because of parents failure to understand the extent of damage they cause by insisting on a particular career for their children.
Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the research.
(i)    To what extent does parent’s educational background influence student’s choice of career?
(ii)    How does parent’s socio-economic status influence the choice of subject or indeed courses of study of the students?
(iii)    To what extent does parents’ occupational preference affects students’ choice of career?
(iv)    To what extent does parents’ cultural background influence students choice of career?

Parental Influence on Career Choice of Secondary School Students

Impact of Foreign Aid on Nigeria Socio-Economic Development

 Impact Of Foreign Aid On Nigeria Socio-Economic Development

A lot of works have been done on the topic “impact of foreign Aid on Nigeria socio-economic development. The review of these works therefore focus on the contributions and relevance of some materials such as newspaper; journals, magazines relevant books on international relations and internet browsing. Meanwhile crisis, low standard of living, low Agricultural productivity etc in Africa has attracted various minds of foreign aid to her socio-economic development.

    Clover R. W (1966:74) Observed that “the increasing complexities in the relationship of African societies have made a bold attempt towards the achievement of Africa place a mirage. This assertion stems from the realities that African Nations just like individuals are selfish especially in the pursuit of their national interest.
According to Oganski A.F.K (1958), he says that in the pursuit of National interest nations “use power”. He further asserted that it is   in the pursuit of interests that conflicts emanate.
    NEPAD as many observed is a nascent platform design to pull the continent out of socio-economic miasma. But the head of NEPAD team in Nigeria, Iseac A. Olokun, is disturbed by the observation that the core issues of NEPAD is said to be poverty eradication and wealth creation are being confirmed to the back burned ; that indeed, conferences and workshops are being held without these issues taking the centre stage, sometimes not even mentioned.
    Iseac A. Olokun in his interview on how he intended overcoming the problem of finance with respect to NEPAD. In his words; “you know, we have been talking about and 64 billion worth of investment every year. No, this is not all about it. There are millennium development goals. There are goals universal accepted by the international fera in the past two years since the year 2000 to set a vision for the world to help people that are falling behind like in Africa”. The millennium development goals says that by year 2005, all developing countries especially Africa must try and reduce the number of people caught in poverty (living under one dollar per day). They must try and reduce them by 50%, not really to eradicate them. What NEPAD has done and supported by international financial institutions is simply to say, what does this translate? So, for the expert, this would mean that Africa will need to grow on the average at 7% per annum on a sustained basis between now and year 2015.
    Iseac A. O further observed that to get 7% per annum what do we do? The experts advised the investment of 33 percent of our Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to enable us to meet the set target. So NEPAD says, let’s be optimistic let’s say eight out of that 18% comes in as foreign aid and even through, it’s not up to 8.
    Oghogho O.U. (2002) says “I tell you first, if we imbibe good economic governance; if we learn respect this iron low of macro-economics and manage our economy well, we will be able to get a lot more resource. Now we have to be able to ensure that we save more. That’s the secret in all societies that have developed. We cannot be saving 10% or 15% of our GDP and say we are going to move like China” meanwhile, deducing from his assertion, government has to begin sustained campaign to make people realize the importance saving. Save more, that is the only secret to be able to invest more because we are talking about wealth; the secret to long term capital so that businessmen can raise long-term capital and go and turn that bush into factory.
    Momoh E.O. (2001) says “even here in Nigeria, we don’t have bond capital. The state government are just trying to borrow to revive the bond market. Bond market is part of the secret of development”. NEPAD is saying, African nations must come in unison and ensure that they develop a mature financial and capital market. And I am saying in addition to that, that there must be capital repatriation. Te negotiation that former president Olusegun Obasanjo has had with the Abacha family to bring home these billions of dollar is part of it.
    The World Bank president Mr. Paul Woffowitz has recently challenged the international community to deliver on its promises of five years ago to help the world’s developing countries halve poverty and deliver real improvements in the lives of their poorest people by 2015.
