Bank Failure – Causes and Consequences (The Nigerian Experience)

Bank Failure – Causes and Consequences (The Nigerian Experience)

Bank Failure – If there is anything that all well-meaning stakeholders in the Nigeria banking industry look forward to, it is a banking sector that is healthy and stable. A banking sector where investors, depositors, operators, regulators, etc can after a hard day’s work, go to steep with all eyes closed and without the anxiety that before dawn something amiss will happens.

To a large extent that was the nature of Nigeria’s banking industry from independence in 1960 to the deregulation and liberalization of the industry, which started in the mid 1980s. Situations have drastically changed since the manifestation of rounds of bank failures that subsequently claimed the life of 37 banks from 1994 to 2003. [Read more…]

Interest Rate Management in Nigeria

Interest Rate Management in Nigeria

Interest Rate Management in Nigeria – Several authors have investigated various theories of inflation and interest rate deregulation in 1974 the central bank of Nigeria did a cross sectional analysis of the origin and development of inflationary pressures in some selected African countries namely, Nigeria, Ghana, Uganda, Gabon, morocco, ivory coast, Egypt, Sudan, Tunisia Zambia and Kenya. [Read more…]

Urbanization ; A Problem to Food Production and Agricultural Development

Urbanization ; A Problem to Food Production and Agricultural Development

The word, urbanization is the total change and increase of people and infrastructures and different activities going on at given environment , owing to a motivating factors, that sustains the people coming in and going out of such environment. [Read more…]

Problems Militating Against Effective Performance of Student Teachers on Teaching Practice Exercise – Research Method


Problems Militating Against Effective Performance of Student Teachers on Teaching Practice Exercise – Research Method

Research method
This chapter explains the procedure, which the researcher intends to adopt in carrying out this research study. The chapter was treated under the following sub-headings:

           Design of the study
           Area of the study
           Population of the study
           Sample and sampling technique
           Instrument for data collection
        Validation of the instrument 
           Reliability of instrument
Administration of the instrument
           Method of data analysis
Design of the study
This is a survey research. A survey research is one in which facts and figures are obtained from systematically selected segments of a population with the purpose to ascertain the general characteristics of the population Hence, A survey research is a Design in which a group of people or items are studied by collecting and analyzing data from only a few people considered to be representative of the entire group. In survey, information about the work is gotten through textbooks, journal. Nworgu (1991).
Area of the study
This was entirely based in the heart of UGWUNAGBO LOCAL GEVERNMENT AREA IN ABA, ABIA STATE. Using students who have at least one or two teaching practice exercise from ABIA STATE UNIERSITY. There are four categories of students from four departments who are sent to the practicing schools in the area of practice, which are: Technology and vocational Education, Health and Physical, Foundations and science and computer departments.
Population of the study
           The population of this study was all the students of the faculty of education ABIA STATE UNIVERSITY, who participated in the 2002/2001 academic session teaching practice exercise. In all, they were total of 500students who participated in the teaching practice exercise (statistics from teaching practice committee Abia State University 2001).
Sample and sampling technique
           Proportionate simple random sampling technique was used to draw up the sample. This study had the sample size of 120, 50% of each of the population of the 4 departments stated were used to draw up sample. Science and computer has the sample size of 30 students, education foundation 50, physical and health 20, Technology and Vocational Education 20.
Instrument for data collection
           The questionnaire was the instrument employed for data collection. The questionnaire was divided into 3 sections. A deal with the Bio data of the student teachers, including the school of last practice. Section B, deals with the items on the problems encountered by students teachers during teaching practice period; section C deals with the strategies that could be adopted to improve the teaching practice programme.
           The questionnaire on a 4 (four) point scale of strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (D), and Strongly Disagree (SD) with normal values of 4.3.2.1 assigned to them respectively. In all, there are 22 items to be responded to. The options were weighed 4, 3, 2, and 1 respectively.
Validation of the instrument
           The instrument was face validated by two experts in the faculty of education. The experts were requested to criticize the instrument and make corrections on the language of the instrument and suitability of the items. The corrections were used to produce final draft of the questionnaire.
Reliability of instrument
           The questionnaire was distributed twice at different occasions to the population. This is to ensure stability and reliability.


