Administrative Stress and Modern Manager In Private Business Organization
Administrative Stress – Management may not be concerned when employees experience how to moderate level of stress, level of stress can be functional and it leads to higher employee performance but high levels sustained over a long period of times, can also lead to reduced employee performance. To order the Complete Project Material, Pay thr Sum of N3,000 to: BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122 Then send the Project Topic, Your Email Address and Full Name to 07033378184.
To order the Complete Project Material, Pay thr Sum of N3,000 to:
BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC
ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122
Then send the Project Topic, Your Email Address and Full Name to 07033378184.
According to Dr, he pointed out the way emotional stress effects human performance and productivity and that if it is being prolonged and uncontrolled stress can have adverse and deleterious effects on a manager’s health. He also said that number of factors/environmental, organization and individual moderated by individual differences cause employees to feel stressed. The more these factors occur, the more intensely stressful they are the manager, the greater the stress he experienced. How stressful the work situation is for a manager depends in part or his perception, job experienced social support, belief in locus of control and the extent to which he experience hostility. Kalm2 on his note, said that apart from the nature of the managers duties, it is crowed schedules, time urgency in trying to meet deadlines, conflicts and frustrations.
Managers are exposed to continuous stress, which they cannot easily handle. However the manager needs to control stress situation.
2.2. DEFINITION OF STRESS
According to Hans Seyle3 the renounced scientist and human psychologist defines it as being in a pressure situations.
Leminson4 comes with a definition as Nervous, tension that results from internal conflicts evolving from a wide range of external situations it is as much as a part of life pans, overzealous ambition to achieve and other feeling stress reaction is complex process and this is why Seyle5 says that the reaction involves practically in every organ of the body.
Rose Dat6 in her report said stress result to body’s defenses mechanism, which gradually the organs fail to operate properly. These deteriorating process as it is called as the general adoption syndrome (GAS) and can lead to diseases in almost any part of the body.
2.3. WHO IS MODERN MANAGER
By definition, it is pertinent to note that there is no acceptable definition of who is a modern manager, but according to Nigerian management experts, P.N. Ejiofor and Aniagoh identified two operating mangers by their characteristics as modernist and traditionalist.
The modernist are characterized with the following:
- They tend to be younger.
- They assumed more responsibility
- They office designation is always noted with corporate mangers, with special duties.
- Modern mangers are more educated.
- They are with less work experience.
Hence the traditionalists are the opposite of the mode if we are to go into it for further explanation.
2.4. THE CONSEQUENCES OF EXECUTIVE STRESS
The consequences of managerial stress as suggested by Brummet, Pyle and Harn Aalt2 (1963) sometimes become overwhelming because mangers are forced into premature retirement from active organizational life because of real or imagined more likely to posses type “A” personality and executive positions we also have to accept the reality that the match to industrializations needs type “A” person primarily because of their productivity. So far societies encourages and also benefits from the competitiveness, drive and enterprise characteristics of type “A” person who are most likely to be company directions, general managers etc. It is necessary to note that any comprehensive managerial training include the techniques of active toping and stress management.
ACTIVE COING TECHNIQUES: Many people whose lives involves high level of stress sometimes rely on drugs to calm their nerves or use antacid to reduce the gastric acidity symptomatic of constant emotional stress. Such approaches are merely passive and falls to realistically deals with stress conditions.
COGNITIVE COPING: Cognitive coping techniques appear by many names such as cognitive restricting, rational living decision therapy, multitude therapy, e.t.c essentially the techniques of cognitive copying derive from cognitive behaviour therapy, which have on the incidence of heart diseases and sudden death especially among he elite in the society, in this respect a preliminary survey of death entries in Nigeria with the help of under-graduate student showed overwhelming evidence that may implicate the role of stress through cardiac disease in a break down of the mine obituary entries for the year 1989 that met our criteria (35-60) age group in top social and economic position in society and who where reported to have died suddenly not by accident 293 or 30 % were for people in the (30-66) age group of this figure 156 were male cases 85 were entered as chairman of corporations, general managers, accountants, medical consultant data base, at lest the information is revealing and would serve as a preliminary approach to the study of the incidence of stress related diseases and realities in the society.
We had earlier said that executives are typed a persons Typed “A” personality has generally been documented to be heads (1995) coronary behaviour pattern was first isolated and does cribbed by (fried man and Rose man) who found a greater number of people with this particular behaviour who has suffered more from heart disease (fried man and Rose man 1959). The implication is that executives are years of heat attack and other vascular disease, which are associated with emotional stress.
Other consequences of stress that have been documented in clued coronary pulmonary, tuberculosis, sudden death and ulcer conditions.
Data from countries of Europe and North America show that between 50 % – 80 % of diseases have their origin in stress. According to a recent study (Dr. Silva and Coun 1978) it is estimated that 25 percent of an all death in United States of America have stress implications.
