Assessment of the Criteria for the Promotion of Employees
What is a promotion? It an employees move from the second shift to the preferred Alo company shift on the same job, or is moved into a room where working condition are better, although other features on the job are the same, is this a promotion or merely a transfer. There are a numerous of definition by different another’s on promotion. They are put in slightly different ways but they are lead to the put same meaning. To order the Complete Project Material, Pay thr Sum of N3,000 to: BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122 Then send the Project Topic, Your Email Address and Full Name to 07033378184.
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Pigors and Myers consider promotion to be the advancement of an employees to a better job or status greater skill and especially. Increase rate if pay or salary.
While Haimenn and Hilgfets, definition say “A promotion usually means advancement to a better job in items of more authority and responsibility, more privileges higher status, greater potential and higher pay.
2.1 BASIS FOR PROMOTION
The two usually formal bases for promotion are:-
1 By merit
- By seniority
In most books, promotion by merit is treated together with ability. Very few authors separate merit and ability, in this study, they are both going to be combined as merit. Merit usually refer to an employees is past job performance, where as ability implies an employee past job performance, whereas, ability implies an employee’s capability or potential to performance to be trained to perform. A higher-level job.
This involves prompting on the basis of a job performances and analysis. Management prefer merit because it ensure that competence in the fundamental, determinate of promotion. From productivity point of view, merit is also preferable. The more competent the employees are the higher the level of organizational performance. Basing advancement on merit require a systematic method measuring merit
If the promotion is to provide on incentive for good performance, the best performing employee should be advance. Since differences in merit may not be promoted may feel that favoritism was involves further, performance on some job reflects the impact of many different people and chance factors so individual merit can be hard for measure. Although labour unions have stressed the seniority criteria in promotion, it is well recognized that seniority alone dose not guarantee that an individual either deserves or is capable of advancing to a higher job. All these are achieved by performance appraisal.
ADVANTAGES OF PROMOTION BY MERIT
1.it rewards performance and attracts ambitious job applicants.
- It permit management to select the most qualified thus increasing productivity
- It permit infusion of never ideas and people
This involves promoting on the basis of recognized length of service in the organization .one easily measured and objective criteria .which has been applied extensively in an effort to reduce favoritism and possible discrimination is seniority, or length of service.
Labour union have place great stress upon seniority and the use of seniority as a major consideration is widespread among organizations that are not unionised and for jobs that are not covered by union agreement.
Many supervisors are quite comfortable with the concept of seniority as a basis for promotion. Some supervisors feel that an employee’s loyalty as expresses by length of service deserves to be rewarded.
Basing promotion on seniority also assures that an employee ability tends to increase with service. Ezeh says: although this assumption is questionable and not always accurate, it is likely that with continued services an employee’s capacity to perform should improve.
ADVANTAGES OF PROMOTION BY SENIORITY
Basing personnel decision on seniority has a number of advantages:
- It rewards loyalty
- It is more objective
- It avoid favoritism
- It encourages effective selection and training
- It is simple and easily understood, this arise only after the seniority system has been explicitly defined.
Seniority as a sole base for decision-making has a number of drawbacks.
- Seniority ignores merits or ability
- If seniority is rigidly applied, there is no incentive to learn and improve
- Seniority frustrates the ambitions and able worker out of the organization.
Some organizations seek to balance these points by selecting for promotion
- The senior among those who are considered the more able.
- The senior, unless there is an outstanding candidates with less seniority.
PROMOTION AND TRANSFER
Most promotions and lateral transfer are according to George Strauss, determined by ability factors as well as seniority.
The most important policy question on promotion is the relative significant of seniority and competence. An increasing tendency according to the author especially in unionized firms, is to give more weight to seniority in making promotion within the bargaining unit, because of the great importance that workers attach to length of service. This raises to basic question.
1) Is employee with the longest service necessary the most competent?
2) If workers automatically qualify for better jobs by accumulating seniority, will new employees be motivated to implore their performance?
The answer to these question particularly the second one are so often negative that management should stress competence above seniority in promotion when two or more are being considered. Promotion should be a reward to encourage those employees who make a successful effort to increase their knowledge or skill and who maintain a high level of production.
WHY PEOPLE REFUSE PROMOTION
Although the majority of employees want to improve and possibly advance, this is not true of everyone. Not all employees seek to be promoted, some employees just have no desire to advance any further. Refuse of advancement occurs for a number of reasons including:
- A difference in pay that is not sufficient to provide an incentive to advance. Occasionally, a worker can be receiving a pay/salary which is above or equal to what he will be receiving in the next higher job. In other words, the reward is not commensurate with the job. Under such circumstance, the employee may not be interested in advancing to the higher job.
- When employees do not want too much responsibility and think they cannot cope perhaps they may feel that an increase in responsibility or status would demand too much of their time and energy which they prefer to devoid to other interests.
- Many employees refuse promotion because they do not wish to forego the association and acceptance of their fellow workers which promotion often implies.
- Some employees have the fear of insecurity in their new jobs, especially if it involves change and risk, the individual may not be will to accept it.
- Some employees have mastered their job and are content with it or are content with old job seniority.
