Administrators Supervisory Skills: Administrators Supervisory Skills and Teachers Job Performance in Secondary Schools

Administrators Supervisory Skills: Administrators Supervisory Skills and Teachers Job Performance in Secondary Schools

The overall focus of this study has been to investigate Administrators’ supervisory skills and teachers’ effectiveness at the secondary level of education. This chapter deals with the view of related literature on the variables of the study by relevant scholars as expressed in textbooks, journal articles, research reports and visit to internet sources. Thus, both empirical and theoretical sources and consulted in the review. The literature review is presented under the following subheadings.
2.1    Administrators’ supervisory skills and teachers’ job performance use of instructional materials
2.2    Administrators’ supervisory skills and teachers’ competence in classroom communication
2.3    Administrators’ supervisory skills and teacher job performance in student evaluation
2.4    Administrators’ supervisory skill a teachers’ disciplinary abilities
2.5    Summary of literature review

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2.1    Administrators’ supervisory skills and teachers’ job performance use of instructional materials
The supervisory ability of a Administrators’ is characterized by a structured but co-operative approach to decision-making it focuses on group relationships and sensitivity of the people in the organization.
The supervisory competence of school Administrators help teachers to take their responsibilities seriously. Teachers are encouraged to express their ideals and make useful suggestions. However, shared decisions are not likely to occur in all aspects of the school operations and Administrators’ who is very skillful and competence in his work mostly likely will breed competent and very skillfully teachers. Teaching is a profession and all who desire to belong to the teaching profession should be will guided and grounded in art of teaching they need to have a mastery of the subjects in which the specialized of for which they are trained, they need to be aware of various learning theory which can shape their choice or methods to be adopted in a Administrator class for the students they are too teach as well as appropriate selection of instructional resources.
Effective supervision ensures that teachers do not compromise standard (Mbipon, 2005). A number of students have indicated the relationship between supervisory skills of Administrator and teacher commitment to the school, finding indicate that in order to build strong teacher commitment Administrators’  must provide strong and effective leadership setting the exist unity among the people, facilitating a…… and managing of  instruction similarly, high correlation has been observed between Administrators’ behaviour  of caring involving, fostering trust and humility toward the goal of the secondary education.
Ochiche (2010) conducted a study on Administrators’ instructional supervision and teachers’ effective use of class room mange in Aba South Local Government Area a Abia state, the study used a sample of one hundred and fifty (150) teachers randomly selected from series secondary schools in the study area. It twenty five item four from four point modified Likert scale questionnaire was instrument used for data collection. In testing the hypothesis which states there is no significant relationship between Administrators’ instructional supervision and teachers’ effective use of class management, Pearson  product moment correlation statistical technique was used for data analysis. The result obtained from analysis of data revealed that the calculated r-value of 0.744 and p-value of 0.196 when tested at 0.05 level of significance with 148 degree of freedom.
This implies that there is significant relationship between administrators’ instructional supervision and teachers’ performers’ use of instructional material in Secondary Schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State.
Technical skills are needed by teachers for the selection and utilization of appropriate methods and materials for effective classroom teaching. The teacher who has technical skill has the ability to diagnose the entry behaviour set induction and skills of students for a given set of instructional objectives.
However, effective teaching requires the ability on the part the teacher to design curriculum in a way that reflect the basic structure of the field of knowledge. Competence needed area good performance in teaching which involve ability to select, adopt and develop instructional materials for a given set instructional objective and students learning needs.
No matter the level of intelligence, motivation and interest the teacher may poses, he needs competence in selection of instructional resources that would facilitate good performance in teaching and learning.
The National Policy on Education 2004 stressed that teachers need to play an active role in the production and evaluation of instructional materials. It must therefore be noted that without adequate development and utilization of instructional materials, the achievement of laying sound basis for scientific and reflective thinking will be very difficult to achieve.
Teachers’ Jobe performance also requires the ability to evaluate oneself and the students’ performance. Administrator who employs democratic leadership style always, encourages his teachers to be committed and effective performance in the use of instructional material (Esira, 2006).