Wolfowitz call was made during the recently concluded United Nations summit in New York, which was the largest gathering of world’s leaders in history and attended by more than one hundred and seventy heads of government, and making the both anniversary of the founding of the United Nation. The World Bank president pleaded with the world leaders who attended the United Nations meeting to assist the world poorest countries especially in sub-Saharan Africa-which would not meet the millennium Development Goals to fight hunger, poverty and disease (Daily independent September 23, 2005:14)
    Olisa et al (2002:242) observed that “despite Nigeria’s gestures of prominence, democracy, love and peace, it has internally had one of the highest incidences of political instability, civil war, inflation, strikes, religious crisis and into clearance, violence, famine as result of her relationship with international bodies.
    The successive United Nation Development Programme (UNDP) Report on Human Development (HDR) since 2003 have consistently shown that Nigeria is paradoxically one of the poorest nations in the world in spite of its abundant natural and human resources (see Njoku, 2005:121-141; Okafor: 2004 and Oni 205:9). This paradox in the nation’s economic and social life poses a problem to Nigeria’s foreign posture. It is in view of this unacceptable situation in the country’s socio-economic life that the present administration embarked on economic reform to launch the country on the part of sustainable economic growth and social development.
    Nwoji (2003:18) observes “The underlying philosophy of NEPAD is that Africa will champion its own development and will no longer beggarly approach the super-powers for a paradigm and resources for development. Rather, Africa in the spirit of mobilize most of the funds within to further its development”
    Africa and other developing states were not divinely or originally underdeveloped underdevelopment came at a particular historical epoch when external factors interfered with existing economic of these states thus; distorting and disarticulating them such that they are highly dependent on external economies. Even the euphoria of political independence among the underdeveloped states has worsened dependence and economic backwardness rather them fundamentally or structurally change the status quo.
    Gena J. of Ahmadu Bello University described the Agricultural Development Project Scheme (ADPS) as “world bank direct and not World Bank Assisted” when he sees World Bank Project Evaluation State as the fact that World Bank is in control of who gets what, how and when.
    Infact, the popular understanding in Nigeria is that the World Bank as one of the foreign aid agencies dictates rather than negotiate with the government. Although, this is not tried to show, the behaviour of environment functionaries who are associated with the project reinforce this belief. For instance, when a particular community in Ilorin did not like the manner in which one of the ADPS was being implemented specially in matters relating to the sitting of the projects headquarters, they were forced by the Nigerian environment’s headquarters in Washington DC to protest. As Dunmoye (1986) noted, the Nigeria government gave the impression that the Bank had the final say on the matter. When there was a disagreement at the environmental level on the state-wide Agricultural Development Project (ADP) in Kaduna State, the state government protested that rather than Surrender to the Bank, it would withdraw from the project (New Nigerian November 20, 1980).
    Nigeria and Japan on Monday 11October, 2006 in Abuja signed an agreement for N710 million Japanese grant meant to support and enhance the quality and quality of water supply in Oyo State as well as improve sanitation.
    Chief Economic  Adviser to former president Obasanjo and Deputy Chairman of the national planning commission, Dr. Magnus Kpakol said at the signing ceremony that owing to the envisioned increased in the current low water supply rate in its rural areas from 4.28% to about 17.5% by 2006 through the planned construction of borehole facilities Oyo State through the federal government has approached the government of Japan for assistance in actualizing this dream. In response to this request, Kpakol said, the government Japan through the Japan international co-operation agency (JICA) had sent study terms to conduct a “Basis Design study on rural water supply and sanitation in Oyo State.
    Kpakol commended Japan for its assistance and expressed optimism that with the execution of project, the water supply rate in the rural areas of Oyo State would increase from 4.28% to 5.31%.
    “Currently, an estimated 150,000 persons from 600 communities are receiving safe water from state water supply and sanitation agency. The immediate effect would be gradual decline in the infestation rate of guinea  worm, which is an endemic problem in the state said Kpakol.
    Dr. Bamanga Truker, chairman Business Group of NEPAD. Observed that NEPAD success lies more on the inter-state trading between African countries. He noted further that Africa will effectively attract foreign partners to the continent and even NEPAD through inter-State trading. Bamanga said “we have enough opportunities and businesses within the continent. But we tend to look further. Even within these countries, we can develop ourselves through this trade and also reduce the cost of doing business. As a matter of fact we need trade more than foreign direct investment”. Dr. Bamanga in his interview is only canvassing for the creation of an enabling environment for such inter-state trading to thrive.