Epidemiological data on the incidence of heart disease and other stress hricted disease to developing countries like Nigeria are not yet available. However one would expect increase in such disease as Hypertension, stroke, and sudden death in developing countries as a result of emotional stress associated with the consequence of raid industrial technological changes (Akinkugbe 1980) in his address to the 1st pan African congress of cardiology held in Lagos (may 1981) professor paddies to the prevailing rate of heart disease among Nigeria which he put at 10 million at present, at the university of Jos, there is an attempt to collect data been popularly used for the control and treatment of emotional problems: anger, anxiety; pain and depression. (Nechandum 1977 ELIS, 1972, ELIS and Greiger 1977). The assumption underlying cognitive approaches to thereby the physiological reactions, which depends on, the unique way, we perceive, symbolizes from ideas about emotional events. Rational emotive therapy (RET) emotional experience (stress anxiety etc) do not assist by their outright but very significantly in relation to how we perceive and from images about that certain conditions or events in our lives which are not intrinsically stressful. Rather what it means is that he magnitude of our reaction to emotive conditions largely depends on how we process such events, for example the death of a spouse would cause stress and pain in any human being but the level of pain or stress including its effects will depend on how we view the loss of a spouse. Issue above remains as to how an executive or any person exposed to stress can deal with it or a more perspective basis.
2.5 CAUSES OF STRESS
According to Leninson 1974 edition middle manager other authors identify the two main source of stress as:
- Individual personalities
- Weakness personalities (Administrative Stress).
The influence is that this emotional make up of the individual manger may be a greater determining factor in the development of disables from stress than the existence of organization weakens.
- PERSONALITY INSTIGATED: erosion elaborated that numerous personality characteristic may contribute to stress problems among managers. The greatest stress producer of all is the inability of a manager to do his job. The inability becomes a problem when the manager finds himself in a position that he cannot handle. He may acquire the position becomes of federal character or because of nepotism and because of a compulsive need to act the role of someone he cannot do his job maybe merely to satisfy the desire of his organization but whatever the reason for accept once the stress will plaque the managers, if he can not do the job competently.
According to Harry Labble “he narrated the story of a middle manager who was promoted to a divisional staff position. The manager involved developed stomach pain bleeding remitting headache, backache and indigestion.
He did not dare to ask for resignation because this would admit failure. So his doctor ordered him to give up the new job. He then reported he was unable to accept the added responsibility of his position, his symptoms disappeared when he resigned.
The experience has indicated that the major causes of stress result from personnel occupying jobs they cannot handle. In our society influences encourages getting educated beyond your intelligence, which eventually leads to people being placed in positions that they are not capable of handling. Another indicator of stress is managers (individual) self. Dr. Meager Friedman and Dr. Ray Roseman’s 12 research adopted that there are two know behaviours pattern of managers as type A and B.
Roseman’s research,12 finding as exhibiting the type “A” behaviors pattern, constantly tries to achieve more and more in less and less time. His or her work is never finished. He is sometimes described as a “driver” since his work is constant in motion or a workalrlic on the note of type B person does not have a chronic desire to beat the clock” through such individual might have ambition and drive as type “B” but many feel confident and secured and is able to be more relaxed on duty them type “A” person.
2.6 ORGANIZATIONAL WEAKNESS
Rose a webbe13 suggested that people who used their idiosyncrasies may be the causes of stress among the modern manager or those who work in the company.
Kullser LIT4 reported it as “lack of well defined responsibilities as it becomes nearly impossible for the highly motivated manager to savor a job that is not fully defined. Dr. Rober. L. Kohan15 found evidence of last occupational stress as a result of employer compliant about job ambiguity as lack clarity about the scope and responsibilities of the job, the lack of feed back or job performance manger caught in the middle between two superior job definitions lack of security and responsibility without authority are all organizational difficulties that can cause stress.
The general research top by professor A.D Brose16 reported the following administrative stress:
- Top management would not be willing to surrender authority to next manger. If he believes that the manager is likely to take his seat in future and he feels like protecting his position for his selfish internets.
- On management support, it is a well-known saying that a kingdom divided against itself cannot stand, it is also true that of the source of power and since manager are to lead the subordinates. If managers are being by pass, this normally creates a feeling and neglect on them.
- The value system of the society does not encourage the maintenance of high integrity. The society expects that “small brothers”. The personal manger is likely to suffer the stress who may bring job sellers to him. The manager involved hardly relaxed on his duty. Some ended up hawing enemies because he can never meet all their demands. The question is should the personal manger say yes or no to these demand? If so when under what condition and how Either way, what are the consequences and implications?
2.7 THE MANAGERS STRESS
The consequences of managerial stress as suggested by Brumeb Pyle and flobholts17 (163), sometimes becomes overwhelming that managers are forced into because or real or imaginable year of heart attack and other cardiovascular diseases, which are associated with emotional stress. Another consequences of stress of coronary heart diseases, asthmatic conditions, chronic pulmonary tuberculosis, sudden death, and ulcer conditions. The increase of such cases in Nigeria is as a result of rapid industrial and technological changes.
Akinkugbe 198019in his edition of 1st Pan African congress of cardiology held in Lagos (may) (1980) drew the alteration of prevailing rate of diseases causes as a result of stress and how it will be controlled.