- The mere thought of loss failure at the new job can devastate and humiliating.
- Some jobs are dead jobs and it is impossible to go any further.
2.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PROMOTION LADDERS
Although some employees (minority) may not wish to advance, the majority of workers tend to seek opportunities for advancement. Consequently, every organization programme.
There are 2 basic essentials for such a programme.
There must be clear paths of advancement i.e. lines of promotion chartered through the organization. Dead-end jobs should be labeled and the path upwards should be marked.
A definite system should be established for the identification and selection of the particular people who are to be advanced.
This involves a consideration of the usual controversy of seniority is merit.
ALO MANUFACTURING COMPANY HAVE EASY DISTING LADDERS
Manual workers are hired into unskilled or labour pool jobs and are promoted on the basis of seniority up to higher paying or easier assembly and machine tending position skilled tradesmen often start as apprentices or he helpers and made up to craft classification.
CLERICAL EMPLOYEES_move from stenographers to receptionist to
secretary and perhaps to executive assistant.
MANAGERS_ often start as a trances or as assistant supervisors and can of course, more to top management (although most will not)
LENGTH OF LADDER_ longer usually appears better minorities and women hake complained for years that have been leads up to job totally different from hoot ruined at entry, special care needs to be taken to be sure having standard reflect this some companies help so heavily on promotion from within that they cannot afford to keep people that are not desirous of moving a head.
BREADTH OF LADDER _ Breadth of job or career paths very substantially. Broader career path increase the likely hood that there will be few or no dead end job, because wide variety of opportunities are made available. In organization, where people are stable, there is more likely to be a stronger, hospitality for most or all their careers
of the of the industry, it is simple a managerial judgment.
TECHNOLOGY CHANGE-Carefully drawn promotional ladders can be upset by unforeseen technological changes therefore management need to build flexibility into career ladder so innovations can be absorbed without excessively rigid and homogenous.
PREDICTABILITY AND CLARITY-Some career ladders are sharply defined, lead in turn, have move trainers to teller one obvious advantages of under defined career path is that they allow organization to transfer, without appearing to demote, ineffective employees. Promotion then become available for others some promotional paths are so predictable that employees can know know as long as ten year a head who will get what position.
KEEPING PROMOTIONAL LADDER OPEN:
Where the organization relies heavily on promotion from within to fill the higher level jobs, criteria rungs on the promotional issue, should not be filled by people who are uninterested in promotion. to reduce problem of this sort, management should constantantly ask, is the experience been provided by these lower job level still necessary for effective performance at higher level? Is the average duration of employment at each running of the ladder reasonable, given the learning and challenge the particular job provided.
NUMBER OF PROMOTIONS–
The number of promotions possible is not inherent in the organization, management makes the choice. What is the optimum number? Too few promotional steps may injure morale by reducing opportunities for personal progress and accomplishment. Too many promotional steps may mean that an excessive amount of time and effort must be spent in selecting shifting employees.
What management regard as a substance promotion may not be seen as promotion at all the employees involves. The additional responsibilities of managerial jobs may more than out weight the benefits associated with few salaries and title but dual ladders are rarely views as an ideal solution due to the fact that position on the technical ladder are seen as consolation prizes for those who fail to make the more prestigious administration ladder.
LINES OF PROMOTION
On the basic of job analysis information, the organization can chart the lines along which people can advance. This help to answer the question. To what jobs does the present job lead the and from what job did one come to the present job.
PROMOTION FROM WITHIN
Typically, there are more employees who are interested in being promoted than there are opening available.
Since promotions should serve as an incentive for employee to perform better, some supervisors believe that those employees who have the best records of production quality, cooperation, etc are the ones who should be promoted.
In some situation, however, it is difficult to measure these aspect of employee performance accurately or objectively, despite a continuous effort by supervisors in the form of rating or performance appraisals.
Sometimes promotion comes from outside the organization when there are qualified persons within because of various reasons: Conflicts from within (body blood), injection of new ideas into the organization (new blood) necessary facilitates to train people for the next job are not available.
The reasons why we have criteria for promoting is so that people will reach the criteria seeing that there are so many people denying for promotion and performance appraisal before anyone can be promoted in any organization.
2.3 NEED FOR PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
From the time employees begin their employment with a firm, the supervisor is responsible for evaluation of their job performance. Day-to-day feedback is needs to improve employee performance and to provide the proper incentives. The individual performance appraisal plans for specific complains very a great deal, but they usually fall into one or another of certain basic types.
“Most organization require that supervisors formally appraise their employees periodically, these evaluations becomes part of an employee’s payment record file and play an important role in supervisory decision, that involves promoting, transforming and compensating employees.
Systematic performance appraisal (also called merit rating or employee rating) has adopted by many organizations as a means of helping supervisors to evaluate the work of each employee.
These appraisals have been used most frequently as a basis for selecting candidates for promotion to better jobs for making ‘merit’ increase in hourly rates or salaries.