Administration of the instrument
           The instrument was administered personally to the respondent by hand and was collected the same day. In all, a total of 254 copies of the questionnaire were used for data collection.
Method of data analysis
           Data collected was analysed using mean and standard deviation to determine the degree of agreement or disagreement of the respondent on the items.
           This approach was used to determine the mean cut off point as follows using the following formula.
                    X = SFX
                       N
Where: X = Mean
S= Summation of options     
           FX = Nominal value
           N = Number of items
Hence;
           X (mean) = 4 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 10   = 2.5
                                   4              4
Decision rule
           The decision rule for this study holds that any mean above 2.5 was regarded as agreed while any mean below 2.5 was regarded as disagreed.

Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data
           In this chapter, the data collected were presented and analyzed to answer the research questions. The data were analysed using mean and standard deviation.
Research Question 1 – What are the personal problems encountered by student teachers during teaching practice exercise?


 TABLE 1
Personal problems encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programme/strategies that could be adopted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme
Item No
Items
X
SD
DECISION
1
Students are not properly educated on the exercise.
2.37
1.01
R
2.
Students in the school, tend to look down on the student teachers.
2.83
0.90
A
3.
The student teachers have the feeling of inferiority complex during teaching practice exercise.
2.63
0.87
A
4.
The identity of student teachers should not be disclosed to students used for the exercise.
2.66
0.93
A
           From the  TABLE 1 above, the result showed that 3 items were regarded as personal problems facing student teachers during teaching practice exercise and item explain the strategies that could be adopted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme. Also the CLUSTER reveals that one item was not accepted. Its mean is below the cut off mean 2.50. But  generally, the result (average mean) of the research B 2.62 which shows that it  B Accepted by all.
Research Question 2: What are the problems of practicing school during the teaching practice programme/strategies that could be adopted to improve the teaching practice programme for efficiency?
TABLE 2
Item No
Items
X
SD
DECISION
1.
The permanent teachers, do not co-operate well with the student teachers.
2.93
0.88
A
2.
Some schools do have enough equipment for teaching.
2.96
0.85
A
3.
Equipment should be provided to schools.
2.52
0.81
A
4.
School principals and teachers should guide the student teachers.
2.45
0.75
R
           The TABLE 2 above has four (4) items in which one (1) item was not accepted. Its mean is below the cut-off mean of 2.50. Among the 4 items, 2 items are regarded as the problems of practicing schools during the teaching practice programme. While the remaining 2 items, explains the strategies that could be adopted to improve the teaching practice programme for efficiency. Such items are 3 and 4. but generally, the result of the finding is Accepted.
Research Question 3: Supervision problems encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programmes/the strategies that could be adopted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme.
TABLE 3
Item No
Items
X
SD
DECISION
1.
The principals and teachers of the schools should supervise student teachers before the proper supervision.
270
0.91
A
2.
The student teachers find it difficult to manage the lesson period allocated to them effectively as a result of the presence of the supervisor.
2.73
0.88
A
3.
Orientation should be given to the supervisors on supervision in other to accommodate every student teachers that is placed under each supervisor.
2.88
0.94
A
4.
The supervisors should be friendly and appreciable to remove fear of failure from the student teachers.
2.83
0.94
A
           Table 3 above, equally contains 4 items which comprises of 2 (1 and 2) supervision problems and 2 (3 and 4) strategies to which such problems could be solved. Generally, the summary of the findings according to table 3 shows that the result is uncompromising or genuinely accepted. This is so because the average mean is above the normal mean (2. 50).
Research Question 4: Curriculum problems encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programme/the strategies that could be adopted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme.