    On April 20, 2004, German government pledged support for the New partnership for African Development (NEPAD), while the extent of the support was not spelt out. The German leader, President Johannes Rau hinted that Berlin was designing and fin-turning, when necessary, polices aimed at realizing the goals agreed at the United Nations. Millennium summit of September 2000 and would endeavour to meet the continent project halfway on such crucial issues as human rights and good governance, strengthening the rule of law, Democracy and Civil society, food security and fight prevention, peaceful conflict resolution and post conflict rehabilitation, activities to help groups threatened with economic and technologies marginalization and fight against Hiv/Aids. He made a case for a purposeful mobilization of the continent strength and capabilities of only to send a powerful message to those who, at present remain unconvinced that the dream of a buoyant, modern Africa would ever come true.
    In his address, “charting Africa’s path into the 21st century-Reflections from German perspectives”-delivered in Dares Salaam, Tanzania, at the invitation of the Mwalimu Nyerere foundation, Rev. said Berlin would continue its utmost to ensure that people in Africa could live in peace, prosperity and dignity. Africa, in his words “is no longer the forgotten continent. A politically stable and economically prosperous Africa is also our own interest… creating an environment that offers security growing prosperity and fair give-and-take between all sections of society is the best way to prevent the spread of instability and terror”. The German leader said that Europe and the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries needed to do more than in the past to open up their markets, especially to Africa’s agricultural products and they needed to eliminate their own agricultural subsidies. Free access to the market of OECD countries in Rau’s evaluation, would mean for the developing countries an estimated $100 billion in additional revenues. “To grasp the true significance of this”, he offered that “we need recall that the annual sum currently spent on development aid around the world is about $50 billion. The heated debate over whether Africa stands to remains lost from globalization Agricultural Products from the continent are denied fair access to OECD markets. The countries of Africa deserve more than a future as commodity suppliers”
Besides, Olukukun (2004) observed that in a recent meaning with parliamentarians of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) that with the process of integration going at the continental level, African States had shown desires to be responsible for their own future.
    These are the above modalities observed by different writers that will be of a help to the development of Nigeria socio-economic particularly eradicating poverty and hardship in the faces of the citizens of Nigeria.
2.1    THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
    In the theoretical framework of this research it will be anchored on a synthesis of the modified dependency theory and social order theory of negotiation propounded by Anselm Strauss (1979)
    The corrupt of “dependency” was coined by a Brazillian sociologist, Fernando Hanrique Cardoso. However,, A.G frank is often credited with formulating the original version of the “Dependency theory”. His book titled; capitalism and underdevelopment in Latin America, written in the early 1960s and published in English in 1976 can be taken to be the opening salvo in the debate over dependency theory. Frank presented this theory as his contribution to development economies and wanted it to be seen along side neo-classical theories viz structurist theories and traditional Marxist theories all of which he sees as competitors for the explanation of the present condition of the less developed countries. He used the concept of dependency to categories relation of power and control such that the course of development in the underdeveloped nations or satellite is determined by that of the developed nations or metropole. The consequences of these relationships for the problems such as poverty and accelerated and the steatite is further disadvantaged (Frank 1986).
    Johan Galtung (1970) has informed on A.G Fank’s effort. In a journal article titled “structural theory of imperialism” he argued that the world consists of “centre” nations and “periphery” nations. According to him, there is a harmony of interest between —— states, especially the centre of the centre and the centre of the periphery. Also a disharmony of interest exists between centre of the periphery and periphery.
    This theory is useful for our understanding of the process of negotiation between Nigeria and the international aid agencies and its mentors on the one hand and an underdeveloped state such as Nigeria on the other hand. While international aid agencies belongs, Nigeria falls within the centre of the periphery. Instructively, international aid agencies do not operate on the principle of the country one vote, but according to the axiom, “the richer the country and the greater its stock in the bank the greater its weight the decision making process” five countries and agency namely the United States, Great Britain, West Germany, France and Japan with United States having by far the largest stock and voice.