Informal appraisal of employee performance takes place whenever a supervisor say, “I think it is a better employee than I merit and merits promotion”. One difficulty here, as Pigors says “it is impossible for the supervisors to prove fairness” employers have no satisfactory basis on which to their expectations. The charges of favouratism and the inevitable disappointment that ensure have a bad effect on supervisor employee relationship.
According to Ezeh, some advantages of a formal appraisal system are:
- It forces the supervisor to observe and scrutinize the work of subordinates from the point of view of how well they are performing on the job and what can be done to improve their performance.
- An employees’ poor performance and a failure to improve may be due in part to the supervisor’s own inadequate supervision.
- it also may serve to evaluate the supervisor own performance and to suggest area where the supervisor need to improve.
- It gives employees the right to know how they are doing and what they can do to improve.
- Employees that feel they are doing outstanding job this opportunity to make certain that the supervisor recognize and appreciates their service.
DIFFICULTY IN USING APPRAISAL FORMS
Inspite of the uncomplicated design of most performance appraisal form, supervisor will encounter number of problem when filling them out.
First of all, not all rates will agree on the means of such terms as excellent, good, average, or poor. But even so, the choice of an appraisal term or level depends on mostly upon the rates perception, and this may be an inaccurate measure of absolute reality.
Another problem is that one supervisor or may be more severe than another in the appraisal; of employees the tendency of giving continuously harsh ratings can be damaging to the morale of those employees who feel that they been unfairly and severely judged. Low ratings may also reflect negatively on the supervisor own ability, suggesting that the supervision has non able to motivate employees.
Thus, an employee who is appraised as a high performance in one group may be contributing as much as a member of another work group who receive only an average ranking
Moreover, almost any plan will be worthless if it lacks the support of top management, if supervisor are it’s value, if discussion of results with employees is badly handled, or if appraisal are not honestly used for the purposes intended the difficulties often prevent the successful operation of a systematic programme. They may be avoided if the personnel administrator helps management by taking the following step: –
1 Studies plans of other company and existing literature on the sub ject , to develop a plan best suited to the need of the particular organization. Rating is not more than four categories for each factor (e.g. outstanding, good, satisfactory, unsatisfactory) are a degree of accuracy that is not possible in subjective in employees performance appraisal.
2 Secures full agreement of line management and the need for a formed performance appraisal plan and on the purpose for which it will be used.
3 Achieves line and staff coordination and mutual checking of employees performance appraisal, in order to get consistency and uniformity within and between department
- OBJECTIVES OF APPRAISAL
Every appraisal should be made within the control of each employee’s particular job, and every rating should be based upon the total performance of each employees. It would be unfair to appraisal a subordinate on the basis of one assignment, which has been done particularly well, or very poorly. The a1ppraisal should be based in an employee’s total record of reliability, initiative, skills, resourcefulness, capability and any other relevant factor. And of course, the supervisor must always strive to exclude personal basis for against different individual. This is one of the most serious pitfalls of appraisal. Although results of performance appraisal are by on means perfect, they7 can be fairy objective and serve as a positive influence in motivating an employee’s future performance.
Why should we appraisal?
Current performance appraisal is beneficial to the organization in the following
1 it aid management decade in matter of compensation including salaries, increace, bonus distribution. Stock option and promotion increase.
2 It assists management men in analysing, training and development need, formal and informal. On the job and off the job.
3 It help guide in the recruitment and selection of new employee’s.
4 It reveals for management certain organization requirements such as the kind and number of promotable and unpromotable men, the kinds of common and uncommon skills.
In other words, they provide an inventory of human resource. It is beneficial to employees in the following ways.
1 They tell him he is doing on the job, where stands and what is expected of him in future.
2 It helps him to know what he can do to climb to the highest rung of the ladder.
- If gives him a sense of being treated fairly when come to salary increase and other rewards and award.
WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR APPRAISAL
In carrying out performance appraisal, it involves two- step.
First, someone must observe the employee performing on the job, secondly must evaluate the performance observe against the standard established for the job.
Thus the individual chosen to evaluate must satisfy two constraints.
1 the evaluate must be both motivated to carry out the evaluate accurately and skilled an doing so.
- The evaluator must be knowledgeable about the job requirement and performance of the employee being appraisal and must be in a position to observed the employee as they work their jobs.
- The performance appraisal should be made by the immediate supervisor, who know more about the employees performance more than any one else in the organization .
There can also be something like the self appraisal when the employees are dealing with standards which the have set themselves or have had a significant part in developing they may be less defensive than when superior tells them that their performance is deficient by its standards. On the other4 hand, non participative. Appraisal interviews have sometimes brought about greater behavioral change than participative interviews.
Although self appraisal can be useful in developing managers, they tend to be somewhat useful for such thing as evaluation for pay raises or promotion. One reason is that self appraisal are often more favorable than rating by superior as the table demonstrates.
However, two recent studies concluded that this sort of difference may reflect meaningful differences in the ways in which judgment are made . self rating for a person to be high or how on all scales than superior ratings. Comparisons of means rating given by immediately
This article was extracted from a Project Research Work Topic
“ASSESSMENT OF THE CRITERIA FOR THE PROMOTION OF EMPLOYEES IN ALO ALUMINUM COMPANY.”
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