Ndifon (2004) conducted as study on Administrative performance leadership style and Administrative performance in secondary schools in Ukwa Earth Local Government Area of Abia State. The study used a simple of two hundred and fifty (250) teachers randomly selected form ten school in the study area. a twenty five item four points Likert scale questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection.
In testing the hypothesis which states that, democratic leadership style does not significantly influence the administrative job performance, Pearson product moment correlation statistical techniques was used for data analysis. The result obtained revealed that the calculated r – valve of 0.421 id greater than the critical r – value of 0.196 when tested at 0.05 level of significance with 248 degree of freedom. This implies that there is significant relationship between democratic leadership style on administrative performance among secondary schools in Ukwa Local Government Area of Abia State. So teachers’ Jobe performance in suing of instructional materials should be encourage as student learn faster with instructional material than verbal teaching.
2.2    Administrators’ supervisory skills and teachers’ competence in classroom communication
Skill is one of the most important skills a competence teacher utilizes to teach effectively and to student understanding such skill requires the ability of the teacher to communicate clearing and precisely with simple language that will enable his students to understand. The ability to evaluate fluently and interact meaningfully in the classroom is very important.
According to Okon (2008), management is the process of directing and controlling activities people from one person to another, Olivca and Henson (1980) opine that management skill involve demonstration of the ability to orally co-ordinating and integrating both human organization, coherent and logical, easily understood style with appropriate grammar and sentence structures. A competent teacher who possesses effective skill has the ability to comprehend and interpret professional materials as well as messages after listening.
However, it must be noted that management has many components which are necessary for teachers’ Jobe performance in classroom teaching. The teacher is seen by the Administrator as having potential growth and development capacities which have to be tapped.
The Administrator who has effective performance supervisory skills emphasize on how to make use teachers job performance, their ideas and resources to produce the desire change in the school system and Administration according to (Nwankwo 1987). He stated that Administration is the systematic management of human and material resources and programmes that are available for education. These two components are like the a two edged sword” in a teaching situation. This means that a teacher must pay words and actions while the student listen attentively in order to respond. This can be achieved through effective in teach job school Administrators’ to ensure quality work performances by the teachers.
Teaching and learning are important activities that requires active participating of the Administrator, teachers and students in orders to achieve the desire instructional objectives. Therefore, it is important for the topic and audience; it should also involve the utilization of Administrators of simplicity in organization of oral presentation.
Setting out education goals is one thing and its actual realization is quite a different matter. Is it important to point out that management of learn content, materials and procedure is indispensable in the realization of education goals. In any learning situation what exactly do we mange that is always to conscious effort to management concepts, attitude, aptitude, norm, values, skills, knowledge, facts, reasons and purposes, depending greatly on set objective of such education programmes which lies on the teachers job performance of classroom activities during the learning process when we discuss on management skills, it embrace both evaluation instructional material discipline is practiced by both teachers and students. These skills and technique used in facilitating management teachers competence in classroom activities can be fully enhanced through years of technique experiences as well as Administrators the supervisory abilities of the school Administrators’ the act of supervision in schools has enable teachers develop lesson plans, lesson notes and a effective performance delivery of instructional content in the classroom.
2.3    Administrators’ supervisory skills and teacher job performance in student evaluation
Ability to effectively evaluated their students is based on the supervisory skills of the school Administrators. In classroom and out of classroom students engage in a wide range of activities including listening to teachers and fellow students answering questions seeking clarification on issues, conducting experiments, playing games, discussing with follow students etc.
Most of these activities are within the glaive of classroom teachers who makes certain judgment or decision concerning the students. For instance, he may identify the enthusiastic student, the student with potential leadership trait, the student with problem of understanding details, trouble maker, etc. Generally, teachers make their observation on a daily basis and use the data gathered for the purpose of evaluation the degree of success of the instruction- teachers’ dedication and commitment to effective teaching lies to a large extent on the Administrators’ supervisory approach adopted.
A Administrators who involves his teachers in decision making process usually motivate them to give in their best to the school in term of classroom teaching and evaluation of learning outcome among student (Etuk 2003).
Evaluation of teaching job performance effectiveness  serves to stimulate greater motivation and investment of efforts on the part of both the teachers and the students. A committed teacher diligently works of to get the best of the students and is constantly modifying his instruction and investing resources to ensure instructional efficiently.