    Not surprising IMF and the World Bank have not hesitate to exploit this leverage when they have to force most third world governments including Nigeria to adopt adjustment programme preferred by the Bretton wood twins. Being aware that non-agreement with I.M.F and world bank may create unbearable economic hardship, the developing countries including Nigeria ——- get termed up and behaved as directed by victor.                     
2.2.0    THE CAUSES OF UNDERDEVELOPMENT OF AFRICAN STATES, EXAMPLE NIGERIA
    This segment of this chapter will explore the remote and immediate causes of underdevelopment of African states using Nigeria as an example.
2.2.1    REMOTE CAUSES OF UNDERDEVELOPMENT OF AFRICAN STATES 
    At the end of colonialism in Africa, the imperialists left continental economic landscape distorted and disarticulated such that autonomous economic and technological development proved extremely difficult. It is important to note that through the period of colonialism, the Europeans aid not re-invest excess wealth generated with a view to developing local economics. There was no attempt to develop industrial and technological skills, which were important for a viable economic and industrial base. Colonial state in Africa, Nigeria to be precise created dependent local economies and weak state structures. This result has been that post independence Africa (Nigeria inevitably found itself structurally disadvantaged in international division of labour. African found itself dependent in various spheres of human activities some of the features of African economics include:
a.    Trade dependence
b.    Financial dependence
c.    Technological dependence
d.    Psychological dependence
e.    Military dependence
f.    Dependence on foreign grants and aids
Today, Africa is underdeveloped; out of 32 identified most underdeveloped countries of the world, Africa accounts for 22 of the lot. It has also the highest number of land-locked and draught ravaged countries of the world. It has the highest cases of unemployment and refugee problems in the world. It also has the most irresponsible and dictatorial leaders in the whole world running draconian system of governments.
    African underdevelopment has be worsened by frequent military interventions and cases of intra-and intern-state conflict. The first has to do with discontinuity of policies while the latter has to do with diversion of scare resources to arms prounment and non-economic activities.
    Africa is under great influence of neo-colonialism. By way of definition, neo colonialism means economic domination, subordination and exploitation of foreign economic without the establishment of formal political power and authority. In other words this is a kind of post-independence economic imperialism. The agents are multi-national co-operations (MNCs) and international financial institutions such as IMF and World Bank.           
2.2.2    IMMEDIATE CAUSES OF UNDERDEVELOPMENT OF AFRICAN STATES
    The immediate causes of underdevelopment of African states can be viewed as follows:
Firstly the way in which the goal of national unity and integration was handled: The assumption that the objective of uniting the multi-ethnic and in many cases multi-religious countries of Africa, like Nigeria after decades of colonial strategies of divide and rule was one which could only be constituted from above by the state.
    From management of the economic crisis in Africa eg Nigeria was accompanied by increased levels of political repression and exclusion which further widened the gulf between state and society, popular social forces and the wielders of state power.
    The IMF/World Bank structure adjustment framework that triumphed in the quest for reversing the divindling economic fortune of Africa not only exacerbated the crisis of decline, but also represented the final nail on the cofin of the post-colonial model of accumulation and the social contract that was built into it. In the face of the failure of structural adjustment to redress the crisis of decline facing the continent, both increased political repression/authoritarianism.
    A German leader, Rau identified immediate cause of underdevelopment in Africa states and suggested as follow: that Europe and organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries need to do more to open their markets, especially to Africa’s Agricultural Products and they needed to eliminate their own agricultural subsides. Free access to the markets of OECD countries, in Rau’s evaluation, would mean for developing countries on estimated $100 billion in additional revenue. So, the barriers on the OECD market restructuring African agricultural products encourage instability and terror in Africa socio-economic sectors.
    The underlying logic of the economic view is that there is nothing inherently wrong in the economic system that cannot be righted by appropriate adjustment and ecological principles. As long as corruption exists there must be routine deviation from established standards (standards established in developed countries) appropriate adjustments based on good science and ecological principles cannot take place.