TABLE 4
Item No
Items
X
SD
DECISION
1.
The function for teaching practice exercise which is 6 weeks is not enough for students proper practice
2.67
0.92
A
2.
The teaching practice exercise runs concurrently with normal lectures.
2.73
1.03
A
3.
Proper Orientation exercise is not given to the student teachers before the teaching practice exercise.
2.47
0.76
R
4.
Orientation should be organized for the student teachers before teaching practice  exercise
3.03
0.83
A
5.
The duration of teaching practice exercise should be increased and should be done during the holidays to avoid clashing with normal lectures.
2.62
0.77
A
           In table 4 above, the items are five (5) in number which consist of about 3 (1,2 and 3) Curriculum problems and 2 (4 and 5) items which explains the strategy on how the curriculum problem should be improved. Amongst the 5 items, item number 3, showed Rejected ® in the Decision made. This is so, because its mean (2.47) is below 2.50 (which is the accepted mean so far). But generally, the Decision concluded in the table above shows that the result is accepted by all.
Research Question 5: Problems encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programmes/the strategies that could be adapted to the improvement of teaching practice programme.


TABLE 5
Item No
Items
X
SD
Decision
1.
The student teachers aim at passing the teaching practice examination even without effective teaching.
2.33
0.70
R
2.
The student teachers face the fear of failure during the exercise, especially the first timers.
2.48
0.71
R
3.
Workshop should be organized for student teachers in school on their relationship with permanent teachers.
2.83
0.75
R
4.
The student teachers should be paid to enhance dedication and efficiency.
2.05
0.81
R
5.
The teaching practice students should always engage in a group teaching exercise that is designed for them to avoid inferiority complex.
2.67
1.02
A
There are also (5 items contained in the table above. This table consists of 2 1 and 2 items which is on the opposite side, consists of the strategies in which such problem, and could be improved.
           Generally, it is very unfortunate that the rage mean of the result, according to the Decision is Rejected (R).
Research Hypothesis 1 Using The T-Test
TABLE 6
VARIABLES
No of pairs
X
SD
DF
t-value
Terif
Significance
Variable 1
120
2.36
1.01
119
-4.89
1.96
NS
Variable 6
2.95
0.85
Variable 2 
120
2.82
0.904
119
2.78
1.96
S
Variable 7
2.57
0.807
Variable 3
120
2.63
0.86
119
1.74
1.96
NS
Variable 8
2.45
0.75
Variable 4
120
2.65
0.93
119
-0.36
1.96
NS
Variable 9
2.70
0.91
Variable 5
120
2.93
0.87
119
1.68
1.96
NS
Variable 10
2.73
0.87
AVERAGE
T-test
0.15
1.96
NS


Research Hypothesis 2 Using The Chi- Square (X2).
TABLE 7
VARIABLES
DF
X2
Significance
01
3
19.66
0.0002
02
3
49.93
0.0000
03
3
59.66
0.0000
04
3
64.46
0.0000
05
3
30.53
0.0000
06
3
32.20
0.0000
07
3
50.93
0.0000
08
3
63.53
0.0000
09
3
23.40
0.0000
10
4
70.66
0.0000
11
3
30.26
0.0000
12
3
57.80
0.0000
13
3
51.40
0.0000
14
3
26.80
0.0000
15
3
70.86
0.0000
16
3
46.06
0.0000
17
3
62.86
0.0000
18
3
103.00
0.0000
19
3
68.86
0.0000
20
3
54.20
0.0000
21
3
45.46
0.0000
22
3
6.86
0.0763
Total
X2V
1089.38
0.0765
Average X Value = 1089.38     = 49.51
                                                       22
Average significance = 0.0765 = 0.0034
                                22