Students similarly expects a positive evaluation since it is consistent with  social expectation, this they work hard to earn good scores and grade serves as a reforcement from previous investment of efforts for poor achieves there is always the realization of the need for greater investment of efforts in order to achieve improvement in learning. Evaluation helps to identify the need for the redefinition of goals of teaching and learning. The classroom often constitute a laboratory for testing the teaching and learning processes which may suggest the need for adjustment of specific curricular decision in order to maximize the benefits of the teaching learning process (Bode 2005).
The rating scale must consist of item drawn from ingredients of teachers performance in classroom instruction according to (Ochiche, 2010). The major responsibility of the growth and development of students. The monitoring process requires a continuous system of evaluation that serves to generate data on student’s process in consistence with learning objectives.
Evaluation is such an important part of an instrumental process that no instruction can be taking without evaluation. The supervisory performance of a Administrators significantly determine the competence of this teacher’s classroom evaluation of student. Elugu state in Obolafor Local Government Area. the study used a sample of two hundred (200) teachers randomly selected from the study area. it ten of four point Likert scale questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection in the study. In testing the hypothesis which states there is no significant relationship between teacher’s ability to evaluate and student academic performance. Independent test statistical technique was employed for data analysis. The result obtained from the analysis of data revealed that the calculated r – value of 4.164 is greater than the critical 1 of 0.166 when tested at 0.05 level of significance with 198 degree of freedom, this shows that teacher’s ability to evaluate significantly relates with student academic performance in secondary schools Ogbia Local Government Area.
Edem (2002). Opines that the leadership style of school Administrator as serious implication on a teacher’s evaluative ability, for instance, autocratic Administrators who takes decision and demand compliance  from his or her teachers and staff will significantly influence or affect teachers’ effectiveness in the school which his decision will be accepted out of fear and not with respect thereby hindering the progress of teachers and student. The characteristics of an autocratic leaders are ruthlessness, selfishness, wickedness, love of power and craves to be fiatted. Administrators who adopt autocratic leadership style usually enjoy conformity from their teacher due to the use of force, threat, punishment (Query) etc in the administrative style. The use of democratic leadership style in school administrators usually engenders competence in teachers evaluation skills.
2.4    Administrators’ supervisory skill a teachers’ disciplinary abilities
The motivation advantages of administrators supervisory skill on teachers’ job performance activities cannot be overemphasized. It involves discipline and dedication.
Discipline involves self-control and does what is ring and good (Edem, 1998). It is true that discipline is one of the most important Witeria in knowing the worth of a teacher, because in Nigeria school, the problem of discipline is a cankerworm that has eaten deep into the fabric of the Nigeria society according (Nakpodia 2011).
Students are always reported in school to be involving in drug abuse. Also, there are reports of increase in examination malpractice among student and even teachers, to the extent that most examinations in Nigeria are conducted in the present of heavy security personnel’s, in most cases, it is reported that student and teachers come to school at will and leave at will, some Administrators in secondary schools cannot check decadent among students and teachers because they have their share of the indiscipline behaviour.
Teachers no longer teach their students effectively, they go after their private business some teachers tend to be above the law as they believed in their high power political connection which often times negate the administration attitude towards job performance.
According  to Olajide (2006) observes that a disciplined teacher will be able to discipline  his students and perform well academically. Classroom with good discipline have student who posess a good group of acceptable and non-acceptable behaviours as well as the reinforcement that are consistent with these behaviours.
In such, Ntukidem (1992) assert that to be discipline is to learn to abide by the written and unwritten rules and regulation and orders that prevail in a society organization or associated with endurances.
Thus, in classroom where students are noisy in attentive, restless, truant, aggressive and generally not conforming to the rule and regulation of the class, the teacher has a problem.
Time is precious commodity in education setting. Education activities are programmed in a way that specifies commencement and termination of time frame, thus, when teaching and learning time are taken over by unruly and other forms of disruptive behaviour in the classroom. The teacher, the student, parents and indeed the society loose. This informs the need for effective supervisions to ensure compliance with educational goals and objectives (Obi, 2002).