    It can therefore be asserted that the beautiful and expensive palaces set up through corrupt practices is an evidence of the level of deviation from established standards and plans. It may be funds set aside for road or ecological disaster that has been diverted to build a big house for one man millions are suffering from bad road and thousands are dying for lack of modern health facilitates. What a society, a clan or a family prides itself to have gained through the construction of one beautiful house in that society by a corrupt member of the society the individual citizens loose through the ill-effects of bad roads, absence of environmental and social services that cab ensure sustainable transition at the economic dimension of sustainable development. Meanwhile, corruption in general has far-reaching implication for social and economic development.
    Finally, political instability in Africa is another causes of underdevelopment of African states. Forceful change of government by way of military coup’ dat causing abandonment of economic development project.              
2.3    ROLES OF NEPAD TO NIGERIAN SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
    African countries entered the period after the second world war on the basis of a gradually intensifying popular mobilization against continued colonial domination. The sources of the popular discontent against colonial rule were many but, in summary, they include a strong desire to over turn the affront against human liberty and dignity of the African which colonialism represented; a generalized assertion of the continued, racially based segregation of opportunities for social advancement and access to resources, amenities and services, the increasingly unattainable political administrative framework that denied the colonized full, unfettered participation and representation in the structures of governance, and the intensive draining of the resources of the colonies without a corresponding/commensurate investment in the development of physical and social infrastructure, as well as their human resources formed the basis of the formation of NEPAD.
    NEPAD was initiated by African leaders in the year 201 to accelerate the continent socio-economic and political development.
    The major aim of NEPAD is the eradication of poverty. And you know going by World Bank statistics about 60% of Nigerians are caught up in core poverty, that is living below expenditure range of $1 per day. NEPAD seeks to eradicate in Africa, promote accelerated growth and sustainable development, not just economic growth but growth and sustainable development. That is, as economic grows, it is spread all across the social strata into the health sector, education, Agriculture, into every sector.
    This is all about promoting standard of living in Nigeria NEPAD’s programmes that promotes democracy and good governance seems as essential components of economic development. The business organizations turning Business for African, seeks to boost the private sector throughout the continent and encourage governments to pursue policies that will encourage both domestic and foreign investment.
    Meanwhile NEPAD (formerly the New African initiative is an initiative by African leaders to set their countries on the path sustainable growth rights, sound economic management and full participation in the global economy. It is being welcomed internationally as a determined step by Africans to rebuild their continent by encouraging peace and stability, poverty reduction and regional co-operation.
    NEPAD is also recognized in its role on the fight of inflation in African. This inflation is created by government asking its central Bank to print more money to meet up with its big project thereby increasing its debts stock and when this is in its debts stock, it primarily affect the inflation.
    German government through NEPAD pledged to design and fine-time policies aimed at realizing the goals agreed at the United Nation millennium summit of September, 2000 and promised endeavour to meet the continental project half way on such issues as the fight against HIV/AIDS, help groups threatened with economic and technological marginalization, post conflict rehabilitation etc.
    Europe and the organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries through NEPAD opened up their market to Africa’s agricultural products and eliminated their own agricultural subsidies, allow free access to the market of OECD countries, in Rau’s evaluation would mean for the developing countries like Nigeria, an estimated $100 billion in additional revenues.
    Talking about America and Canada is important. They, at present as part of the G8 and the EU control the resources of the world. As you had known 48 years of independence have thought us it is not easy to get up without those resources. So, we have to be clever all the way. We must need the resources even if it our resources that have be siphoned there for it to come back, we just have to win them over. This is the way it is. This is why the world “partnership” in NEPAD is absolutely important because it underscores the need that although NEPAD is about an autonomous, home made, indigenous impulse to growth in Africa, we have to be realistic as to how much of the where withal we can generate. You look around every where in Nigeria, you final out that most things you see are imported. We don’t want. So NEPAD is about self-reliance, it is about learning to do it ourselves; about embibing good governance; it is about adopting best practices as they best suit us, and nonetheless it’s about partnership with the developed nations.