2.8 MANAGERIAL CONTROL
Techniques of active coping and stress management training (by Jacobson T.H2 AND Racher21) presents some of the psychological oriented training parading for the control and management of stress and anxiety. The aim of stress training can be outlined as follows.
- To create a trainee, pay attention and recognize the on set of stress including the recognitions of the source of stress and anxiety.
- To enable a trainee learn the techniques of stress control through active copying and stress management in the end, the training will enable the trainee reduce / the cost of stress and the risk of constant exposure of stress.
- To enable a trance identify and monitor the body sign
2.9 TYPES OF COGNITIVE TRAINING
- Active coping technique
The more active process of dealing with stress involving the use of psychologically derived proactive or reactive strategies by a proactive process the individual tries to deal realistically with the stress or by cutting off those conditions that induce in him. A reactive strategy on the other hand involves developing techniques of coping with stress when one can do nothing to remove the condition that reduces stress some of the active coping techniques include cognitive coping and relaxation, self control and problem solving strategies and use of tension diversion (taking time of duty holdings, rests, physical exercise, hobbies etc.)
- Self instructional Technique
This mean that the person has the habit of taking to himself in negative ways when confronted with problem. Surely the person is bound to experience difficulties but where S.I.T. is applies, it will change the negative to positive as this, Oh this is terrible, I must do it or die. But available with self instrumental techniques required to encourage us when we are under stress it would be looked as if it is not terrible. I can leave this off entirely and still be me!
PERORATION / REMEDY
- Cognitive preparation: there is also what we call cognit we preparation, knowing what we are getting ready for it is important setting goals and priorities, establishing daily goals and to set priority. It enables managers to achieve their goals by beating hire time and create chance of rest and others. This entails setting a realistic limits for us and choosing values built around us to surfside and live a happy life.
- Relaxation Exercise: Relaxation exercise as a technique of stress control according to Dr. Richard23 and Thomas Holiness24 in their studies confirmed that one of the greatest stress reducing agent is progressive relaxation as technical term is used requiring learning or training on how to relax always requires relaxation.
iii. Stress inoculation proper: it is natural that we cannot often replicate all the possible ranges of the complex stressful situation in our lives, instance stress inoculation training procedure down from the general stressors that have often been found to be common with what ever target population (managers). Our source of information on executive psycho-social stress would involve asking trainees to keep a record of the stressor in them everyday life for a period of week etc noting when the stress sorts in what causes it, how long stressful experiences lasts and the level of feeling elicited. This book keeping aspect of stress monitoring apart from being a source of data also enables trainees to pay attention to the stress in their lives. It also has the advantage of enabling them to embank on doing something about stress.
According to colemem25, the stress inoculating training begins with a piece meal presentation of the stressful stimuli complied with allowing trainees to imagine the stress experience and feel the sensitization to it it is important that trainees pay attention to stressful signs, frustration, anger pain, conflicts tension hypersensitivity etc.
Definitely, as soon as trainees indicate a relativity high level of stressful experience, the trainer request them to direct their attention to think something more enjoyable that is free of stress (a good time with family, wife, husband, girlfriend etc). Trainees should be made to see the contrast between feeling of stress and no stress at all it a feeling of relaxation.
Generally stress inoculation training last over a number of showing some effects later in the process. Again, the effectiveness of stress inoculation training depends largely on trances ability to form imagery and willingness and faith in the training.
- SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN STRESS REDUCTION AND MANAGEMENT
Apart from individuals derive coping, and stress management environment need also to be such that the efforts of executives to handle stress are enhanced. To accomplish this goal the following are important:
- The need for the organizational structure to encourage greater executive especially in policy in policy decisions.
- Cooper and Marshall26 review papers emphasized the needs to bridge the gap between the work place and time. This means providing opportunities for the spouse of management
iii. There is also need for effective carrier management training and promotion of interpersonal relationships that would enhance communication in the industry. These in the end help to reduce administrative bottleneck.
2.9.1 POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT
A special application of motivation, which has been invoiced as a technique of training in the technique apparently applied by Harrad27 Psychologist B.F skinner, called it positive reinforcement or behaviour modification. This would holds that properly designing their work environment and praising the performance and punishment for poor performance produce negative result can motivate individuals. Skinner and his follower praise good performance. Specific goals are then set with worker participation and assister can prompt and regular feedback of results is made available and performance improvements are rewarded with recognition and praise. Even when performance does not equate goals ways are found to help people and praise them for the goal things they do. It has also been found highly useful and motivating them to give people full information on a company problems especially those in which they are involved.
According to Dr. Richard 23 suggested the mangers should engineer our daily routines to include devoting more time to exercise leisure, taking time off to a more relaxed environment and arranging for a non-business interaction a non-business environment.
ADMINISTRATIVE STRESS AND MODERN MANAGER IN PRIVATE BUSINESS ORGANIZATION
(A CASE STUDY HALLMARK BANK ENUGU)
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