God classroom behaviour among students is essentially a product of an institute set of student, in all case they must be adequately explained, communicated and accepted by the generality of students for them to elicit compliance. The experience in  most public schools is that student expect their to developed the standards and regulation  they do not complain about this.
At the same time, it would be appropriate to meaningfully involves student in the development of standards and regulations in the school. A Administration is also expected to develop a supervisory skill that will enable him to supervise teachers discipline abilities and classroom management skills.
The maintenance of disciplined behaviour in a classroom is a teachers responsibility, especially those who has benefited from teachers training programmes. However, in the course of dealing with classroom disciplinary problems, the teacher may seek to recommend measures that guide the school Administrator, school counselor on the same parameter to his performance curb the menales that is threatening our society. According to Paul 2007 conducted  a study on teachers variable and teaching job performance in secondary schools in Ukwa Easth  Local Government Area of Abia State, the study used a sample of one hundred and eighty 180 teachers randomly selected from the study area. A twenty item four point Likert scale questionnaire  was the instrument used for data collection, in testing the hypothesis which states, there is no significant relationship between classroom  discipline and  teaching job performance. A person product moment correlation statistical  technique was used for data analysis.
The result obtained from the data indicate that, the calculated r-value of 0.334 is greater than the critical r- value of 0.196 when tested at 0.05 level of significance with 178 degree of freedom. This means that, there is a significant relationship between classroom discipline on teaching job performance in Ukwa Easth Local Government Area of Abia State.
According of Fielder (2004), the supervisory skills of the School Administrator or depends on his personality and is therefore relatively fixed. A study or Administrator supervision deals mainly with the manner in the principal carry out his or her authority an power and the approach to the decision making process. A proud principal who adopts autocratic leadership style tends to expect less support from the teachers which usually resulted in student be rude, hostile and arrogant and this limits standard requirement  of Secondary School Education which was meant for meaningful living in the society and preparation for higher education according to national policy on Education (2004).
The research work show that a combination of little autocratic style and mostly of democratic style help school principals to achieved positive result in terms of discipline  because he/she will create room for other teachers to participate in the upbringing of the school administrator and teachers, they themselves are likely to behave themselves, knowing that the cordial relationship existing between administrator teacher relationship will not create avenues for student misbehavior. But when there is an indication of disunity among school administrators and teachers’ then student will likely take advantage of the situation and become very stubborn to, constituted authority.
Based on this, administrator as school supervisor should at all tune maintain a cordial relationship between the school management and teachers as well as the student through his skill of supervision.
2.5    Summary of literature review
The literature reviewed reveals the effective administrator supervision is very crucial to the school system. The Administrator gives opportunities for his staff to learn on the job to each teacher should be properly supervised. Even very well trained teachers become less productive if they are not well supervised.
The Administrator who communicate encourages the use of instructional material, evaluates and set pattern for discipline will eventually enjoy the co-operation of his teachers. The teachers depend on the Administrator for recommendation and promotion.
When the Administrator through appropriate supervision model gives opportunities to the deserving staff to act for him, he gives them the training that will be needed to carrying out administrative responsibilities. The literature has reveal that, the principle is also responsible for planning general enrichment programme that will either acquaint teachers with new skills, concept and is form of demonstration during staff meeting.
These are made possible through appropriate communication between the Administrator and the teachers who in turn will enhance effective management when dealing with learners. In addition, the literature also revealed that through the Administrator effective monitoring of  evaluation by teachers, student will not be tested to death, given the fact, some in experienced teachers may desired to test student at all opportunities but if the Administrator is effective in his supervision, evaluation or testing will be timed giving student the opportunities to prepare their minds for success.
Finally, the literature reviewed has informed us where and how teachers can be effective in their discipline. The Administrator as the leader of the team should find time to listen to the teachers seek ways by which discipline should be administrator given the moral decadence experience in the school system.

—This article is not complete———–This article is not complete————
This article was extracted from a Project Research Work/Material Topic

ADMINISTRATORS SUPERVISORY SKILLS AND TEACHERS JOB PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ABA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ABIA STATE

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