    Finally, the role of NEPAD to Nigerian socio-economic development cannot be measured since this initiative is truly indigenous development platform                   

The Challenges Of Nepad To Nigeria Socio-Economic Development

    Here it is logical to examine the challenges facing the African indigenous initiative, NEPAD, in its effort to building sustainable socio-economic development in Nigeria.
Examination of these challenges may consequently suggest certain basis question. Has African socio-economic problem changed by requiring a change in the former initiatives which seems indigenous or put differently, what circumstances led to the formation of NEPAD? Are there going to be new problems or is the new economic initiative through its structure and procedures going to tackle those socio-economic problems that could not effectively be handled to the satisfaction of founding fathers previous initiatives?
    The world is today linked up and reduced to a global village and these problems and challenges are here with us in Africa. There is a desire for a respectable degree of political, social and economic independence, coupled with high, welfare expectation of the rules. Nations States come together to forge partnership that will enable them make joint decision or delegate these decision to a new body. It is therefore imperative that African be not left out in all the global dynamics, problems and challenges.
    The quest for unity in Africa has a deep historical resonance. It was the goal of the fathers of independence and has remained the basis aspiration of African citizens across the continent. Political economic and social unity in Africa is not an alien idea or a programmes imposed from outside.
On the contrary, it springs from the very root of African identity which long resisted being arbitrarily divided into national citizenship.
    African has seen many false starts in the last few decades. How do we now know that this is not just another focus for misplaced enthusiasm? Will the current initiatives fall by the way side? Will the world continue to mock African as the land of broken promises of criminalized and failed state that inevitably subvert the best intentions of their people and their development partners? There are some good reasons to hope that things may be different time around. The decision for greater partnership, for better government, for sustainable and improved economic management, because of inescapable pressure both internal and external that really force us to come to learn with the collectives realities that we are facing.
The root of African recovery at the national and sub-regional and continental level is recognizing what has gone wrong and accepting these realities, societies that have solved their basic problems, conflict and mismanagement, have done so, first and foremost, by allowing free bebate, open exchange of ideas and adoptions of pee review mechanism. Where there is secrecy and leadership, there we see that corruption, conflict they say is the best sunlight they say is the best disinfectants.
    Let us start by facing the difficult realities of our continent. The fact that our economic are crippled by corruption and mismanagement, that organized crime has penetrated the highest levels of many governments, that many states are adopting the language of democracy and human rights only with the greatest reluctance and that African institutions are weak and incapable of delivering on their mandates.
    Across Africa, there is genuine commitment to solving the most pressing problem facing the states of Africa. Africans are supremely skilled at surviving. African people have managed to not only to survive, but also even building businesses and preserve vibrant communities, in countries whose states have collapsed such as Somalia or where the formal economy has disintegrated like Congo, Nigeria etc. If we look at the economic statistics of this country (Nigeria) most of us would have starved to death long ago but we are resourceful and resilient. We have a habit of confounding the worst predictions.
    But how are we to transform this expertise at coping to economic and government capacity to putting Africa on the road to conquering poverty and achieving democracy and human right as well as integration and unity? There are high level of initiatives reducing the African union and the idea of NEPAD. We also see steady accretion of best practices in the fields of government and development.
    The donour agencies putting high conditionalities on the developing countries for their assistance poses a very big challenge to the African new initiatives (NEPAD)
    Regional peace and security is an essential foundation of the integration without it, NEPAD’s energies are wasted. Africa is still seeking what walks in terms of making peace and making it sustainable.
    Conflict in various dimensions will continue to render Africa impotent making it unable to more forward and utilize its abundant human and material resources for the benefit of her people. These include ethno-religious and boundary wars. In prosecuting these conflicts, scare resources, which should have been used in development continue to be deployed into purchase of weapons of war.
    Unsustainable debt burden is another challenge to NEPAD in the development of Nigeria socio-economic development to which the west is cynical of not abetting and the unfair terms of trade.
    Another challenge to NEPAD in the development of Nigeria socio-economic sector include NEPAD’s apparent distance from existing structures such as the African charter for popular participation in development and transformation African union and the outright dependence on the west by NEPAD, contrary to the label it has been given as “home grown initiatives.                                    
 Impact Of Foreign Aid On Nigeria Socio-Economic Development