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
Discussion of findings
          In Table A, which deals with the personal problems encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programme/strategies that could be adopted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme organized by the faculty of Education, ABSU, during the teaching practice programme (items 1,2,3 and 4) showed that students are not properly educated on the exercise for the student teachers before the teaching practice exercise, students in the school tend to look down on the student teachers, the students teachers have the feeling of inferiority complex during teaching practice exercise, and that the identity of student teachers is not supposed to be disclosed to students used for the exercise.
          In table B, which is on the problem of practicing schools during the teaching practice programme/strategies that could be adopted to improve the teaching practice programme for efficiency (items 1, 2, 3, and 4) showed that the cooperating teachers, do not cooperate well with the student teachers, some schools do not have enough equipment for teaching, Equipment should be provided to schools. The researcher suggests that school principals and teachers should always guide the student teachers.
          In Table C, which deals with the supervision problems, encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programme/strategies that could be adopted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme (items 1,2,3 and 4) showed that the principals and teachers of the schools, should supervise student teachers before the proper supervision, the student teachers find it difficult to manage the lesson period allocated to them effectively as a result of the presence of the supervisor, orientation should be given to the supervisors on supervision in other to accommodate every student teachers that is placed under each supervisor. The researcher suggests that the supervision should be friendly and approachable to remove fear of failure from the student teachers.
          In Table D which is on the curriculum problems encountered by student’s teachers in teaching practice programme/strategies that could be adapted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme. (items 1,2, and 3) showed that the duration for the exercise not enough for proper practice. The practice, run concurrently with normal lectures in the supporting facilities of the University, proper orientation exercise is not given to the student teachers before the teaching practice exercise. Item 4 and 5 explains some strategies of which the curriculum problems could be improved. It showed that orientation should be organized for the student teachers before teaching practice exercise; the duration of teaching practice exercise should be increased and should be done during the holiday to avoid clashing with normal lectures.  This simply explains that Table D, has five(5) items.
          In cluster E, Which is the final cluster, deals on student problems encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programme/strategies that could be adopted to the improvement of the teaching practice programme? (items 1,2, and 3) showed that the student teachers do not aim at passing the teaching practice  examination even without effective teaching, the student teachers, face the fear of failure during the exercise, especially the first timers and workshop should be organized for student teachers in each school on their relationship with permanent teachers. Also in cluster E, items 4 and 5, explains the strategies for which the student problem could be improved, which showed that the student teachers should be paid to enhance dedication and efficiency, and the teaching practice students should always engage in a group teaching exercise that is designed for them to avoid inferiority complex.


Recommendations
          In the light of the findings made, the student teachers still face a lot of problems. Therefore, the following recommendation will help to improve their present predicament.
1. Orientation should be organized for the student teachers before teaching practice exercise.
2. Workshop should be organized for subject teachers of cooperating schools, on their relationship with student teachers.
3. The student teachers should be paid to enhance dedication and efficiency.
4. The identity of student teachers should not be disclosed to co-operating students used for the exercise.
5. The teaching practice exercise could be done during the holidays to avoid it clashing with normal lectures in the University. Private lesson organized for pupil during holidays should be used.
6. Equipment should be provided to our schools by government.
7. School principals and cooperating teachers should give the students teachers access to the use of the school facilities for teaching.
8. The examiner (supervisor) should not just grade the student teachers but should visit regularly for guidance on effective teaching.
Implications of the study
          The problems encountered by students during teaching practice have some educational implications for the planners and students involved in it. The knowledge of this work will enable the student teachers to realize the importance of the programme and likely problems they might face during the period.  This knowledge makes it less difficult.
          Planners and organizers of teaching practice activity should as a matter of importance realize how to plan the stated periods for teaching practice programme for effectiveness. So that slated periods for teaching practice do not clash with normal lectures in the schools.
          Finally, the supervising lecturers will be made to realize the concerns of these student teachers.
Suggestions for further research
          These suggestions have been made for further investigation of the study.
1. An investigation into the relationship between cooperating teachers, supervisors and student teachers of the faculty of Education, Abia state University.
Conclusion
          Based on the findings of this research, the following conclusions were made;
1. From table A the result showed that 3 items were regarded as personal problems facing student teachers during teaching practice exercise among students. Among the problems include:
a. Lack of proper education on the exercise.
b. Inferiority complex.
          While the fourth (4) item is regarded as a strategy to improve the personal problem of the student teachers
2. Table B showed that 2 items were regarded as problems facing the practicing schools. The problems include:
a. Lack of cooperation between the permanent teachers with the student teachers. 
b. Lack of equipment for teaching.
          While the 3 and 4 items, were regarded as strategies that could be adopted to improve the teaching practice programme. The strategies include:
a. Equipment should be provided to schools.
b. School principals and teachers should always guide the student teachers.
3. Table C, showed that 2 items were also regarded as supervision problems encountered by student teachers in teaching practice programme/strategies.
          Also the two (2) remaining items 3 and 4 stress more on the strategies that could be adopted to improve the teaching practice programme.
4. Table D and E showed that there are 3 items each which are regarded as curriculum problems and student problems. While the remaining 2 items 4 and 5 each of Table D and E, explains the strategies that could be adopted to improve the teaching practice programme.
Problems Militating Against Effective Performance of Student Teachers on Teaching Practice Exercise – Research Method

