Bureaucracy and Efficiency in Nigerian Public Enterprise
Bureaucracy- It is evident and an indisputable fact that a lot of work has been done by successive government in Nigeria towards eradicating bottlenecks in the country’s public administration. It is the desire of this review or research to find out the theme of those related studies which has been done on the various aspects at this study for fair research findings.
It is an against the back – drop, that any described bureaucracy as “ Levia than” a monolithic and virtually uncontrollable force eaten away at personal liberties and economic resources. For him, it is a fool: few set of individuals bound with red toe and rule book. He accuses bureaucrats and bureaucracies of operating utranies (beyond the scope of their authority).
However, porters view, implies that bureaucracy is it’s own seed of discord, hence in all the complex organizations things are never done through the front door quickly, expect through the back door, but it is the opinion of the researcher that Peter is not completely correct in his assumption on findings that bureaucracy is not an uncontrollable and a leviathan”, taking cognizance of the fact that bureaucracy is a subject to influence of the political authority and therefore lacks the will power to the expression of the will of the state. In contrast to Peters view, P.J. Godwin stated thus: “They are there in all government systems, two primary functions of government; the expression of the will of state and the execution of that will. There are in all states separates organs each of which is busied mainly with the discharge of one of these functions. These functions are mainly politics and administration respectively.
These two contrary views not with standing, it is still notable that bureaucracy still remains one of the life wire of any government. That is why. Apple by maintained that public administration is policy making and he concluded that it is “ it is one of the number of basic political processes by which people achieve and control governance. Apple bye’s view is quite in agreement with the general view that bureaucracy and public administration should not be allowed to degenerate into state leviathan and uncontrolled force but rather it should be accountable to public opinion. In agreement to this view. Woodrow Wilson has this to join. The policy of government will have no faint of official down about it. It will not be the creation of permanent officials but of statesmen whose responsibilities to public opinion will be direct and inevitable.
On the country however, Kinley ( date) advance the view that civil servants are “ Permanent politicians” upon whose view the policy of modern government is greatly reliant. It is our view that accountability in public service indicated responsiveness to public opinion. But as bureaucratic struggle for the hand of power, there is loound to be the eruption of power of spoil. This quite often results to red – tapism and efficiency
It is against this back ground that Bowyer maintains that bureaucratic organization is characterized by rational and impersonal regulation of inferior superior relationships. This implies that bureaucratic red – tapism is a normal features of public bureaucracy and does not eat away at the personal and liberation’s and economic resources as was the view of Peters B. Guy, and in support of this argument, encyclopedia Britannia argues that certain bureaucratic characteristics ( such as strict and control by rules) can both promote and hinder organizational efficiency.
This implies that it has both functional efficiency and effects. ( Predictability precision) and dysfunctelys – functioned effect ( rigidly).
Again, down in his “ Inside Bureaucracy” described this in terms of the tendencies of individuals within the organization to shift from Zealot to conserveroles.
Aims, has a contrary view and submitted that “corrupt practices occur in reality all ministers, departments, agencies and every fact of human activity. According to Aina, the problem is more wide spread at the pass through. He mentioned and concluded that the Nigeria society need urgent solutions to ensure it’s survival.
Prof. Arthur Lewis suggested that quality government in West Africa state will result principally from good administration. But due to differences in environmental orientations, this practice is not applicable in the Nigeria society. And therefore counts the error of inconsistency and is therefore guilty of illegitimate reductionism in his trend of analysis of West African bureaucracy. In parts of his books we quota;
Decisions which more advanced countries made by ministers often without consulting expert advice.
Continuing, Frances Bourice, reorganized the hanging roles of bureaucracy and submitted than, it cannot be denied that bureaucrats themselves, have now become a central factor in policy process, and the resolution of conflicts. Geriant Panny holds the same view when he stated that, that efficiency of the if to appropriate the decision making power from the dejure political authority. This technical expertise of the bureaucrats.
In the countries social plat form, the impastation of British and American models of bureaucracy did not work out. The following cross sections of public opinion account for this.
In line with the researchers, ex – military head of state of Nigeria between 1976 and 1978, admitted that the violation of civil servants which in the parliamentary government persisted throughout.
The thirty – six period of military rule. In this light he remarked; during the military administration the civil servants have to a lay extent been and heard. A must however, be realized that it was what the time dictated, an air of anonymity which they will soon start to breathe should be seen as derogator”.
The effect of this is bureaucratic corruption, inefficiency and red – tapism Prof., Ladipo Adenolekun, shared the assessment of Nigerian bureaucracy between 1979 and 1983 when he rightly stated; “ while most civil servants tried as they could adhere to the norms, rules of a career service, there notable violations arising from Independence, Limited ability or on right lack of inegrity manifested in case of collusion in corrupt practices”. Ladipo, though very fair and critical in his analysis of public bureaucracy between 1979 and 1983, he lamented over some notable bureaucracy bottlenecks that bednailed the Nigerian’s public administration. He identified them as inefficiency, corruption, red – tapism, deptism, over concentration of powers and misgovernment
Emezie has similar views with Ademolekun, bengocs into details than him. However, he deviates a little and traced the bureaucratic bottlenecks as having links with colonialism. He sees it as in increase in power of bureaucracy and bureaucratic antinomy. This has a great effect on the public administration of the nation and the major carry over of colonial bureaucracy. He identified about four major fundamental problems which characterized colonial bureaucracy which are institutionalized in Nigerian’s public enthronement of powerful psychological overtone on bureaucrats who performed in it as well as on the total society at lay the training of employed clerks, general administrative and executive officers stressed the unlimited potential authority. Indeed what emerged as the character of the colonial bureaucracy was the authoriatarism prestige which governments received in the eye of the public. This psychological attitude made it possible to hold administrators in, are and esteem and created an endearing habit. Today, Nigerian’s bureaucracy inherited this colonial past together with its system procedures practices, norms and conventions. Commenting further on political and bureaucratic cooption Adeenolekun contended that, Evidence of political and administrative corruption under colonial rule has been documented by a few former political officers. These corrupt practices involved both “humble and mighty officials of authorities. However, given the stringent control mainted by the colonial officers over the native authorities. The incidents of corruption by some individuals were of limited proportions.
In this regard, Adenelokun Noted that “ from the time party governments were established in 1954 to the disappearance in 1960, corrupt practices assumed a huge proportions that were formally unknown.
Having analyzed the views presented by those political analysis on bureaucratic bottlenecks in Nigeria’s public administration with a view to deferring the extend to which these bottle necks have undermined the smooth, efficient operation of the country’s public administration and the need to establish a sound vertile and sufficient public bureaucracy, the researcher, the researcher will investigate into the attempts made by both individuals and past successive government in Nigeria towards eradicating bureaucratic bottle necks in her public administration and then make his recommendations.
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This article was extracted from a Project Research Work Topic “BUREAUCRACY AND EFFICIENCY IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC ENTERPRISE A CASE STUDY OF NEPA ONITSHA BRANCH.)”