Influence of Packaging on Consumer Purchase Behaviour

Influence of Packaging on Consumer Purchase Behaviour.

The philosophy that marketing should begin and end with the customer is otherwise called marketing concept. The prior of the marketing concept is the consumers. Professional marketers have over the years been engaged in finding ways to serve the customers better the reason for the deliberate attempts at satisfying the customer or consumer continually is obvious. The goodwill or patronage of the customer is a valuable resource to marketers.

     Marketing practitioners have propounded a number of theories and concepts in pursuance of the sole objective or satisfying customer need and wants At a profit. A number of empirical studies have also been conducted over the years for the same purpose has attracted our interest is on how packaging influences consumer purchase behaviour.
    In recent times packaging has become a potent marketing tool. Packaging has to do with designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product.
Kolter (1999:224) views packaging as actually that part of product planning and development which is the design of a products container or wrapper whose purpose is to protect the product physically to enhance the product’s value to the consumer and to stimulate sales through emotional appeals to consumers. Well designed package, is a sine que non or indispensable for marketing success. An as such making packaging as one of the numerous marketing tools that are seen as a powerful instrument.
A part from its protective legal and Aesthetic value it is arguable that An inferior product packaged in an attractive and Eye-catching packet stands the chance of being picked up packaging planning and decision.
Packaging Account for up to 50% of the selling price of some products, such as cosmetics, soft Drinks, sachet water And bottled water. But packaging is much desirable because it adds to the value of a product. The appreciation of packaging in affluent societies (such as in the United Siaies of America and Europe) much higher than those of poor Nations (such as Africa countries). Growing Affluence is now making consumers in Nigeria to demand improved packaging for the goods they buy.
1.1.1    BRIEF HISTORY OF PATERSON
    Zochonis (pz)   
Pz industries is a leading manufacture and distributor of a variety of product especially soaps and other personal care items including shampor, baby powder, and the like. These are marketed under pz cusson’s flagship) imperial leather brand and others including original source and care. The company also manufactures refrigerators and other white goods, including freezers and Air conditioners) detergents and cleansers, fermine hygiene products, in (2003) Pz industries formed a joint venture with ineland’s Glanbia  to supply evaporated milk and milk powder in Nigeria. The company also acquired U.K hair care brand Charles Worthington in 2005. although based in mauchester, Pz Cussons has long been controlled by the founding zochonis fairly, from —— and has carved a niche for itself by focusing an various markets in Africa, especially in Nigeria, Ghana Cameroon, and East Africa. The company’s African operations continued to represent some 26% of its annual sales. Europe, especially the United Kingdom is the group’s largest market at 43%, while the Asia Pacific region including Australia, Accounts for its African manufacturing sites, the company operates manufacturing plants in Thailand, Poland, Australia and Athens.
    However, the ownership of the company was merged by two Paunlies George Paterson, originally from England, and George Zochuis from Greece hence, paterson and Zochonis (Pz).               
1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
    The study is out to evaluate the influence of packaging on consumers purchase behaviour. However, many problems impinge on effective marketing of a company’s product. One of these problems is inappropriate packaging or completely lack of packaging a product.
    Therefore many products fail due to poor packaging while others especially consumer products produced by Pz flourish and perform very well as a result of adequate packaging. Consequent upon the non-challant of most of these producers whose products failed, they have therefore experience the following problem.
1.    Their products are not accepted by consumers more frequently like they do to those produced by PZ due to poor packaging, thereby lowering their products ability to stimulate demand.
2.    Consumer products manufactured by PZ protect contents effectively while those produced by ignorant firms leads to damages, pilferages and customer dissatisfaction.
3.    That Pz is a market leader in cosmetics and other consumer products can as well be attributed to adequate packaging. Consequently the company continue to usurp larger market share hence keeps on eliminating these firms that cannot compete effectively with them from the market due to poor packaging programmes.   
1.3    OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
    Based on the problem discoursed, it is the major objective of this study to determine the influence of packaging on consumer’s purchase behaviour with special reference to Paterson Zochonis industries. In an attempt to actualize the broad objective, the following sub-objective evolved.
1.    To determine whether poor packaging is the major cause of low demand of a product.
2.    To know whether the success of pz to great extent depends on its packaging programmes over consumer goods.
3.    To know whether increase in profit potential of Pz depends on patronages of actual and potential buyers who were influenced by packaging.
4.    To determine whether Packaging Actually Stimulate Consumer Purchase.
5.    To know whether a customer can still be satisfied over a well manufactured product with a poor packaging.
6.    And finally to know whether gaining larger forget market by Pz depends on its packaging programmes.    
1.4    STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
    The hypothesis formulated here are based on the problems and objective of the study.

Hypothesis One
Ho: Poor product patronages depend on poor packaging.
H1: poor products patronages depend on poor packaging.
Hypothesis Two
Ho: A well developed product cannot as well give rise to a dissatisfied consumer if poorly package.
H1: A well developed product can as well give rise to a dissatisfied consumers, if poorly packaged.
Hypothesis Three
Ho: Good packaging programme does not make a firm to win larger market share.
H1: Good packaging programme makes a firm to win larger market share.
Hypothesis Four
Ho: Immediate purchase decision on consumer goods is not triggered by attractive packaging.
H1: Immediate purchase decision on consumer goods is triggered by attractive packaging. 

1.5    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
    This study is not a mere academic exercise it will be of great benefit to the following;
Firstly, the management of Paterson Zochonis Pz Company Plc will benefit immensely from this study.
This because it will uncover some of the requirements for efficient and effective packaging which will enable the Company to attract consumers to purchase its products at a profit.
Secondly, the study will be of great benefit to industries and the Nigerian economy. This stems from the fact that good packaging helps companies to gain advantage over competitors.
Thirdly, the study will be of immense benefit to customers of Pz product as adequate measures that will be recommended, will go a long way to boost the satisfaction and value delivery ability of Paterson Zochoris above all the study will not only be of benefit to the researcher but also the readers, as adequate knowledge and understanding will be gained from the information contained in the study.
1.6    SCOPE OF THE STUDY
    This study is limited to the Paterson Zochonis (Pz) PLC operation within the Enugu metropolis of Enugu state of Nigeria.
The scope on the influence of packaging on consumer purchasing behaviour. 
1.7    DEFINITION OF TERMS
    The following terminologies are hereby operationally defined as they are used in this study for a better reading, and general comprehension of this research report.
Packaging: This is the process of putting a generic product into a wrapper or container with a view to making it more attractive better protected and easily portable.
(Onah and Thomas 2004:274)
Product: product is anything that can be offered to a market for attention acquisition or consumption.
    It indicates physical object (eg cars) services clecturing entertainment) personalities places organisation and ideas (Umeh and Ude Umanta 2002:79)
Industry: Industry according to oxford dictionary (1996:411) is the whole firms dealing in the same kind of product.
Consumer: Is the end riser of a given product or service (Esu 2003:46)
Promotion: All persuasive communication efforts claimed at generating sales or building a favourable attitude for an organizations product or service and the organization itself (kotler 1998:368).
Communication tools: This consist of six promotional influence favourable responses and stimulate profitable sales in the market place (Ebue 2000:9).
Target market: This is the most viable and attractive segment of the market who the marketer wants to offer satisfaction to, through his or her product. In nutshell, it is the segment of market which a marketer intends to serve through product offerings (Olakunori 2003:171).
Influence of Packaging on Consumer Purchase Behaviour

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